A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery implies that the land is designated as a burial ground and applied to the Roman catacombs; the term graveyard is used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard refers to a burial ground within a churchyard. The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave", a mausoleum, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are observed in cemeteries; these ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to religious beliefs. Modern cemeteries include crematoria, some grounds used for both, continue as crematoria as a principal use long after the interment areas have been filled. Taforalt cave in Morocco is the oldest known cemetery in the world, it was the resting place of at least 34 Iberomaurusian individuals, the bulk of which have been dated to 15,100 to 14,000 years ago. Neolithic cemeteries are sometimes referred to by the term "grave field".
They are one of the chief sources of information on ancient and prehistoric cultures, numerous archaeological cultures are defined by their burial customs, such as the Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age. From about the 7th century, in Europe a burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground. Practices varied, but in continental Europe, bodies were buried in a mass grave until they had decomposed; the bones were exhumed and stored in ossuaries, either along the arcaded bounding walls of the cemetery or within the church under floor slabs and behind walls. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of their name, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe, this was accompanied by a depiction of their coat of arms. Most others were buried in graveyards again divided by social status.
Mourners who could afford the work of a stonemason had a headstone engraved with a name, dates of birth and death and sometimes other biographical data, set up over the place of burial. The more writing and symbols carved on the headstone, the more expensive it was; as with most other human property such as houses and means of transport, richer families used to compete for the artistic value of their family headstone in comparison to others around it, sometimes adding a statue on the top of the grave. Those who could not pay for a headstone at all had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross; some families hired a blacksmith and had large crosses made from various metals put on the place of burial. Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the limited space in graveyards for new interment.
In many European states, burial in graveyards was outlawed altogether through government legislation. Instead of graveyards new places of burial were established away from populated areas and outside of old towns and city centers. Many new cemeteries became municipally owned or were run by their own corporations, thus independent from churches and their churchyards. In some cases, skeletons were moved into ossuaries or catacombs. A large action of this type occurred in 18th century Paris when human remains were transferred from graveyards all over the city to the Catacombs of Paris; the bones of an estimated 6 million people are to be found there. An early example of a landscape-style cemetery is Père Lachaise in Paris; this embodied the idea of state- rather than church-controlled burial, a concept that spread through the continent of Europe with the Napoleonic invasions. This could include the opening of cemeteries by joint stock companies; the shift to municipal cemeteries or those established by private companies was accompanied by the establishing of landscaped burial grounds outside the city.
In Britain the movement was driven by public health concerns. The Rosary Cemetery in Norwich was opened in 1819 as a burial ground for all religious backgrounds. Similar private non-denominational cemeteries were established near industrialising towns with growing populations, such as Manchester and Liverpool; each cemetery required a separate Act of Parliament for authorisation, although the capital was raised through the formation of joint-stock companies. In the first 50 years of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled from 1 million to 2.3 million. The small parish churchyards were becoming dangerously overcrowded, decaying matter infiltrating the water supply was causing epidemics; the issue became acute after the cholera epidemic of 1831, which killed 52,000 people in Britain alone, putting unprecedented pressure on the country's burial capacity. Concerns were raised about the potential public health hazard arising from the inhalation of gases generated from human putrefaction under the prevailing miasma theory of disease.
Legislative action was slow in coming, but in 1832 Parliament acknowledged the need for the establishment of large municipal cemeter
Axbridge is a small town in Somerset, England, in the Sedgemoor district on the River Axe, near the southern edge of the Mendip Hills. The town's population according to the 2011 census was 2,057. Axanbrycg is suggested as the source of the name, meaning a bridge over the River Axe, in the early 9th century. Early inhabitants of the area certainly include the Romans and earlier still, prehistoric man, who lived in the local caves, whose flint tools have been found on the slopes of the local hills; the history of Axbridge can be traced back to the reign of King Alfred when it was part of the Saxons' defence system for Wessex against the Vikings. In the Burghal Hidage, a list of burhs compiled in 910, it was listed as Axanbrycg. A listing of Axbridge appears in the Domesday survey of 1086 as Alse Bruge, meaning'axe bridge' from the Old English isca and brycg, it was part of part of the Winterstoke Hundred. It was granted a Royal Charter in 1202, when King John sold most of the royal manor of Cheddar to the Bishop of Bath and Wells.
