SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Burn After Reading

Burn After Reading is a 2008 black comedy crime film written, produced and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. The film stars George Clooney, Frances McDormand, John Malkovich, Tilda Swinton, Richard Jenkins, Brad Pitt; the film had its premiere on August 2008, opening at the 2008 Venice Film Festival. It was released in the United States on September 12, 2008, in the United Kingdom on October 17, 2008. Faced with a demotion at work due to an alleged drinking problem, Osbourne "Ozzie" Cox angrily quits his job as a CIA analyst and decides to write a memoir; when his pediatrician wife Katie finds out, she sees it as an opportunity to file for divorce and continue her affair with Harry Pfarrer, a married U. S. Marshal. At the instructions of her lawyer, Katie copies and delivers her husband's financial records and other files, unbeknownst to her, the draft of Ozzie's memoir; the lawyer's assistant copies the files onto a CD, which she accidentally leaves on the locker room floor of Hardbodies, a local gym.

The disc falls into the hands of dim-witted personal trainer Chad Feldheimer and his co-worker Linda Litzke, who mistakenly believe it to contain sensitive government information. Chad devises a plan to return the disc to Ozzie for a cash reward, with Linda seeing this as a quick solution to come up with money to pay for cosmetic surgery she'd been scheming in vain to afford. After a phone call and subsequent meeting with Osbourne provoke his furious reaction and Linda try to sell the disc to the Russian embassy. Unbeknownst to them, the Russian "cultural attache" who meets with them is a spy for the CIA. Osbourne's temperamental and erratic behavior prompts Katie to change the locks on their house and invite Harry to move in, it is shown that Harry is a womanizer and Katie is not the only "other" woman he's seeing, as he goes on dates to have flings with women he meets online. He coincidentally starts seeing Linda Litzke after meeting her from the dating site. Having promised the Russians more files, Linda persuades Chad to sneak into the Cox household to steal some from Ozzie's computer.

After watching Katie and Harry leave the house, Chad enters the home and starts snooping around until Harry unexpectedly comes home after finishing his post-coital run. Chad rushes upstairs to hide in the bedroom wardrobe closet as Harry enters the bedroom and proceeds to take a quick shower. After Harry has dressed, he opens the wardrobe closet to retrieve his holster. Startled at seeing Chad, he reflexively levels his gun and shoots Chad in the head killing him. Harry searches his body for any clues to his identity, coming up with an empty wallet and finding the tags from his suit ripped off, he suspects Chad to have been a spy snooping on him. Two days at the CIA headquarters, Palmer Smith, Osbourne's former superior, Smith's director learn that information from Osbourne has been given to the Russian Embassy, they are perplexed: the material delivered to the Russians is of no importance, the apparent motive of all the involved parties is unknown. Palmer Smith discloses to the director that the agent they had assigned to spy on Harry had observed Harry dumping Chad's body into the river.

The director, unaware of Chad's identity, orders Chad's death to be covered up. That day and Katie get into an argument that ends with Harry storming out of the house. On his way out, he spots a man, trailing him for the past several days. Harry tackles the man and finds out that he is a private detective hired by his wife Sandy to gather evidence of infidelity to divorce him. Separately, it is revealed. Harry is devastated at the surprise revelation of Sandy's divorce plans and goes to see Linda to vent his despair. However, a distressed Linda complains to Harry that she can't always be the one to listen to everyone's problems and confides she has her own issues: "her friend Chad" is missing. Harry agrees to help find Chad, unaware that Chad is the man he killed earlier. Linda returns to the Russian embassy under the impression; the Russians tell her. They dismiss the CD contents as "drivel" and escort Linda out of the embassy, she turns to Ted Treffon, the kindhearted manager of Hardbodies, who has unrequited feelings for her, begs him to help her by sneaking into the Cox household to gather more files from Osbourne's computer.

Harry and Linda meet in a park. Harry notices a man in the park. Linda recognizes him as a man she had gone on a date with but denies knowing him, furthering Harry's suspicions; when Linda reveals the address where Chad had gone before disappearing, Harry realizes that Chad is the man he shot. Convinced that Linda is a spy and that everyone in the park is surveilling him, he flees. Osbourne becomes unhinged when he finds out that Katie has emptied his bank accounts and decides to break into the house to get his alcohol and personal belongings. Finding Ted in the basement, Osbourne shoots Ted and chases him onto the street where he starts attacking him with a hatchet. At CIA headquarters a few days Palmer Smith tells the director that a surveilling CIA agent intervened in the fracas between Osbourne and Ted, shooting Osbourne and leaving him in a coma, that Ted subsequently died from the attack, he says that Harry has been detained trying to flee to Venezuela, a country with no extradition treaty with the United States.

