The phainopepla or northern phainopepla is the most northerly representative of the mainly tropical Central American family Ptiliogonatidae, the silky flycatchers. Its name is from the Greek phain pepla meaning shining robe in reference to the males plumage, the phainopepla is a striking bird, 16–20 cm long with a noticeable crest and a long tail, it is slender, and has an upright posture when it perches. Its bill is short and slender, the male is glossy black, and has a white wing patch that is visible when it flies, the female is plain gray and has a lighter gray wing patch. Both sexes have red eyes, but these are more noticeable in the female than the male, extreme individuals have travelled as far as Canada, with one bird in 2009 reaching as far north as Brampton, Canada. Berries, any small insects, vegetables, so far this is the only known bird able to do this. They appear to relish the fruit of Phoradendron californicum, the desert mistletoe, the eggs are gray or pink and speckled, and the incubation, done by both the male and female, takes fifteen days.
The young will be reared by the parents for up to nineteen more days, phainopeplas have been found to imitate the calls of twelve other species, such as the red-tailed hawk and the northern flicker. Chu, M. Walsberg, G. Poole, A. Gill, philadelphia, PA, The Birds of North America, Inc. BirdLife species factsheet for Phainopepla nitens Phainopepla nitens, Phainopepla photo gallery at VIREO Interactive range map of Phainopepla nitens at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Phainopepla on Xeno-canto
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is located in the southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California and southern Nevada, very small areas extend into Utah and Arizona. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Palmdale, the Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, and the San Gabriel Mountains, the mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults. The Mojave Desert displays typical basin and range topography and it occupies less than 50,000 sq mi, making it the smallest of the North American deserts. The Mojave Desert is often referred to as the desert, in contrast to the low desert. However, the Mojave Desert is generally lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north, the spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English.
The Mojave Desert receives less than 13 in of rain a year and is generally between 2,000 and 5,000 feet in elevation, zion National Park in Utah lies at the junction of the Mojave, the Great Basin Desert, and the Colorado Plateau. Despite its aridity, the Mojave has long been a center of production, fed by irrigation coming from groundwater. The Mojave is a desert of temperature extremes and two distinct seasons, winter months bring comfortable daytime temperatures, which dip precipitously to around 20 °F on valley floors, and below 0 °F at higher elevations. Storms moving from the Pacific Northwest can bring rain and in places even snow. More often, the shadow created by the Sierra Nevada as well as mountain ranges within the desert such as the Spring Mountains, bring only clouds. By early June, it is rare for another Pacific storm to have a significant impact on the regions weather, summer weather is dominated by heat. Temperatures on valley floors can soar above 120 °F and above 130 °F at the lowest elevations, low humidity, high temperatures, and low pressure, draw in moisture from the Gulf of Mexico creating thunderstorms across the desert southwest known as the North American monsoon.
Autumn is generally pleasant, with one to two Pacific storm systems creating regional rain events, october is one of the driest and sunniest months in the Mojave, and temperatures usually remain between 70 °F and 90 °F on the valley floors. After temperature, wind is the most significant weather phenomenon in the Mojave, during the June Gloom, cooler air can be pushed out into the desert from Southern California. In Santa Ana wind events, hot air from the desert blows out into the Los Angeles basin, wind farms in these areas generate power from these winds. The other major factor in the region is elevation
Campus of the University of California, Irvine
The campus of the University of California, Irvine is known for its concentric layout with academic and service buildings arrayed around a central park, and for its Brutalist architecture. The campus was designed favoring large open spaces and decentralized, suburban facilities over the dense and it is primarily composed of 1960s Modernist/Futurist and Postmodern buildings set in a circle around a large central park. Satellite parking lots lie in another circle outside the circle of buildings. This layout is attributable to Chancellor Aldrich and fellow university planners, UCIs master plan called for the central park to serve as the nucleus of the campus, with academic units moving outward based on educational attainment. Aldrich Park is composed of a network of paved and dirt pathways that cross the campus, much of Aldrich Park serves as a home for large numbers of thickly wooded trees indigenous to the local Mediterranean climate, and as a whole it is landscaped meticulously. Its geographical center hosts a garden and plaque commemorating UCIs founding, for students, Aldrich Park is a popular meeting place, study area, and convenient field for sports or other activities.