Axbridge grew in the Tudor period as a centre for cloth manufacture, This was reflected in its early royal charters allowing it to hold markets and fairs, become a royal borough. It had its own mint, with coins showing the town's symbol: the Lamb and Flag. Trade was possible; the town's importance declined, which led to stagnation and the preservation of many historic buildings in the town centre. These include King John's Hunting Lodge, now used as a museum. Axbridge is a old borough and sent members to parliament in the reigns of Edward I and Edward III. During the 19th and early 20th centuries iron ore was extracted from the hill above and east of Axbridge. Axbridge railway station, on the Cheddar Valley line, opened on 3 August 1869, it closed to goods traffic on 10 June 1963 and passengers on 9 September 1963. The route of the railway is now the A371 Axbridge bypass, but the station buildings and goods shed still survive; the Square was used as the setting for a NatWest Bank television advert in the early 1990s, in particular the Town Hall which doubled as a NatWest branch.
A real branch of NatWest, in the High Street, was closed not long afterwards and the premises are now private residential accommodation. In 2017 several locations in the town were used for a Thatchers Cider television commercial, which featured a hot air balloon; the town council has responsibility for local issues. The town council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the town council initiates projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, consults with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport and street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; each year members of the town council elect a mayor for the town. The town falls within the non-metropolitan district of Sedgemoor, formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, it had been part of Axbridge Rural District from 1894 to 1974, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism.
Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning. The town is in Axevale electoral ward. Axbridge is the most populous area but the ward stretches south to Chapel Allerton; the total ward population as taken at the 2011 census is 4,261. It is part of the Wells county constituency represented in the House of Commons, it elects one MP by the first-past-the-post system of election. It is part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament, which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. In 2012, The Roxy community cinema was reopened after a five-year renovation programme; this was aided by the Big Lottery Fund, re-used old seats from the Colston Hall in Bristol. It has an art deco box office; the premises used to be the a Georgian Grade II listed building.
The Axbridge Film Society is based at the cinema. In 2016 volunteers raised £5,000 for repairs to the cinema and plans have been drawn up for further refurbishment and the installation of new sound and projection equipment; the thirteenth-century parish Church of St John is a grade. Work on the current building began in the early 15th century, grew from an earlier building dating back to about 1230; the church is built of limestone and decorated with Doulting stone, while the steps are an interesting example of Dolomitic Conglomerate. The crossing tower is over 100 feet high, holds six bells, one of which dating from 1723 was made by Edward Bilbie of the Bilbie family; the statue on the east side is that of St John the Baptist. On the west side is a king — Henry VII, which would place it after 1485; the north aisle ceiling retains some mediaeval painted panels, amongst the carved bosses is the head of a Green Man, with leaves sprouting around his face. The nave roof is Jacobean and dates from 1636.
Restoration was undertaken in 1888 by J. D. Sedding, who contributed the
Chilton Trinity is a village and civil parish on the River Parrett, 2 miles north of Bridgwater in the Sedgemoor district of Somerset, England. Iron age and Roman pottery have been found at Chilton village; the name Chilton implies a settlement for younger sons. At one time Chilton Trinity was part of the hundred of Andersfield, but in another era it was part of the hundred of Cannington; the parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny. The parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic; the parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council.
The village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Sedgemoor, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Bridgwater Rural District, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, it is part of the Bridgwater and West Somerset county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects seven MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation; the village is home to Chilton Trinity School a specialist technology college for pupils aged 11–16.
