Robert Grant Aitken
For others named, see the Robert Aitken navigation pageRobert Grant Aitken was an American astronomer. Born in Jackson, Aitken attended Williams College in Massachusetts and graduated with an undergraduate degree in 1887. From 1887–1891, he worked as a mathematics instructor at Livermore, California received his M. A. from Williams College in 1892. He became a professor of mathematics at the College of another liberal arts school, he was offered an assistant astronomer position at Lick Observatory in California in 1895. He began a systematically study of double stars, measuring their positions and calculating their orbits around one another. From 1899, in collaboration with W. J. Hussey, he methodically created a large catalog of such stars; this ongoing work was published in Lick Observatory bulletins. In 1905, Hussey left and Aitken pressed on with the survey alone, by 1915, he had discovered 3,100 new binary stars, with an additional 1,300 discovered by Hussey; the results were published in 1932 and entitled New General Catalogue of Double Stars Within 120° of the North Pole, with the orbit information enabling astronomers to calculate stellar mass statistics for a large number of stars.
For his work in cataloguing binary stars, he was awarded the prestigious Bruce Medal in 1926. During his career, Aitken measured positions and computed orbits for comets and natural satellites of planets. In 1908 he joined an eclipse expedition to Flint Island in the central Pacific Ocean, his work Binary Stars was published in 1918, with a second edition published in 1935. After joining the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in 1894, Aitken was elected to serve as president in 1899 and 1915 of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. From 1898 to 1942, Aitken was an editor of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. In 1932, he delivered the Darwin Lecture before the Royal Astronomical Society, where he was an associate member. From 1918 to 1928, he was chair of the double star committee for the International Astronomical Union. Aitken was deaf and used a hearing aid, he married Jessie Thomas around 1888, had three sons and one daughter. Jessie died in 1943, his grandson, Robert Baker Aitken, was a known Zen Buddhist teacher and author.
His granddaughter Marjorie J. Vold was a noted chemist specializing in colloids. AwardsLalande Prize of the French Academy Bruce Medal Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society Rittenhouse Medal Honorary Sc. D. from College of the Pacific, Williams College, University of Arizona, an honorary LL. D. from the University of CaliforniaNamed after himMinor planet 3070 Aitken Lunar crater Aitken, part of the large South Pole-Aitken basin Bruce Medal page Awarding of Bruce Medal Awarding of RAS gold medal Biographical Memoir by Van Den Bos at the National academy of Sciences Double Star Observer, Cataloguer and Observatory Director Additional Photos from the Emilio Segre Visual Archive, American Institute of Physics Portrait of Robert G. Aitkin from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections Digital version of The Binary Stars published by Dover in 1964 IrAJ 2 27 JO 35 25 JRASC 46 28 MNRAS 112 271 PASP 64 5
The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other as viewed from Earth with the aid of optical telescopes. This occurs because the pair either forms a binary star or is an optical double, a chance line-of-sight alignment of two stars at different distances from the observer. Binary stars are important to stellar astronomers as knowledge of their motions allows direct calculation of stellar mass and other stellar parameters. Since the beginning of the 1780s, both professional and amateur double star observers have telescopically measured the distances and angles between double stars to determine the relative motions of the pairs. If the relative motion of a pair determines a curved arc of an orbit, or if the relative motion is small compared to the common proper motion of both stars, it may be concluded that the pair is in mutual orbit as a binary star. Otherwise, the pair is optical. Multiple stars are studied in this way, although the dynamics of multiple stellar systems are more complex than those of binary stars.
The following are three types of paired stars: Optical doubles are unrelated stars that appear close together through chance alignment with Earth. Visual binaries are gravitationally-bound stars. Non-visual binaries are stars whose binary status was deduced through more esoteric means, such as occultation, spectroscopy, or anomalies in proper motion. Improvements in telescopes can shift non-visual binaries into visual binaries, as happened with Polaris A in 2006, it is only the inability to telescopically observe two separate stars that distinguish non-visual and visual binaries. Mizar, in Ursa Major, was observed to be double by Benedetto Galileo; the identification of other doubles soon followed: Robert Hooke discovered one of the first double-star systems, Gamma Arietis, in 1664, while the bright southern star Acrux, in the Southern Cross, was discovered to be double by Fontenay in 1685. Since that time, the search has been carried out and the entire sky has been examined for double stars down to a limiting apparent magnitude of about 9.0.