Also, many outdoor concerts and events are held here. In turn, Aldrich Park is completely encircled by a walkway known as Ring Road. Ring Road, which measures up to a mile, was created both for its aesthetic beauty and to facilitiate construction on the campus. This tree-lined central artery allows students to reach their classes across campus quickly, given the hilly nature of the campus, Ring Road is built on an incline leading from the School of Humanities to the School of Physical Sciences. Each School at UCI is located on its own segment of Ring Road, starting from the main Langson Library and Administration building and going clockwise, Ring Road passes through Social Sciences, Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, and Humanities. These Schools have their own central plaza on Ring Road and these central plazas bisect the Schools and lead to smaller plazas, which in turn lead to paths in Aldrich Park. These smaller plazas usually serve as quieter study areas, with one, hosting Infinity Fountain, away from the central campus, UCI has a more suburban layout occupied by sprawling residential and educational complexes, some of which are on steep hills.
These are linked to the campus with four pedestrian bridges, which access University Center, the Palo Verde housing complex, the College of Medicine. Further expedient travel beyond the bridges becomes impractical without the use of a bicycle and despite being heavily built over the past 40 years, a large portion of the outer campus remains undeveloped, with hilly grasslands and brush prevailing. This gives UCI the opportunity to develop for years to come, the western side of the campus borders the San Joaquin Freshwater Marsh Reserve, through which Campus Drive connects UCI to the 405 freeway. Additionally, UCIs southern boundary is adjacent to the San Joaquin Transportation Corridor and it is located next to the UCI Arboretum, both the North Campus and the arboretum are located about 1 mile from the main campus. Despite the suburban environment, a variety of wildlife inhabits the Universitys central park, open fields, and wetlands
San Bernardino Mountains
The San Bernardino Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in Southern California in the United States. Situated north and northeast of San Bernardino and spanning two California counties, the range out at 11,489 feet at San Gorgonio Mountain – the tallest peak in all of Southern California. The San Bernardinos form a significant region of wilderness and are popular for hiking and skiing, the mountains were formed about eleven million years ago by tectonic activity along the San Andreas Fault, and are still actively rising. Many local rivers originate in the range, which receives more precipitation than the surrounding desert. The ranges unique and varying environment allows it to some of the greatest biodiversity in the state. For over 10,000 years, the San Bernardinos and their surrounds have been inhabited by indigenous peoples, Spanish explorers first encountered the San Bernardinos in the late 18th century, naming the eponymous San Bernardino Valley at its base. European settlement of the region progressed slowly until 1860, when the became the focus of the largest gold rush ever to occur in Southern California.
Recreational development of the began in the early 20th century. Since then, the mountains have been engineered for transportation. Four major state highways and the California Aqueduct traverse the mountains today, the Morongo Valley in the southeast divides the range from the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Encompassing roughly 2,100 square miles, the mountains lie mostly in San Bernardino County, the range divides three major physiographic regions, the highly urbanized Inland Empire to the southwest, the Coachella Valley in the southeast, and the Mojave Desert to the north. Most of the lies within the boundaries of the San Bernardino National Forest. From its northwestern end, the crest of the mountains rises steadily until they are interrupted by the gorge of Bear Creek, many cities lie at the base of the San Bernardino Mountains. These include San Bernardino and Yucaipa in the south, Yucca Valley to the east, in addition, there are several mid-sized to large towns in the mountains themselves, including Big Bear Lake, Big Bear City, Lake Arrowhead and Running Springs.