The Church of the Holy Trinity was established in the 13th century, but the current building dates from the 15th century with 19th-century renovation and has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II* listed building. Chilton Trinity: Manors and other estates from British History Online
Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. It is an alternative to "conventional" waste disposal that can save material and help lower greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling can prevent the waste of useful materials and reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, thereby reducing: energy usage, air pollution, water pollution. Recycling is a key component of modern waste reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce and Recycle" waste hierarchy. Thus, recycling aims at environmental sustainability by substituting raw material inputs into and redirecting waste outputs out of the economic system. There are some ISO standards related to recycling such as ISO 15270:2008 for plastics waste and ISO 14001:2015 for environmental management control of recycling practice. Recyclable materials include many kinds of glass, cardboard, plastic, textiles and electronics; the composting or other reuse of biodegradable waste—such as food or garden waste—is a form of recycling.
Materials to be recycled are either delivered to a household recycling center or picked up from curbside bins sorted and reprocessed into new materials destined for manufacturing new products. In the strictest sense, recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same material—for example, used office paper would be converted into new office paper or used polystyrene foam into new polystyrene. However, this is difficult or too expensive, so "recycling" of many products or materials involves their reuse in producing different materials instead. Another form of recycling is the salvage of certain materials from complex products, either due to their intrinsic value, or due to their hazardous nature. Recycling has been a common practice for most of human history, with recorded advocates as far back as Plato in the fourth century BC. During periods when resources were scarce and hard to come by, archaeological studies of ancient waste dumps show less household waste —implying more waste was being recycled in the absence of new material.
In pre-industrial times, there is evidence of scrap bronze and other metals being collected in Europe and melted down for perpetual reuse. Paper recycling was first recorded in 1031. In Britain dust and ash from wood and coal fires was collected by "dustmen" and downcycled as a base material used in brick making; the main driver for these types of recycling was the economic advantage of obtaining recycled feedstock instead of acquiring virgin material, as well as a lack of public waste removal in more densely populated areas. In 1813, Benjamin Law developed the process of turning rags into "shoddy" and "mungo" wool in Batley, Yorkshire; this material combined recycled fibers with virgin wool. The West Yorkshire shoddy industry in towns such as Batley and Dewsbury lasted from the early 19th century to at least 1914. Industrialization spurred demand for affordable materials. Railroads both purchased and sold scrap metal in the 19th century, the growing steel and automobile industries purchased scrap in the early 20th century.
Many secondary goods were collected and sold by peddlers who scoured dumps and city streets for discarded machinery, pots and other sources of metal. By World War I, thousands of such peddlers roamed the streets of American cities, taking advantage of market forces to recycle post-consumer materials back into industrial production. Beverage bottles were recycled with a refundable deposit at some drink manufacturers in Great Britain and Ireland around 1800, notably Schweppes. An official recycling system with refundable deposits was established in Sweden for bottles in 1884 and aluminum beverage cans in 1982. New chemical industries created in the late 19th century both invented new materials and promised to transform valueless into valuable materials. Proverbially, you could not make a silk purse of a sow's ear—until the US firm Arthur D. Little published in 1921 "On the Making of Silk Purses from Sows' Ears", its research proving that when "chemistry puts on overalls and gets down to business... new values appear.