At least 1 in 18 stars brighter than 9.0 magnitude in the northern half of the sky are known to be double stars visible with a 36-inch telescope. The unrelated categories of optical doubles and true binaries are lumped together for historical and practical reasons; when Mizar was found to be a binary, it was quite difficult to determine whether a double star was a binary system or only an optical double. Improved telescopes and photography are the basic tools used to make the distinction. After it was determined to be a visual binary, Mizar's components were found to be spectroscopic binaries themselves. Observation of visual double stars by visual measurement will yield the separation, or angular distance, between the two component stars in the sky and the position angle; the position angle specifies the direction in which the stars are separated and is defined as the bearing from the brighter component to the fainter, where north is 0°. These measurements are called measures. In the measures of a visual binary, the position angle will change progressively and the separation between the two stars will oscillate between maximum and minimum values.
Plotting the measures in the plane will produce an ellipse. This is the projection of the orbit of the two stars onto the celestial sphere. Although it is expected that the majority of catalogued visual doubles are visual binaries, orbits have been computed for only a few thousand of the over 100,000 known visual double stars. Confirmation of a visual double star as a binary star can be achieved by observing the relative motion of the components. If the motion is part of an orbit, or if the stars have similar radial velocities or the difference in their proper motions is small compared to their common proper motion, the pair is physical; when observed over a short period of time, the components of both optical doubles and long-period visual binaries will appear to be moving in straight lines. Some bright visual double stars have a Bayer designation. In this case, the components may be denoted by superscripts. An example of this is α Crucis, whose components are α2 Crucis. Since α1 Crucis is a spectroscopic binary, this is a multiple star.
Superscripts are used to distinguish more distant, physically unrelated, pairs of stars with the same Bayer designation, such as α1,2 Capricorni, ξ1,2 Centauri, ξ1,2 Sagittarii. These optical pairs are resolvable by the naked eye. Apart from these pairs, the components of a double star are denoted by the letters A and B appended to the designation, of whatever sort, of the double star. For example, the components of α Canis Majoris are α Canis Majoris A and α Canis Majoris B; the letters AB may be used together to designate the pair. In the case of multiple stars, the letters C, D, so on may be used to denote additional components in order of increasing separation from the brightest star, A. Visual doubles are designated by an abbreviation for the name of their discoverer followed by a catalogue number unique to that observer. For example, the pair α Centauri AB was discovered by Father Ri
The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory and operated by the University of California. It is situated on the summit of Mount Hamilton, in the Diablo Range just east of San Jose, California, US; the observatory is managed by the University of California Observatories, with headquarters on the University of California, Santa Cruz campus, where its scientific staff moved in the mid-1960s. It is named after James Lick. Lick Observatory is the world's first permanently occupied mountain-top observatory; the observatory, in a Classical Revival style structure, was constructed between 1876 and 1887, from a bequest from James Lick of $700,000. Lick a carpenter and piano maker, chose the site atop Mount Hamilton and was buried there in 1887 under the future site of the telescope, with a brass tablet bearing the inscription, "Here lies the body of James Lick". Lick additionally requested that Santa Clara County construct a "first-class road" to the summit, completed in 1876. Lick chose John Wright, of San Francisco's Wright & Sanders firm of architects, to design both the Observatory and the Astronomer's House.
All of the construction materials had to be brought to the site by horse and mule-drawn wagons, which could not negotiate a steep grade. To keep the grade below 6.5%, the road had to take a winding and sinuous path, which the modern-day road still follows. Tradition maintains that this road has 365 turns; the road is closed. The first telescope installed at the observatory was a 12-inch refractor made by Alvan Clark. Astronomer E. E. Barnard used the telescope to make "exquisite photographs of comets and nebulae", according to D. J. Warner of Warner & Swasey Company; the 36-inch refracting telescope on Mt. Hamilton was Earth's largest refracting telescope during the period from when it saw first light on January 3, 1888, until the construction of Yerkes Observatory in 1897. Warner & Swasey designed and built the telescope mounting, with the 36-inch lens manufactured by one of the Clark sons, Alvan Graham. E. E. Barnard used the telescope in 1892 to discover a fifth moon of Amalthea; this was the first addition to Jupiter's known moons since Galileo observed the planet through his parchment tube and spectacle lens.
