Burnaby is a city in British Columbia, located to the east of Vancouver. It is the third-largest city in British Columbia by population, surpassed only by nearby Surrey and Vancouver. Burnaby was incorporated in 1892 and achieved City status in 1992, one hundred years after incorporation, it is the seat of Metro Vancouver's regional government. At incorporation, the municipality's citizens unanimously chose to name it after the legislator, speaker and explorer Robert Burnaby, private secretary to Colonel Richard Moody, the first land commissioner for the Colony of British Columbia, in the mid-19th century. In 1859 Burnaby had surveyed the freshwater lake near. Moody chose to name it Burnaby Lake. In the first 30 to 40 years after its incorporation, the growth of Burnaby was influenced by its location between the expanding urban centres of Vancouver and New Westminster, it first served as a rural agricultural area supplying nearby markets. It served as an important transportation corridor between Vancouver, the Fraser Valley and the Interior, continues to do so.
As Vancouver expanded and became a metropolis, Burnaby was one of the first-tier bedroom-community suburbs of Vancouver itself, along with the city and district of North Vancouver, Richmond. During the suburbanization of Burnaby, "Mid-Century Vernacular" homes were built by the hundreds to cope with population increase, these houses are still common in the city. Burnaby has shifted in character over time from rural to suburban to urban. Burnaby occupies 98.60 square kilometres and is located at the geographical centre of the Metro Vancouver area. Situated between the city of Vancouver on the west and Port Moody and New Westminster on the east, Burnaby is further bounded by Burrard Inlet and the Fraser River on the north and south respectively. Burnaby and New Westminster collectively occupy the major portion of the Burrard Peninsula; the elevation of Burnaby ranges from sea level to a maximum of 370 metres atop Burnaby Mountain. Due to its elevation, the city of Burnaby experiences quite a bit more snowfall during the winter months than nearby Vancouver or Richmond.
Overall, the physical landscape of Burnaby is one of hills, valleys and an alluvial plain. The land features and their relative locations have had an influence on the location and form of development in the city. Burnaby is home to many commercial firms. British Columbia's largest commercial mall, the Metropolis at Metrotown, is located in Burnaby. Still, Burnaby's ratio of park land to residents is one of the highest in North America, it maintains some agricultural land along the Fraser foreshore flats in the Big Bend neighbourhood along its southern perimeter. Major parklands and waterways in Burnaby include Central Park, Robert Burnaby Park, Kensington Park, Burnaby Mountain, Still Creek, the Brunette River, Burnaby Lake, Deer Lake, Squint Lake. Given that the Simon Fraser University weather station is located 365 meters above sea level on Burnaby Mountain, the climate shown is cooler and wetter with more snowfall, as compared to the rest of the city; the SkyTrain rapid transit system, based in Burnaby, crosses the city from east to west in two places: the Expo Line crosses the south along Kingsway and the Millennium Line follows Lougheed Highway.
The SkyTrain has encouraged closer connections to New Westminster and Surrey, as well as dense urban development at Lougheed Town Centre on the city's eastern border, at Brentwood Town Centre in the centre-west and, most notably, at Metrotown in the south. Major north-south streets crossing the City include Boundary Road, Willingdon Avenue, Royal Oak Avenue, Kensington Avenue, Sperling Avenue, Gaglardi Way, Cariboo Road, North Road. East-west routes linking Burnaby's neighbouring cities to each other include Hastings Street, Barnet Highway, the Lougheed Highway, Canada Way and Marine Drive/Marine Way. Douglas Road, which used to cross the city from northwest to southeast, has been absorbed by the Trans-Canada Highway and Canada Way. Since the 1990s, Burnaby has developed a network of cycling trails, it is well served by Metro Vancouver's bus system, run by the Coast Mountain Bus Company, a division of TransLink. According to the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada reported that Burnaby had a population of 223,218 who resided in 86,839 of its 91,383 total dwellings, a 10.1% change from the 2006 census.