New and better paths are opened to reach the goals desired."Recycling was a major issue for governments throughout World War II. Financial constraints and significant material shortages due to war efforts made it necessary for countries to reuse goods and recycle materials; these resource shortages caused by the world wars, other such world-changing occurrences encouraged recycling. The struggles of war claimed much of the material resources available, leaving little for the civilian population, it became necessary for most homes to recycle their waste, as recycling offered an extra source of materials allowing people to make the most of what was available to them. Recycling household materials meant a better chance of victory. Massive government promotion campaigns, such as the National Salvage Campaign in Britain and the Salvage for Victory campaign in the United States, were carried out on the home front in every combative nation, urging citizens to donate metal, rags, r
Sedgemoor is a low-lying area of land in Somerset, England. It lies close to sea level south of the Polden Hills largely marsh; the eastern part is known as King's Sedgemoor, the western part West Sedgemoor. Sedgemoor is part of the area now known as the Somerset Levels and Moors; the area was known as the site of the Battle of Sedgemoor. Sedgemoor has given its name to a local government district formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal borough of Bridgwater, the Burnham-on-Sea urban district, Bridgwater Rural District and part of Axbridge Rural District; the district covers a larger area than the historical Sedgemoor, extending north of the Polden Hills across the Somerset Levels and Moors to the Mendip Hills. Sedgemoor does not mean "sedge moor", but is instead "marsh of a man called Sicga" from the Old Norse personal name Sicga and Old English mor "moor"; the name was recorded as Secgamere in 1165. Bridgwater – the administrative centre Burnham-on-Sea North Petherton Highbridge Axbridge River Parrett River Brue River Huntspill King's Sedgemoor Drain Battle of Sedgemoor 1685 Light industry now predominates, but traditional trades including peat extraction, willow crafts and cider making may still be found, in addition to livestock farming.
The River Parrett provides a source of elvers from January through to May. Notable is the new Isleport trading estate at Highbridge, which houses many global businesses such as Geest who make yoghurt under franchise to Ski & Muller, Brake Brothers who supply the catering trade, BFP wholesale who supply dry goods to bakeries etc. Woodbury & Haines who supply furniture globally, Polybeam Limited who supply GRP radio masts to customers such as Marconi, AT&T whose centre there controls all internet cable traffic to and from the US. Industry in Bridgwater has seen major growth with the opening of "Express Park" which houses Gerber Foods, NHS Logistics depot and Eddie Stobart depot. South of Bridgwater, at Huntworth, is a large Somerfield depot which supplies their Somerfield and former Kwik Save stores in the south west. Sedgemoor District Council has traditionally been Conservative run since its creation in 1974 when it was merged with the old Bridgwater & Burnham-On-Sea Urban District Councils.
Past voting trends have placed strong cores of Labour voters in Bridgwater Town, with Conservative support coming from the Villages such as Pawlett and Shipham. Liberal Democrats fared well in Highbridge areas. In 1995, the Liberal Democrats and Labour took 26 seats together, out-numbering the Conservatives 24 seats, they formed a coalition; this continued until 1999, when the Conservatives re-took Sedgemoor, crushing the Liberal Democrats from 12 seats, to just 2. The Liberal Democrats lost their safe seat of Highbridge to Labour. In 2000, a Conservative Councillor died, a By-Election was called in his seat of Huntpsill and Pawlett. Previous Liberal Democrat Councillor Marilyn Wallace fought the seat, re-took it with 56% of the vote, bringing the Liberal Democrats back up to 3 seats. In 2003, the Conservatives extended their majority to 35 seats of 50, leaving the Liberal Democrats on just 1 Seat, Which was held by long term veteran Liberal Democrat, Mike Mansfield, who took the seat from the Conservatives in Burnham South, a Liberal Democrat safe seat.
Labour remained on 14. In 2007, the Conservatives held a status quo of 35 seats, however the Liberal Democrats gained 3 up to 4 total, all of which were in their traditional safe seat of Highbridge; this included the election of their youngest Councillor in the South west, Councillor Joe Leach, aged just 19 years. Mike Mansfield was elected Leader of the Liberal Democrat group, until the untimely death of his wife. Newly elected Councillor Danny Titcombe was elected leader of the Group. On 14 April 2008, Cllr. Danny Titcombe announced his defection to the Conservative Party boosting their majority to 36 seats. Despite calls of resignation from all sides, Cllr. Titcombe continued in his role. At 20 Years old, Cllr Joe Leach became the youngest group Leader in the Country; the Labour Party dropped to 11 seats, losing 2 in highbridge to the Liberal Democrats, 1 in Bridgwater Bower to the Conservatives. The Conservatives lost 1 in Highbridge to the Liberal Democrats. In 2010, Woolavington Councillor Roger Lavers, the Labour Group Leader, died of a brain haemorrhage, triggering a by-election in the 1 Member ward, which saw Labour drop from holding the seat, to third behind the Liberal Democrats who hadn't stood in the seat since 1991, the Conservatives gain the seat, boosting their total number to 37 of 50 councillors.