Cities within the San Bernardino Mountains total a population of about 44,000, several regional streams and rivers have their headwaters in the mountains. The principal drainage is provided by the Santa Ana River, which runs westwards into the Pacific Ocean in Orange County, the San Bernardino Mountains are a humid island in the mostly semi-arid southern California coastal plain. Parts of the San Bernardino Mountains have annual totals in excess of 40 inches. Most of the falls between November and March, summers are mostly dry except for infrequent thunderstorms during late summer
University of California Natural Reserve System
The University of California Natural Reserve System is a network of protected areas throughout California. The UCNRS is part of the University of California Office of the President, Office of Research, the UCNRS consists of 39 wildland sites that include over 756,000 acres, making it the largest university-administered reserve system in the world. Most major California ecosystems are represented, from coastal tide pools to Sierra Nevada forests, from deserts to chaparral, the reserves serve as a gateway to more than a million acres of public lands. Founded in 1965 to provide undisturbed environments for research and public service, harrison, S. Waddell, S. M. and Boucher, V. L.2004. UC Davis Natural Reserve System-Four-Year Report, studying Nature in Nature, The History of the University of California Natural Reserve System. Reprinted from Chronicle of the University of California, No.3, University of California Office of the President. Official UC Natural Reserve System—UCNRS website UC Natural Reserve System Information Management The UCNRS is part of the UC Office of Research and Graduate Studies UC Natural Reserves Photos
Masticophis flagellum is a species of nonvenomous colubrid snake, commonly referred to as the coachwhip or the whip snake, which is endemic to the United States and Mexico. Seven subspecies are recognized, including the nominotypical subspecies, coachwhips range throughout the southern United States from coast to coast. They are found in the half of Mexico. Coachwhips are thin-bodied snakes with small heads and large eyes with round pupils and they vary greatly in color, but most reflect a proper camouflage for their natural habitat. M. f. testaceus is typically a shade of brown with darker brown flecking, but in the western area of Texas, where the soil color is a shade of pink. M. f. piceus was given its name because specimens frequently. Coachwhip scales are patterned so at first glance, the snake appears braided, subspecies can be difficult to distinguish in areas where their ranges overlap. Adult sizes of 127–183 cm are common, the record sized specimen, of the Eastern coachwhip race, was 259 cm.
Young specimens, mostly just over 100 cm in length, were found to have weighed 180 to 675 g, coachwhips are commonly found in open areas with sandy soil, open pine forests, old fields, and prairies. They thrive in sandhill scrub and coastal dunes, coachwhips are diurnal, and actively hunt and eat lizards, small birds, and rodents. Coachwhips subdue prey by grasping and holding them with their jaws and they tend to be sensitive to potential threats, and often bolt at the first sign of one, they are extremely fast-moving snakes. They are curious snakes with good eyesight, and are sometimes seen raising their heads above the level of the grass or rocks to see what is around them, can slither up to 15 mph. M. Coachwhips are fast snakes, often moving faster than a human, the legend of the hoop snake may refer to the coachwhip snakes. In actuality, coachwhips are neither constrictors nor strong enough to overpower a person, they do not whip with their tails, even though their tails are long and look very much like a whips.
Their bites can be painful, but generally are harmless unless they become infected, in parts of Mexico, where ranching is a way of life, these snakes are believed to wrap around the legs of cows and feed on their milk as if suckling leaving the nipple dry. They will hook on any other mammal that produces milk, ranchers tell stories of chirrioneras, which hypnotize women latch onto their breasts to feed. If the woman has a hungry baby the snake would stick their tail in the babies mouth to keep the baby quiet while feeding, leave. This leaves the baby malnourished and getting weaker while the mother cannot feed her baby because her breasts have been sucked dry, the story goes that the only way to know if the snake has been there is if the baby has sores around the mouth
Chilopsis is a monotypic genus of flowering plants containing the single species Chilopsis linearis. It is a shrub or tree native to the southwestern United States, the common name is desert willow or desert-willow because of its willow-like leaves, but it is a member of the catalpa family, Bignoniaceae. It is commonly seen in washes and along riverbanks at elevations below 1800m in its range, ranging from 1.5 to as much as 8 meters in height, it can take the form of a shrub or small tree. The linear, deciduous leaves are 10 to 26 cm long, the generic name is derived from the Greek words χεῖλος, meaning lip, and ὄψις, meaning resembling, referring to the flowers. They occur in a panicle or raceme, blooming in May through September. About two to four flowers at a time are open in each inflorescence, the calyx is about 8–14 mm, slightly inflated, and varying shades of purple, while the corolla is 2–5 cm, and with colors ranging from lavender to light pink. The throat and lower lip has a pattern of ridges and purple lines.