With a land area of 90.61 km2, it had a population density of 2,463.5/km2 in 2011. The median age is 39.8 years old younger than the British Columbia median of 41.9 years old. Burnaby's religious profile: 41.6% No religious affiliation 42.9% Christian 4.8% Buddhist 4.5% Muslim 2.9% Sikh 2.2% Hindu 0.3% Jewish 0.8% Other religions While Burnaby occupies about 4% of the land area of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, it accounted for about 10% of the region's population in 2001. It is the third most populated urban centre in British Columbia with an estimated population of 205,261. Like much of Greater Vancouver, Burnaby has always had large ethnic and immigrant communities: to cite two examples, North Burnaby near Hastings Street has long been home to many Italian restaurants and recreational bocce games, while Metrotown's ever-sprouting condominium towers in the south have been fuelled in part by more recent arrivals from China and South Korea. According to the 2006 Census, 54% of Burnaby residents have a mother tongue that is
Metrotown is a town centre serving the southwest quadrant of Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. It is one of the city's four designated town centres, as well as one of Metro Vancouver's regional town centres; as defined by the City of Burnaby, the town centre is bounded on the west by Boundary Road, on the south by Imperial Street, on the east by Royal Oak Avenue, on the north by a series of local streets, giving an area of 2.97 km2. Kingsway forms the central commercial spine for the neighbourhood, is paralleled to the south by the SkyTrain tracks running alongside Central Boulevard; the area is served by Patterson and Metrotown SkyTrain stations, while Royal Oak station sits just beyond the southeastern limits of the district. The area is characterised by its many high rise residential buildings. Urban researcher and economist R. W. Archer credited the Baltimore Regional Planning Council for coining the term "metrotown" in 1962; the BRPC envisioned metrotowns as "cohesive urban developments... deployed radially and in a series of rings around the City of Baltimore", each accommodating 100,000 to 200,000 people and at greater densities than what was common in suburban areas.
Archer adapted the term in his two-part article From New Towns to Metrotowns and Regional Cities, which appeared in the July 1969 issue of The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, to refer to "a unit for planned metropolitan development" consisting of a wide variety of land uses and offering "a large measure of local employment and city-type services", but still "significantly interdependent with the rest of the metropolis". He further suggested that building a connected series of metrotowns was the most cost-effective manner for establishing new urban settlements, saw developments around Stockholm like Vällingby and Högdalen as examples of this type of built form; the term was subsequently adopted by the municipality of Burnaby in the 1970s as a common noun to refer to a type of urban development. On the recommendation of Colonel Richard Moody, the Royal Engineers constructed a trail linking colonial capital New Westminster and False Creek to facilitate troop movement between the two points.
The trail opened in 1860, cut diagonally across Burrard Peninsula. The road was improved following Burnaby's municipal incorporation in 1892, the parallel Central Park interurban line connecting Vancouver and New Westminster opened the previous year, making the area favourable for settlement; the provincial government established a series of holding lots out of the military reserve in the 1890s to accommodate working class residents. The lots were drawn at right angles to the interurban line, which ran from the northwest to the southeast, accounting for Metrotown's street orientation. During the Great Depression, Burnaby reeve William Pritchard instituted a series of make-work programs to put the unemployed to work, using municipal funds and loans; this put a strain on Burnaby's finances, in 1932 the province stepped in by suspending the functions of Burnaby's government and appointing a commissioner to run municipal affairs. Under the province's control, Burnaby struck a deal with the Ford Motor Company to build an assembly plant near Kingsway and McKay Avenue.
The plant opened in 1938, was used to produce military vehicles during World War II. Wholesale grocer Kelly-Douglas Company built a manufacturing plant and warehouse to the east of the Ford/Electrolier plant in 1946, Simpsons-Sears opened a catalogue sales and distribution facility to the east of the Kelly-Douglas plant in 1954; the stretch of the Central Park interurban line through Burnaby and New Westminster ceased operations on October 23, 1953, before the rest of the line's abandonment the next year. Building upon a 1964 report by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, Burnaby's planning department prepared a report titled Apartment Study, approved by the municipal council in 1966. In this document, Burnaby's planners proposed a hierarchical structure for co-locating housing, commercial activity and other amenities, with a "town centre" level as the highest tier; the town centres were to serve as "a major focus of population and community activity", include "a complete cross section of commercial facilities" and "a full range of cultural and recreational activity", provide residential accommodation "with easy access to well developed industrial areas and places of employment".