Labour dropped to 10. Councillor Kathy Pearce, Labour member for Bridgwater Hamp, was elected as the new Labour group Leader. In the 2011 Local Council elections, The Conservatives held the council with a reduced number of seats. Labour took back all Bridgwater seats except the Windham ward, the Independents gained 2 seats at the expense of the Liberal Democrats, who held their leader's seat in Highbridge & Burnham Marine, Burnham Central. Notable casualties included Vice-Chairman of the Council Mike Creswell, in Bridgwater Fairfax; the current leader of Sedgemoor District Council is Cllr Duncan McGinty, who has held the position since 1999. The area is falls within the Bridgwater and West Somerset and Wells county constituencies which are represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom by the first past the post system of election; the current MP for Bridgewater and West Somerset is Ian Liddell-Grainger, a Conservative
Compton Bishop is a small village and civil parish, at the western end of the Mendip Hills in the English county of Somerset. It is located close to the historic town of Axbridge. Along with the village of Cross and the hamlets of Rackley and Webbington it forms the parish of Compton Bishop and Cross, it was listed in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Comtone. It was the property of Bishop of Wells; the parish was part of the Winterstoke Hundred. The current manor house was built in the early 17th century; the parish includes the hamlet of Rackley, a trading port on the River Axe in the Middle Ages following construction of a wharf in 1200. It now north of the River Axe as the course has been diverted, but on the Cheddar Yeo near the confluence. In 1324 Edward II confirmed it as a borough. In the 14th century a French ship sailed up the river and by 1388 Thomas Tanner from Wells used Rackley to export cloth and corn to Portugal, received iron and salt in exchange. Slate was imported through this route and it may have still be possible to trade through Rackley until the act of 1915 authorising the drainage of the Axe and installation of the flood gate at Bleadon.
Within the parish is the small village of Cross, where Wavering Down House was, for the last 20 years of his life, the home of the British comedian Frankie Howerd. The house is now a tourist attraction, in the summer hosts concerts and opens as a museum of Howerd's collection of memorabilia to raise fund for charities; the name Webbington is believed to mea n'The weaving enclosure' from tun. Webbington is popular with hikers as it has many good footpaths leading up to Crook Peak and Shute Shelve, at the western edge of the Mendip Hills, is part of the Wessex walk route leading from Weston-super-Mare to Wells; the Webbington Hotel is the only commercial building in the immediate area. The parish council has responsibility for local issues, including setting an annual precept to cover the council’s operating costs and producing annual accounts for public scrutiny; the parish council evaluates local planning applications and works with the local police, district council officers, neighbourhood watch groups on matters of crime and traffic.
The parish council's role includes initiating projects for the maintenance and repair of parish facilities, as well as consulting with the district council on the maintenance and improvement of highways, footpaths, public transport, street cleaning. Conservation matters and environmental issues are the responsibility of the council; the village falls within the Non-metropolitan district of Sedgemoor, formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, having been part of Axbridge Rural District, responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health and fairs, refuse collection and recycling and crematoria, leisure services and tourism. Somerset County Council is responsible for running the largest and most expensive local services such as education, social services, main roads, public transport and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, it is part of the Wells county constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election, part of the South West England constituency of the European Parliament which elects six MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation. The Church of England parish church of St Andrew dates from the 13th century, being consecrated by Bishop Jocelin in 1236, with more recent restoration, it has a 15th-century pulpit with tracery panels, carved friezes and cresting. Above the pulpit is a large pedimented wall monument to John Prowse who died in 1688, as well as several of his children, it is a Grade I listed building. The churchyard cross is grade II listed. Frankie Howerd Compton Bishop and Cross Compton Bishop Parish Council
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people gather for the purchase and sale of provisions and other goods. In different parts of the world, a market place may be described as a souk, bazaar, a fixed mercado, or itinerant tianguis, or palengke; some markets operate daily and are said to be permanent markets while others are held once a week or on less frequent specified days such as festival days and are said to be periodic markets. The form that a market adopts depends on its locality's population, culture and geographic conditions; the term market covers many types of trading, as market squares, market halls and food halls, their different varieties. Due to this, marketplaces can be situated both indoors. Markets have existed for as long; the earliest bazaars are believed to have originated in Persia, from where they spread to the rest of the Middle East and Europe. Documentary sources suggest that zoning policies confined trading to particular parts of cities from around 3,000 BCE, creating the conditions necessary for the emergence of a bazaar.