The director instructs Palmer to send Harry to Venezuela with the implication that he'd rather let Harry "get away" than have to deal with the aftermath if they were to bring him into custody. The director a

Jacob Rutsen Schuyler

Jacob Rutsen Schuyler founded Schuyler and Graham, the largest firearms retail business in the United States in 1860. He was born on February 23, 1816 in Belleville, New Jersey to Colonel John Arent Schuyler and Catharina Van Rensselaer, his paternal immigrant ancestor was Philip Pieterse Schuyler, who migrated from Amsterdam, Netherlands prior to 1650 to Fort Orange. He married a descendant of Jonathan Edwards. In 1854 he founded Schuyler and Graham, a firearms retail business, with Marcellus Hartley and Malcolm Graham; the company supplied military gear to the Union Army during the United States Civil War. When the city of Bayonne, New Jersey was incorporated in 1869 he was selected to serve on the town council and he was first president of the board of council, he resigned in 1871. He fell and hit his head which led to his death a week on February 4, 1887 at his home in Bergen Point, New Jersey, he was buried in Constable Hook Cemetery in Bayonne, New Jersey

Anthrax vaccines

Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax—caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis—have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur’s pioneering 19th-century work with cattle to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare. Human anthrax vaccines were developed by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s and in the US and UK in the 1950s; the current vaccine approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration was formulated in the 1960s. Administered human anthrax vaccines include acellular and live spore varieties. All used anthrax vaccines show considerable local and general reactogenicity and serious adverse reactions occur in about 1% of recipients. New third-generation vaccines being researched include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant sub-unit vaccines. In the 1870s, the French chemist Louis Pasteur applied his previous method of immunizing chickens against chicken cholera to anthrax, which affected cattle, thereby aroused widespread interest in combating other diseases with the same approach.

In May 1881, Pasteur performed a famous public experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort to demonstrate his concept of vaccination. He prepared two groups of one goat and several cows; the animals of one group were twice injected, with an interval of 15 days, with an anthrax vaccine prepared by Pasteur. Thirty days after the first injection, both groups were injected with a culture of live anthrax bacteria. All the animals in the non-vaccinated group died, while all of the animals in the vaccinated group survived; the public reception was sensational. Pasteur publicly claimed, his laboratory notebooks, now in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, in fact show Pasteur used the method of rival Jean-Joseph-Henri Toussaint, a Toulouse veterinary surgeon, to create the anthrax vaccine. This method used the oxidizing agent potassium dichromate. Pasteur's oxygen method did produce a vaccine but only after he had been awarded a patent on the production of an anthrax vaccine; the notion of a weak form of a disease causing immunity to the virulent version was not new.

Inoculation with smallpox was known to result in far less scarring, reduced mortality, in comparison with the acquired disease. The English physician Edward Jenner had discovered the process of vaccination by using cowpox to give cross-immunity to smallpox and by Pasteur's time this had replaced the use of actual smallpox material in inoculation; the difference between smallpox vaccination and anthrax or chicken cholera vaccination was that the weakened form of the latter two disease organisms had been "generated artificially", so a weak form of the disease organism did not need to be found. This discovery revolutionized work in infectious diseases and Pasteur gave these artificially weakened diseases the generic name "vaccines", in honor of Jenner's groundbreaking discovery. In 1885, Pasteur produced his celebrated first vaccine for rabies by growing the virus in rabbits and weakening it by drying the affected nerve tissue. In 1995, the centennial of Pasteur's death, The New York Times ran an article titled "Pasteur's Deception".

After having read Pasteur's lab notes, the science historian Gerald L. Geison declared Pasteur had given a misleading account of the preparation of the anthrax vaccine used in the experiment at Pouilly-le-Fort; the same year, Max Perutz published a vigorous defense of Pasteur in the New York Review of Books. The Austrian-South African immunologist Max Sterne developed an attenuated live animal vaccine in 1935, still employed and derivatives of his strain account for all veterinary anthrax vaccines used in the world today. Beginning in 1934 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, north of Pretoria, he prepared an attenuated anthrax vaccine, using the method developed by Pasteur. A persistent problem with Pasteur's vaccine was achieving the correct balance between virulence and immunogenicity during preparation; this notoriously difficult procedure produced casualties among vaccinated animals. With little help from colleagues, Sterne performed small-scale experiments which isolated the "Sterne strain" of anthrax which became, remains today, the basis of most of the improved livestock anthrax vaccines throughout the world.

Anthrax vaccines were developed in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and available for use in humans by 1940. A live attenuated, unencapsulated spore vaccine became used for humans, it was given either by scarification or subcutaneously and its developers claimed that it was reasonably well tolerated and showed some degree of protective efficacy against cutaneous anthrax in clinical field trials. The efficacy of the live Russian vaccine was reported to have been greater than that of either of the killed British or US anthrax vaccines during the 1970s and'80s. Today both China use live attenuated strains for their human vaccines; these vaccines may be given by scarification, or subcutaneous injection. A Georgian/Russian live anthrax spore vaccine was based on spores from the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. It was given in a two-dose schedule, it was manufactured at the George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage and Virology in