The planners further identified three sites around the municipality as candidates to be developed into town centres: Brentwood and the area around the Simpsons-Sears facility at Kingsway and Sussex Avenue. Burnaby's planning department further conducted a survey of the local land-use structure, published a hardcover book titled Urban Structure in 1971. Echoing Archer's metrotown concept, the book recommended establishing an "intermittent grid of metro towns" as the best alternative out of the various urban built forms. However, by 1974, the planners decided instead to create only one metro town, for fear that having multiple such developments would divide the municipality's focus and drain its resources. Brentwood and the Simpsons-Sears site were evaluated as candidates for the site of the sole metro town.
Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this strategy. It may extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy. Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the 1960s and remains an important aspect of strategic management, it is executed by strategic planners or strategists, who involve many parties and research sources in their analysis of the organization and its relationship to the environment in which it competes. Strategy has many definitions, but involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes; the senior leadership of an organization is tasked with determining strategy. Strategy can be planned or can be observed as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. Strategy includes processes of implementation. However, strategic planning is analytical in nature.
As such, strategic planning occurs around the strategy formation activity. Strategic planning is a process and thus has inputs, activities and outcomes; this process, like all processes, has constraints. It may be formal or informal and is iterative, with feedback loops throughout the process; some elements of the process may be continuous and others may be executed as discrete projects with a definitive start and end during a period. Strategic planning provides inputs for strategic thinking, which guides the actual strategy formation. Typical strategic planning efforts include the evaluation of the organization's mission and strategic issues to strengthen current practices and determine the need for new programming; the end result is the organization's strategy, including a diagnosis of the environment and competitive situation, a guiding policy on what the organization intends to accomplish, key initiatives or action plans for achieving the guiding policy. Michael Porter wrote in 1980 that formulation of competitive strategy includes consideration of four key elements: Company strengths and weaknesses.
The first two elements relate to factors internal to the company, while the latter two relate to factors external to the company. These elements are considered throughout the strategic planning process. Data is gathered from a variety of sources, such as interviews with key executives, review of publicly available documents on the competition or market, primary research, industry studies, etc; this may be part of a competitive intelligence program. Inputs are gathered to help support an understanding of the competitive environment and its opportunities and risks. Other inputs include an understanding of the values of key stakeholders, such as the board and senior management; these values may be captured in an organization's mission statements. Strategic planning activities include meetings and other communication among the organization's leaders and personnel to develop a common understanding regarding the competitive environment and what the organization's response to that environment should be.
A variety of strategic planning tools may be completed as part of strategic planning activities. The organization's leaders may have a series of questions they want answered in formulating the strategy and gathering inputs, such as: What is the organization's business or interest? What is considered "value" to the customer or constituency? Which products and services should be included or excluded from the portfolio of offerings? What is the geographic scope of the organization? What differentiates the organization from its competitors in the eyes of customers and other stakeholders? Which skills and resources should be developed within the organization? The output of strategic planning includes documentation and communication describing the organization's strategy and how it should be implemented, sometimes referred to as the strategic plan; the strategy may include a diagnosis of the competitive situation, a guiding policy for achieving the organization's goals, specific action plans to be implemented.
A strategic plan may be updated periodically. The organization may use a variety of methods of measuring and monitoring progress towards the objectives and measures established, such as a balanced scorecard or strategy map. Companies may plan their financial statements for several years when developing their strategic plan, as part of the goal setting activity; the term operational budget is used to describe the expected financial performance of an organization for the upcoming year. Capital budgets often form the backbone of a strategic plan as it relates to Information and Communications Technology. Whilst the planning process produces outputs, as described above, strategy implementation or execution of the strategic plan produces Outcomes; these outcomes will invariably differ from the strategic goals. How close they are to the strategic goals and vision will determine the success or failure of the strategic plan. There will arise unintended
Information science is a field concerned with the analysis, classification, storage, movement and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is associated with computer science and technology. However, information science incorporates aspects of diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, law, museology, mathematics, public policy, social sciences. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, one can see information science as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available and the creativity of its developers.