Middle Eastern bazaars were long strips with stalls on either side and a covered roof designed to protect traders and purchasers from the fierce sun. In Europe, unregulated markets made way for a system of formal, chartered markets from the 12th century. Throughout the Medieval period, increased regulation of marketplace practices weights and measures, gave consumers confidence in the quality of market goods and the fairness of prices. Around the globe, markets have evolved in different ways depending on local ambient conditions weather and culture. In the Middle East, markets tend to be covered, to protect shoppers from the sun. In milder climates, markets are open air. In Asia, a system of morning markets trading in fresh produce and night markets trading in non-perishables is common. In many countries, shopping at a local market is a standard feature of daily life. Given the market's role in ensuring food supply for a population, markets are highly regulated by a central authority. In many places, designated market places have become listed sites of historic and architectural significance and represent part of a town or nation's cultural assets.
For these reasons, they are popular tourist destinations. The term market comes from the Latin mercatus; the earliest recorded use of the term market in English is in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of 963, a work, created during the reign of Alfred the Great and subsequently distributed, copied throughout English monasteries. The exact phrase was “Ic wille þæt markete beo in þe selue tun,” which translates as “I want to be at that market in the good town.” Markets have existed since ancient times. Some historians have argued that a type of market has existed since humans first began to engage in trade. Open air, public markets were known in ancient Babylonia, Phoenecia, Egypt and on the Arabian peninsula. However, not all societies developed a system of markets; the Greek historian, Herodotus noted. Across the Mediterranean and Aegean, a network of markets emerged from the early Bronze Age. A vast array of goods were traded including: salt, lapiz-lazuli, cloth, pots, statues and other implements. Archaeological evidence suggests that Bronze Age traders segmented trade routes according to geographical circuits.
Both produce and ideas travelled along these trade routes. In the Middle-East, documentary sources suggest that a form of bazaar first developed around 3,000 BCE. Early bazaars occupied a series of alleys along the length of the city stretching from one city gate to a different gate on the other side of the city; the bazaar at Tabriz, for example, stretches along 1.5 kilometres of street and is the longest vaulted bazaar in the world. Moosavi argues that the Middle-Eastern bazaar evolved in a linear pattern, whereas the market places of the West were more centralised; the Greek historian, noted that in Egypt, roles were reversed compared with other cultures and Egyptian women frequented the market and carried on trade, while the men remain at home weaving cloth. He described a The Babylonian Marriage Market. In antiquity, markets were situated in the town's centre; the market was surrounded by alleyways inhabited by skilled artisans, such as metal-workers, leather workers and carpenters. These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days.
Across ancient Greece market places were to be found in most city states, where they operated within the agora. Between 550 and 350 BCE, Greek stallholders clustered together according to the type of goods carried - fish-sellers were in one place, clothing in another and sellers of more expensive goods such as perfumes and jars were located in a separate building; the Greeks organised trade into all located near the city centre and known as stoa. A freestanding colonnade with a covered walkway, the stoa was both a place of commerce and a public promenade, situated within or adjacent to the agora. At the market-place in Athens, officials were employed by the government to oversee weights and coinage to ensure that the people were not cheated in market place transactions; the rocky and mountainous terrain in Greece made it difficult for producers to transport goods or surpluses to local markets, giving rise to a specialised type of retailer who operated as an intermediary purchasing produce from farmers