The telescope provided spectra for W. W. Campbell's work on the radial velocities of stars. In May 1888, the observatory was turned over to the Regents of the University of California, it became the first permanently occupied mountain-top observatory in the world. Edward Singleton Holden was the first director; the location provided excellent viewing performance because of lack of ambient pollution. When low cloud cover is present below the peak, light pollution is cut to nothing. On May 21, 1939, during a nighttime fog that engulfed the summit, a U. S. Army Air Force Northrop A-17 two-seater attack plane crashed into the main building; because a scientific meeting was being held elsewhere, the only staff member present was Nicholas Mayall. Nothing caught the two individuals in the building were unharmed; the pilot of the plane, Lt. Richard F. Lorenz, passenger Private W. E. Scott were killed instantly; the telephone line was broken by the crash, so no help could be called for at first. Help arrived together with numerous reporters and photographers, who kept arriving all night long.
Evidence of their numbers could be seen the next day by the litter of flash bulbs carpeting the parking lot. The press covered the accident and many reports emphasized the luck in not losing a large cabinet of spectrograms, knocked over by the crash coming through an astronomer's office window. More notable was the lack of fire or damage to a telescope dome. In 1950, the California state legislature appropriated funds for a 120-inch reflector telescope, completed in 1959; the observatory additionally has a 24-inch Cassegrain reflector dedicated to photoelectric measurements of star brightness, received a pair of 20-inch astrographs from the Carnegie Corporation. In 1886, Lick Observatory begins supplying Railroad Standard Time to the Southern Pacific Railroad, to other businesses, over telegraph lines; the signal was generated by a clock manufactured by E. Howard & Co. for the Observatory, which included an electric apparatus for transmitting the time signal over telegraph lines. While most of the nation's railroads received their time signal from the U.
S. Naval Observatory time signal via Western Union's telegraph lines, the Lick Observatory Time-Signal was used by railroads from the West coast all the way to Colorado. With the growth of San Jose, the rest of Silicon Valley, light pollution became a problem for the observatory. In the 1970s, a site in the Santa Lucia Mountains at Junípero Serra Peak, southeast of Monterey, was evaluated for possible relocation of many of the telescopes. However, funding for the move was not available, in 1980 San Jose began a program to reduce the effects of lighting, most notably replacing all streetlamps with low pressure sodium lamps; the result is that the Mount Hamilton site remains a viable location for a major working observatory. The International Astronomical Union named Asteroid 6216 San Jose to honor the city's efforts toward reducing light pollution. In 2006, there were 23 f
The North Pole known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface. The North Pole is the northernmost point on the Earth, lying diametrically opposite the South Pole, it defines geodetic latitude 90° North, as well as the direction of true north. At the North Pole all directions point south. Along tight latitude circles, counterclockwise is east and clockwise is west; the North Pole is at the center of the Northern Hemisphere. While the South Pole lies on a continental land mass, the North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean amid waters that are permanently covered with shifting sea ice; this makes it impractical to construct a permanent station at the North Pole. However, the Soviet Union, Russia, constructed a number of manned drifting stations on a annual basis since 1937, some of which have passed over or close to the Pole. Since 2002, the Russians have annually established a base, close to the Pole.
This operates for a few weeks during early spring. Studies in the 2000s predicted that the North Pole may become seasonally ice-free because of Arctic ice shrinkage, with timescales varying from 2016 to the late 21st century or later; the sea depth at the North Pole has been measured at 4,261 m by the Russian Mir submersible in 2007 and at 4,087 m by USS Nautilus in 1958. The nearest land is said to be Kaffeklubben Island, off the northern coast of Greenland about 700 km away, though some semi-permanent gravel banks lie closer; the nearest permanently inhabited place is Alert in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Canada, located 817 km from the Pole. The Earth's axis of rotation – and hence the position of the North Pole – was believed to be fixed until, in the 18th century, the mathematician Leonhard Euler predicted that the axis might "wobble" slightly. Around the beginning of the 20th century astronomers noticed a small apparent "variation of latitude," as determined for a fixed point on Earth from the observation of stars.