It must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and permeating all other subsystems of society."Many universities have entire colleges, departments or schools devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information-science scholars work in disciplines such as communication, computer science and sociology. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus, but numerous others besides these have comprehensive information foci. Within information science, current issues as of 2013 include: human–computer interaction groupware the semantic web value-sensitive design iterative design processes the ways people generate and find information The first known usage of the term "information science" was in 1955. An early definition of Information science states: "Information science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability.
It is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, organization, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information. This includes the investigation of information representations in both natural and artificial systems, the use of codes for efficient message transmission, the study of information processing devices and techniques such as computers and their programming systems, it is an interdisciplinary science derived from and related to such fields as mathematics, linguistics, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications and other similar fields. It has both a pure science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, an applied science component, which develops services and products.". Some authors use informatics as a synonym for information science; this is true when related to the concept developed by A. I. Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s; the Mikhailov school saw informatics as a discipline related to the study of scientific information.
Informatics is difficult to define because of the evolving and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Definitions reliant on the nature of the tools used for deriving meaningful information from data are emerging in Informatics academic programs. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem; some people note that much of what is called "Informatics" today was once called "Information Science" – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. For example, when library scientists began to use the phrase "Information Science" to refer to their work, the term "informatics" emerged: in the United States as a response by computer scientists to distinguish their work from that of library science in Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systemsAnother term discussed as a synonym for "information studies" is "information systems". Brian Campbell Vickery's Information Systems places information systems within IS.
Ellis, Allen, & Wilson, on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relation between two different fields: "information science" and "information systems". Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, philosophy, it includes the investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics and sciences, as well as the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to its philosophical problems. In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, the relationships between those concepts, it can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain. More an ontology is a model for describing the world that consists of a set of types and relationship types. What is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology.
There is generally an expectation that there be a cl
The Lower Mainland is a name applied to the region surrounding and including Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. As of 2016, 2,759,365 people, lived in the region. Islands contained within rivers in the region are considered to be part of the Lower Mainland. While the term Lower Mainland has been recorded from the earliest period of non-native settlement in British Columbia, it has never been defined in legal terms; the British Columbia Geographical Names Information System comments that most residents of Vancouver might consider it to be only areas west of Mission and Abbotsford, while residents in the rest of the province consider it to be the whole region south of Whistler and west of Hope. However, the term has been in popular usage for over a century to describe a region that extends from Horseshoe Bay south to the Canada–United States border and east to Hope at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley. Climate and geology of the Lower Mainland are consistent enough that it has been classified as a separate ecoregion within the Ecological framework of Canada, used by both Federal and Provincial Environment Ministries.
The region is the traditional territory of the Sto:lo, a Halkomelem-speaking people of the Coast Salish linguistic and cultural grouping. There are two Regional Districts within Metro Vancouver and the Fraser Valley; the region is bounded to the north by the Coast Mountains and to the southeast by the Cascade Mountains, is traversed from east to west by the Fraser River. Due to its consistency of climate and fauna, geology and land use, "Lower Mainland" is the name of an ecoregion—a biogeoclimatic region—that comprises the eastern part of the Georgia Depression and extends from Powell River on the Sunshine Coast to Hope at the eastern end of the Fraser Valley. One of the mildest climates in Canada, the region has a mean annual temperature of 9 °C with a summer mean of 15 °C and a winter mean of 3.5 °C. Annual precipitation ranges from an annual mean of 850 mm in the west end to 2000 mm in the eastern end of the Fraser Valley and at higher elevations. Maximum precipitation occurs as rain in winter.