It is pollinated primarily by bees in the family Apidae, such as carpenter bees, Anthophora. The fruit is a pod up to 35 cm long, containing numerous winged seeds. There are two subspecies, Chilopsis linearis subsp, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, Mexico. It is cultivated for its large, showy flowers, and tolerance of hot, although the natural growth is a very irregular shape, it can be readily pruned into a conventional tree shape. A number of cultivars have been selected, such as Rio Salado, have dark purple or magenta flowers. Chilopsis may survive temperatures as low as 10 degrees F. Chilopsis is closely related to the genus Catalpa, the nothogeneric hybrid between Chilopsis linearis and Catalpa bignonioides has been named ×Chitalpa tashkentensis. It originated in a garden at Tashkent in Uzbekistan. Parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine and it has been used to treat fungal infections such as candidiasis and athletes foot, as well as wounds and cough. The wood was used to make bows and baskets
The specific epithet greggii refers to Josiah Gregg, author and amateur naturalist of the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Senegalia greggii is most common in arroyos where its roots have access to deep water and its seeds require physical scarification in order to germinate. Catclaw is fully drought deciduous and will usually lack leaves for most of the year, S. greggii has extrafloral nectaries, a trait shared with other senegalias. A tentative connection has made between these glands and insects that would suggest a mutualistic relationship. Ants are known to use the glands as a source of food and water, like other arroyo trees in family Fabaceae, S. greggii is frequently afflicted with Desert Mistletoe, Phoradendron californicum. Unlike other legumes, S. greggii is not known to form root nodule associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria and it is a large shrub or small tree growing to 10–15 m tall with a trunk up to 20–30 cm diameter. The blooms are produced in cylindrical spikes of numerous flowers, each individual flower with five cream colored 3 mm petals.
The fruit is a flat, twisted legume 6–15 cm long, containing generally 3 to 5 hard, the seed pod is constricted between seeds, and seed dispersal occurs both through dehiscence and breaks at these constrictions. Senegalia greggii, even though it is used as forage for livestock, mature seeds are to be avoided, as the native people did. S. greggii young, unripe beans were gathered and eaten by desert tribes of North America, including the Chemehuevi of the Southern Paiute, the Pima, and the Cahuilla. The Cahuilla ground the beans for mush and cakes. The Seri ground the beans to meal mixed it with water, the Diegueno used S. greggii as food for domesticated animals. The Cahuilla and Pima used the fibers for construction material. The Havasupai split the twigs and used them for basketry, the Oodham used the broken twigs for baskets, and were curved to make intricate weaves in the baskets. The Pima used the bushes to pile them to make a brush fence. The branches were used to make cradle frames as well, the Tohono Oodham fitted the branches around deer hunters heads to make a disguise, and the buds and blossoms were dried to make perfume sachets by the women.