Part of this variation could be attributed to a wandering of the Pole across the Earth's surface, by a range of a few metres. The wandering has an irregular component; the component with a period of about 435 days is identified with the eight-month wandering predicted by Euler and is now called the Chandler wobble after its discoverer. The exact point of intersection of the Earth's axis and the Earth's surface, at any given moment, is called the "instantaneous pole", but because of the "wobble" this cannot be used as a definition of a fixed North Pole when metre-scale precision is required, it is desirable to tie the system of Earth coordinates to fixed landforms. Of course, given plate tectonics and isostasy, there is no system in which all geographic features are fixed, yet the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service and the International Astronomical Union have defined a framework called the International Terrestrial Reference System. As early as the 16th century, many prominent people believed that the North Pole was in a sea, which in the 19th century was called the Polynya or Open Polar Sea.
It was therefore hoped. Several expeditions set out to find the way with whaling ships commonly used in the cold northern latitudes. One of the earliest expeditions to set out with the explicit intention of reaching the North Pole was that of British naval officer William Edward Parry, who in 1827 reached latitude 82°45′ North. In 1871 the Polaris expedition, a US attempt on the Pole led by Charles Francis Hall, ended in disaster. Another British Royal Navy attempt on the pole, part of the British Arctic Expedition, by Commander Albert H. Markham reached a then-record 83°20'26" North in May 1876 before turning back. An 1879–1881 expedition commanded by US naval officer George W. DeLong ended tragically when their ship, the USS Jeanette, was crushed by ice. Over half the crew, including DeLong, were lost. In April 1895 the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen and Hjalmar Johansen struck out for the Pole on skis after leaving Nansen's icebound ship Fram; the pair reached latitude 86°14′ North before they abandoned the attempt and turned southwards reaching Franz Josef Land.
In 1897 Swedish engineer Salomon August Andrée and two companions tried to reach the North Pole in the hydrogen balloon Örnen, but came down 300 km north of Kvitøya, the northeasternmost part of the Svalbard archipelago. They died there three months later. In 1930 the remains of this expedition were found by the Norwegian Bratvaag Expedition; the Italian explorer Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi and Captain Umberto Cagni of the Italian Royal Navy sailed the converted whaler Stella Polare from Norway in 1899. On 11 March 1900 Cagni led a party over the ice and reached latitude 86° 34’ on 25 April, setting a new record by beating Nansen's result of 1895 by 35 to 40 km. Cagni managed to return to the camp, remaining there until 23 June. On 16 August the Stella Polare left Rudolf Island heading south and the expedition returned to Norway; the US explorer Frederick Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole on 21 April 1908 with two Inuit men and Etukishook, but he was unable to produce convincing proof and his c
Carnegie Institution for Science
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, known for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science, is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research. The institution is headquartered in Washington, D. C. Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie donated his vast fortune to establish over 20 organizations around the world that now feature his surname and perform work involving topics as diverse as art, international affairs, world peace, scientific research; the organizations are related by name only. In 2007, the institution adopted the public name "Carnegie Institution for Science" to distinguish itself better from other organizations established by and named for Andrew Carnegie; the institution remains and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, but now has a public identity that describes its work more precisely. "It is proposed to found in the city of Washington, an institution which...shall in the broadest and most liberal manner encourage investigation and discovery show the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind..."
— Andrew Carnegie, January 28, 1902 Beginning during 1895, Andrew Carnegie contributed his vast fortune toward the establishment of 22 organizations that presently feature his surname and perform work in such topics as art, international affairs and scientific research. During 1901, Andrew Carnegie retired from business to begin his career in philanthropy. Among his new enterprises, he considered establishing a national university in Washington, D. C. similar to the great centers of learning in Europe. Because he was concerned that a new university could weaken existing universities, he opted for an independent research organization that would increase basic scientific knowledge. Carnegie communicated with President Theodore Roosevelt and declared his readiness to endow the new institution with $10 million, he added $2 million more to the endowment during 1907, another $10 million during 1911. By some estimates, the value of his endowment in current terms was $500 million; as ex officio members of the first board of trustees, Carnegie chose the President of the United States, the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution and the president of the National Academy of Sciences.