Less than ten percent falls as snow at sea level but the amount of snowfall increases with elevation. As of the 2016 census, the population of the Lower Mainland totals 2,759,385: 295,934 in the Fraser Valley Regional District 2,463,431 in Metro Vancouver Regional districtThese figures are inflated due to the inclusion of areas within the Regional Districts which are not considered to be part of the Lower Mainland, notably the lower Fraser Canyon and the heads of Harrison and Pitt Lakes, which are within the FVRD, Lions Bay and Bowen Island, which are within the Greater Vancouver Regional District; the population of the Lower Mainland was up 9.2 percent from the 2006 census. This is among the highest growth rates in the continent; the Lower Mainland is among the most diverse regions in Canada. Europeans form just over 50% of the population, while other significant ethnic groups which dominate the Lower Mainland include Chinese and South Asians. Regional districts were first created across British Columbia in 1966–1967 to form bodies for inter-municipal coordination and to extend municipal-level powers to areas outside existing municipalities.
Today, the Lower Mainland includes two Regional Districts: the Metro Vancouver Regional District and the Fraser Valley Regional District. Both regional districts, include areas outside the traditional limits of the Lower Mainland. Metro Vancouver includes areas like Langley that are geographically in the Fraser Valley; the Metro Vancouver Regional District is made up of 21 municipalities. The MVRD is bordered on the west by the Strait of Georgia, to the north by the Squamish-Lillooet Regional District, on the east by the Fraser Valley Regional District, to the south by Whatcom County, Washington, in the United States; the Fraser Valley Regional District lies east of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, comprises the cities of Abbotsford and Chilliwack, the district municipalities of Mission and Hope, the village of Harrison Hot Springs. It includes many unincorporated areas in the Fraser Valley and along the west side of the Fraser Canyon. Regional district powers are limited and other localized provincial government services are delivered through other regionalization systems.
The traditional territories of the Musqueam and Tsleil'waututh lie within the region. Its claims overlap those of the Tsleil-waututh and Kwikwetlem. Other peoples whose territories lie within the region are the Sto:lo, Katzie, Kwantlen and Semiahmoo. Many other peoples of the Georgia Strait region frequented the lower Fraser, including those from Vancouver Island and what is now Whatcom County, Washington. Sto:lo traditional territory, known as Solh Temexw in Halkomelem, more or less coincides with the traditional conception of the Lower Mainland, except for the inclusion of Port Douglas at the head of Harrison Lake, in In-SHUCK-ch territory, the lands around Burrard Inlet. Health system services and governance in the Lower Mainland are provided by Vancouver Coastal Health, serving Vancouver and the North Shore, the mainland coast as far north as the Central Coast region, Fraser Health, which serves the area of the Lower Mainland east
GarageBand is a line of digital audio workstations for macOS and iOS devices that allows users to create music or podcasts. GarageBand is developed and sold by Apple for macOS, is part of the iLife software suite, its music and podcast creation system enables users to create multiple tracks with pre-made MIDI keyboards, pre-made loops, an array of various instrumental effects, voice recordings. GarageBand was developed by Apple under the direction of Dr. Gerhard Lengeling. Dr. Lengeling was from the German company Emagic, makers of Logic Audio. Steve Jobs announced the application in his keynote speech at the Macworld Conference & Expo in San Francisco on January 6, 2004. Musician John Mayer assisted with its demonstration. Apple announced GarageBand 2 at the 2005 Macworld Conference & Expo on January 11, 2005, it shipped, as announced, around January 22, 2005. Notable new features included the abilities to edit music in musical notation, it was possible to record up to 8 tracks at once and to fix timing and pitch of recordings.