The sticks were used to dislodge saguaro fruits from the cactus body. The Akimel Oodham made bows out of the wood, beta-methyl-phenethylamine Catechin Fisetin Hordenine Phenethylamine Quercetin Tyramine Barlow, C
UC Irvine Anteaters baseball
The UC Irvine Anteaters baseball team is the varsity intercollegiate baseball program of the University of California, Irvine. The teams home venue is Cicerone Field located on campus in Irvine, the Anteaters won the College Division national championship in 1973 and the Division II national championship in 1974. Since moving to Division I play they have appeared in the NCAA Tournament eight times, Mike Gillespie has been manager of the team since the start of the 2008 season. The program was founded prior to the 1970 season and initially played as an independent school in the NCAA College Division, under head coach Gary Adams, the team qualified for the College Division Tournament in 1970,1971, and 1972. In 1973, the team ended the season with a twelve-game winning streak. After advancing to the College Division Championship, it defeated Missouri-St, Eastern Illinois, and Ithaca twice to win a national championship. In August 1973, the NCAA reorganized its divisions, prior to then, the NCAA had competed in two divisions, a large-school University Division and a small-school College Division.
Following the reorganization, the University Division became Division I, while the College Division split into Division II, UC Irvine, formerly an independent in the College Division, became a Division II Independent. In the first season of Division II, the again won its regional tournament to advance to the Division II Championship. There, the program defeated New Orleans to win its second national championship. Following the 1974 season, Gary Adams left UC Irvine to become the coach at UCLA. UC Irvine continued to play in Division II until following the 1977 season, prior to the 1978 season, the program joined the newly formed Division I Southern California Baseball Association. Former Gonzaga head coach Steve Hertz became the head coach prior to the 1979 season. In 1980, UC Irvine finished second behind Cal State Fullerton, when Steve Hertz returned to Gonzaga following the 1980 season, Mike Gerakos became the programs head coach. The team continued to play in the SCBA, though it finished no higher than third until the conference disbanded following the 1984 season, UC Irvine became members of the Pacific Coast Athletic Association, which was renamed the Big West Conference prior to the 1987 season.
UC Irvine had a conference record only twice in eight PCAA/Big West seasons through the end of the 1992 season. Following the 1992 season, state budget caused the university to cut several sports programs. At the time it was discontinued, the program had a 643-565-17 record, in 2000, the university announced plans to revive the varsity baseball program and build a multimillion dollar on-campus venue for the program
Prosopis glandulosa, commonly known as honey mesquite, is a species of small to medium-sized, thorny shrub or tree in the legume family. The plant is native to the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico. Its range extends into southern Kansas and eastern Texas, where annual rainfall is in excess of 40 inches. It can be part of the Mesquite Bosque plant association community in the Sonoran Desert ecoregion of California and Arizona, Prosopis glandulosa has rounded big and floppy, drooping branches with feathery foliage and straight, paired spines on twigs. This tree normally reaches 20–30 ft, but can grow as tall as 50 ft and it is considered to have a medium growth rate. It flowers from March to November, with pale, elongated spikes and bears straight, the seeds are eaten by a variety of animals, such as scaled quail. Other animals, including deer, collared peccaries and jackrabbits, Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana M. C. Johnst. Prosopis glandulosa has been introduced into at least a half-dozen countries.
The IUCN considers it as one of the worlds 100 worst invasive species outside its habitat range. The seeds are disseminated by livestock that graze on the pods. Due to latent buds underground, only coppicing them makes permanent removal difficult, a single-trunked tree that is cut down will soon be replaced by a multi-trunked version. As the common name indicates, honey mesquite is a plant that supports native pollinator species of bees and other insects. It is a larval host for the skipper and Reakirts blue butterflies. Mesquite flour contains abundant protein and carbohydrates, and can be used in recipes as a substitute for wheat flour, the indigenous peoples of California and southwestern North America used parts of Prosopis glandulosa as a medicinal plant, food source and tools material, and fuel. The Cahuilla ate the blossoms and pods, which were ground into meal for cake, the thorns of the plant were used as tattoo needles, and the ashes for tattoos, by the Cahuilla and Serrano Indians of Southern California.
The hard wood is prized for making tools and arrow points, the deep taproots, often larger than the trunks, are dug up for firewood. This species of mesquite, known as haas by the Seri people of northwestern Mexico, was important for food and nonfood uses. The Seris had specific names for various stages of the growth of the mesquite pod, historically, it was a very important wild food plant because it fruits even during drought years