In all, he selected 27 men for the institution's original board. Their first meeting was held in the office of the Secretary of State on January 29, 1902, Daniel Coit Gilman, president of Johns Hopkins University, was elected president; the institution was incorporated by the U. S. Congress during 1903; the president and trustees devoted much of the institution's budget to individual grants for various topics, including astronomy, literature, economics and mathematics. Among the researchers who received individual grants were American physicist Albert A. Michelson, paleontologist Oliver Perry Hay, botanist Janet Russell Perkins, Thomas Hunt Morgan and his "fly group", geologist Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, historian of science George Sarton, rocket pioneer Robert H. Goddard and botanist Luther Burbank; the institution funded archaeological research by Sylvanus Morley at Chichen Itza. As directed by Robert Woodward, who became president during 1904, the board changed its practice, deciding to provide major funding to departments of research rather than to individuals.
This allowed them to concentrate on fewer topics and fund groups of researchers in related areas over many years. Starting in 1907 the Institution maintained the Tortugas Laboratory on Garden Key, under the direction of Alfred G. Mayer. Since the beginning, the Carnegie Institution has made discoveries but left the development to others; this philosophy has resulted in unexpected results, including the development of hybrid corn, the technology that led to Pyrex ® glass, novel techniques to control genes known as RNA interference. Some of Carnegie's researchers from the early and middle years of the 20th century are well known: Edwin Hubble, who revolutionized astronomy with his discovery that the universe is expanding and that there are galaxies other than our own Milky WayCharles Richter, who created the earthquake measurement scale; when the United States joined World War II, Vannevar Bush was president of the Carnegie Institution. Several months before, on June 12, 1940, Bush had been instrumental in persuading President Franklin Roosevelt to create the National Defense Research Committee to mobilize and coordinate the nation's scientific war effort.
Bush housed the new agency in the Carnegie Institution's administrative headquarters at 16th and P Streets, NW, in Washington, DC, converting its great rotunda and auditorium into office cubicles. From this location, Bush supervised, among the Manhattan Project. Further, Carnegie scientists cooperated with the development of the proximity fuze and mass production of penicillin; as of June 30, 2014, the Institution's endowment was valued at $980 million. Expenses for scientific programs and administration was
Sherburne Wesley Burnham
Sherburne Wesley Burnham was an American astronomer. He was born at Vermont, his parents were Marinda Burnham. He graduated from the academy in Thetford, and, the extent of his schooling, he taught himself shorthand, by 1858 was in New York City. He was a reporter for the Union Army in New Orleans during the Civil War. In New Orleans, he bought a copy of Geography of the Heavens by Elijah H. Burritt, which piqued his interest in astronomy. After the war, he worked as a court reporter for over 20 years. At night he was an amateur astronomer, except for four years he worked as a full-time astronomer at Lick Observatory, he remained in Chicago. From 1897 to 1914 he was an astronomer at Yerkes Observatory. In 1873 – 1874, he produced a catalog of double stars, he became a fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society. He continued to identify double stars and published the General Catalogue of 1290 Double Stars. In 1906, he published the Burnham Double Star Catalogue. For more than fifty years he spent all his free time observing the heavens, principally concerning himself with binary stars.
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve and Otto Wilhelm von Struve had catalogued a good number of binary stars working at the Observatories of Dorpat and Pulkovo and using 23- and 38-cm telescopes. During the 1840s it was believed that all the binary stars visible to the instruments of the day had been discovered. Burnham, with his 15 cm instrument, found 451 new ones from 1872 to 1877. A European astronomer, Baron Dembowski, helped him by measuring the newly discovered binaries; the quality of Burnham's work opened the doors of observatories for him and he had access to more powerful instruments at Lick and other observatories. He is credited with having discovered 1340 binary stars. Burnham discovered the first example of, what would be called a half century a Herbig–Haro object: Burnham's Nebula, he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1894. The French Academy of Sciences awarded him the Lalande Prize for 1904; the lunar asteroid 834 Burnhamia were named in his honour. Note on Hind's Variable Nebula in Taurus, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 51, p. 94 Double star observations made with the thirty-six-inch and twelve-inch refractors of the Lick observatory, from August, 1888, to June, 1892, Publications of the Lick Observatory, Vol. 2, p. 175 Portrait of Sherburne Wesley Burnham circa 1890 from the Lick Observatory Records Digital Archive, UC Santa Cruz Library's Digital Collections