Apple added automation of track pan position, master volume, the master pitch. Transposition of both audio and MIDI has been added by Apple along with the ability to import MIDI files. GarageBand 3, announced at 2006's Macworld Conference & Expo, includes a'podcast studio', including the ability to use more than 200 effects and jingles, integration with iChat for remote interviews. GarageBand 4 known as GarageBand'08, is part of iLife'08, it incorporates the ability to record sections of a song separately, such as bridges, chorus lines. Additionally, it provides support for the automation of tempos and instruments, the creation, exportation of iPhone ringtones, a "Magic GarageBand" feature which includes a virtual jam session with a complete 3D view of the Electric instruments. GarageBand 5 is part of the iLife'09 package, it includes music instruction and allows the user to buy instructional videos by contemporary artists. It contains new features for electric guitar players, including a dedicated 3D Electric Guitar Track containing a virtual stompbox pedalboard, virtual amplifiers with spring reverb and tremolo.
GarageBand 5 includes a cleaner, redesigned user interface as well as Project Templates. GarageBand 6 known as GarageBand'11, is part of the iLife'11 package, which Apple released on October 20, 2010; this version brings new features such as a tool to adjust the rhythm of a recording. It includes the ability to match the tempo of one track with another additional guitar amps and stompboxes, 22 new lessons for guitar and piano, "How Did I Play?", a tool to measure the accuracy and progress of a piano or guitar performance in a lesson. Apple released GarageBand 10 along with OS X 10.9 Mavericks in October 2013. This version has lost the podcast functionality. Apple updated GarageBand 10 for Mac on March 20, 2014. Version 10.0.2 adds the ability to export tracks in MP3 format as well as a new drummer module, but removed support for podcasting. GarageBand was updated to version 10.0.3 on October 16, 2014. This version included myriad bug fixes and several new features including a dedicated Bass Amp Designer, the introduction of global track effects and dynamic track resizing.
Apple released GarageBand 10.2 on June 5, 2017. The latest version is GarageBand 10.3.2, released on December 10, 2018. GarageBand is a digital audio workstation and music sequencer that can record and play back multiple tracks of audio. Built-in audio filters that use the AU standard allow the user to enhance the audio track with various effects, including reverb and distortion amongst others. GarageBand offers the ability to record at both 16-bit and 24-bit Audio Resolution, but at a fixed sample rate of 44.1 kHz. An included tuning system helps with pitch correction and can imitate the Auto-Tune effect when tuned to the maximum level, it has a large array of preset effects to choose from, with an option to create your own effects. GarageBand includes a large selection of realistic, sampled instruments and software modeled synthesizers; these can be used to create original compositions or play music live through the use of a USB MIDI keyboard connected to the computer. An on-screen virtual keyboard is available as well as using a standard QWERTY keyboard with the "musical typing" feature.
The synthesizers were broken into two groups: digital. Each synthesizer has a wide variety of adjustable parameters, including richness, cut off, standard attack, decay and release. In addition to the standard tracks, Garageband allows for guitar-specific tracks that can use a variety of simulated amplifiers and effects processors; these imitate popular hardware from companies including Marshall Amplification, Orange Music Electronic Company, Fender Musical Instruments Corporation. Up to five simulated effects can be layered on top of the virtual amplifiers, which feature adjustable parameters including tone and volume. Guitars can be connected to Macs using a USB interface. GarageBand can import MIDI offers piano roll or notation-style editing and playback. By complying with the MIDI Standard, a user can edit many different aspects of a recorded note, including pitch and duration. Pitch was settable to 1/128 of a semitone, on a scale of 0–127. Velocity, which determines amplitude, can
The Canadian dollar is the currency of Canada. It is abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or sometimes Can$ or C$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies, it is divided into 100 cents. Owing to the image of a loon on the one-dollar coin, the currency is sometimes referred to as the loonie by foreign exchange traders and analysts, as it is by Canadians in general, or huard in French. Accounting for 2% of all global reserves, the Canadian dollar is the fifth most held reserve currency in the world, behind the U. S. dollar, the euro, the yen and the pound sterling. The Canadian dollar is popular with central banks because of Canada's relative economic soundness, the Canadian government's strong sovereign position, the stability of the country's legal and political systems; the 1850s were a decade of wrangling over whether to adopt a sterling monetary system or a decimal monetary system based on the US dollar. The British North American provinces, for reasons of practicality in relation to the increasing trade with the neighbouring United States, had a desire to assimilate their currencies with the American unit, but the imperial authorities in London still preferred sterling as the sole currency throughout the British Empire.
The British North American provinces nonetheless adopted currencies tied to the American dollar. In 1841, the Province of Canada adopted a new system based on the Halifax rating; the new Canadian pound was equal to four US dollars, making one pound sterling equal to 1 pound, 4 shillings, 4 pence Canadian. Thus, the new Canadian pound was worth 5.3 pence sterling. In 1851, the Parliament of the Province of Canada passed an act for the purposes of introducing a pound sterling unit in conjunction with decimal fractional coinage; the idea was that the decimal coins would correspond to exact amounts in relation to the U. S. dollar fractional coinage. In response to British concerns, in 1853 an act of the Parliament of the Province of Canada introduced the gold standard into the colony, based on both the British gold sovereign and the American gold eagle coins; this gold standard was introduced with the gold sovereign being legal tender at £1 = US$4.86 2⁄3. No coinage was provided for under the 1853 act.
Sterling coinage was made legal tender and all other silver coins were demonetized. The British government in principle allowed for a decimal coinage but held out the hope that a sterling unit would be chosen under the name of "royal". However, in 1857, the decision was made to introduce a decimal coinage into the Province of Canada in conjunction with the U. S. dollar unit. Hence, when the new decimal coins were introduced in 1858, the colony's currency became aligned with the U. S. currency, although the British gold sovereign continued to remain legal tender at the rate of £1 = 4.86 2⁄3 right up until the 1990s. In 1859, Canadian colonial postage stamps were issued with decimal denominations for the first time. In 1861, Canadian postage stamps were issued with the denominations shown in cents. In 1860, the colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia followed the Province of Canada in adopting a decimal system based on the U. S. dollar unit. Newfoundland went decimal in 1865, but unlike the Province of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, it decided to adopt a unit based on the Spanish dollar rather than on the U.
S. dollar, there was a slight difference between these two units. The U. S. dollar was created in 1792 on the basis of the average weight of a selection of worn Spanish dollars. As such, the Spanish dollar was worth more than the U. S. dollar, the Newfoundland dollar, until 1895, was worth more than the Canadian dollar. The Colony of British Columbia adopted the British Columbia dollar as its currency in 1865, at par with the Canadian dollar; when British Columbia joined Confederation in 1871, the Canadian dollar replaced the British Columbia dollar. In 1871, Prince Edward Island went decimal within the U. S. dollar unit and introduced coins for 1¢. However, the currency of Prince Edward Island was absorbed into the Canadian system shortly afterwards, when Prince Edward Island joined the Dominion of Canada in 1873. In 1867, the provinces of Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia united in a federation named Canada and the three currencies were merged into the Canadian dollar; the Canadian Parliament passed the Uniform Currency Act in April 1871, tying up loose ends as to the currencies of the various provinces and replacing them with a common Canadian dollar.
The gold standard was temporarily abandoned during the First World War and definitively abolished on April 10, 1933. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the exchange rate to the U. S. dollar was fixed at C$1.10 = US$1.00. This was changed to parity in 1946. In 1949, sterling was devalued and Canada followed, returning to a peg of C$1.10 = US$1.00. However, Canada allowed its dollar to float in 1950, whereupon the currency rose to a slight premium over the U. S. dollar for the next decade. But the Canadian dollar fell after 1960 before it was again pegged in 1962 at C$1.00 = US$0.925. This was sometimes pejoratively referred to as the "Diefenbuck" or the "Diefendollar", after the Prime Minister, John Diefenbaker; this peg lasted until 1970. Canadian English, like American English, used the slang term "buck" for a former paper dollar; the Canadian origin of this term derives from a coin struck by the Hudson's Bay Company during the 17th century with a value equal to the pelt of a male beaver – a "buck".
Because of the appearance of the common loon on the back of the $1 coin that replaced the dollar bill in 1987, the word "loonie" was adopted in Canadian parla