Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Colonnades Shopping Centre
Colonnades Shopping Centre is a shopping centre in Adelaide, South Australia. The shopping centre is located in the suburb of Noarlunga Centre. Colonnades is located on a large allotment of land with access from Goldsmith Drive, Beach Road and Burgess Road. Colonnades Shopping Centre is serviced by both Noarlunga Centre Interchange and Colonnades Interchange, is the hub for public transport in the outer Southern Suburbs of Adelaide; the shopping centre is serviced by a Taxi Rank just outside of the centre itself. Colonnades Shopping Centre was built in 1979 and had a wing added to the northern end of the centre in the mid-late 2000’s which included a Woolworths supermarket. Colonnades Shopping Centre was acquired by Centro in 2003, underwent a A$125 million expansion, which has seen the building of a larger Woolworths, the addition of a Big W among many other shops; the new wing added a number of speciality shops to the expanded area. The centre contains three supermarkets, two department stores and 200 other specialty stores.
The mall contains a food court
Toorak Gardens, South Australia
Toorak Gardens is a leafy residential inner eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia, located 2 km east of the Adelaide city centre. It is characterised by tree-lined streets and detached single story villas and bungalows built in the 1920s and 1930s on allotments of around 0.25 acres. The Toorak Gardens area was part of the larger and now adjacent suburb of Rose Park. Between 1912 and 1917 it was named "Toorak" and subsequently "Toorak Gardens". Farmland owned by the Fergusson and Prescott families in the 19th century, it was subdivided and gained popularity in 1920s. First Creek, part of the Torrens catchment, runs through the north-east corner of the suburb. Toorak Gardens is in the local government area of the City of Burnside, is bounded to the north by Kensington Road, to the east by Portrush Road, to the south by Greenhill Road and to the west by Prescott Terrace and Warwick Avenue, it contains the Burnside War Memorial Hospital. Possibilities for derivation of the name Toorak are Torrak, an aboriginal word meaning tea-tree springs, toora an Aboriginal word for coot or malleefowl and other aboriginal words of similar pronunciation meaning reedy swamp and black crow.
Today's suburb of Toorak Gardens is composed of parts of the Adelaide sections of 275 and 274. Section 274 was bounded by Portrush Road, Greenhill Road and Fullarton Road. Section 275 was bounded by Portrush Road, Swaine Avenue and Prescott Terrace; the suburb of Toorak was first developed in 1912 on land, the eastern half of the Prescott Farm. Before its development into a village, it had been farmland up until that point with little settlement apart from the Prescott's home and worksheds as well as two large and extravagant houses. Julia Hallett owned a spectacular mansion on Portrush Road while Benjamin Burford had a grand mansion on Kensington Road that he named Attunga; when the suburb was first planned, laid-out and named there were many objections because of the association with the elite Melbourne suburb of Toorak. The real-estate agents assigned to the suburb received many complaints due to this association, including one signed'No Snobbery'. Extensive building restrictions were placed on development in the early suburb.
After the first houses had been built, the Adelaide Mail reported on 18 May 1912: "...only one house is allowed on each block, to cost not less than £600. Wood was tabooed, the materials being set down as either brick, stone or reinforced concrete, with slate, iron or tile roofs. Nearly all the houses are being roofed with Marseilles tiles, giving a pleasant appearance to the suburb, springing up there... where superior homes can be built of bought without fear of getting undesirable surroundings." Toorak received considerable attention from real-estate businesses, the press and the community at large. The Adelaide papers paid particular notice to the suburb's developments, announcing council work on the suburb's paths and gardens. In 1912 when trees were planted on Grant and Alexandra avenues, in 1914 when flower strips were developed on the kerbs, in 1916 when a reserve was created on Giles Street; the Toorak Bowling club was developed in this era, it stands to this day. Section 274 was bought by the Fergussons.
It was named by the family. They had come from the village of Monreith in Wigtown County and gave that name to their new farm; the Monreith farm was developed by the family, but with the death of Alexander Fergusson in 1869, the property passed into the hands of his widow, Agnes. She sold off parts of the farm in 1883 for £15,000, the remainder in 1917 for £20,000. Before the farm was sold, the Fergussons had established a flour mill, horse stabling and were engaging in business ventures in various parts of the state, it was in 1917. Developers started subdividing the new suburb on much the same lines as Toorak had been, with similar building restrictions and much media attention; the original Fergusson family home was demolished in 1923 and the family settled in separate houses on Cudmore Avenue. Miss Ivy Laver, a successful local businesswoman, was responsible for building the main park of Toorak Gardens, Fergusson Square, it remains as a monument to those. Benjamin Burford's Attunga property contained the largest and most extravagant mansion built in the suburb, with his passing it was bought in 1905 by an investor from Broken Hill, Otto Georg Ludwig von Rieben.
Although living at the property for 37 years, maintaining it, paying particular attention to the gardens, von Rieben settled on a property at Mount Lofty in the Adelaide Hills. Attunga however forty years after he gained it, was offered to the Burnside Council free of charge in 1944 for use as a hospital, on the condition that the house and grounds be maintained. A Council committee had suggested building a community hospital in August 1943, as part of its Post-War Reconstruction and Development Plan. In April 1949 the first conversion of von Rieben's home was completed, as a convalescent home caring for 21 patients, it closed in September 1956. The adjacent newly completed Burnside War Memorial Hospital opened in October, received its first patien
Waterfall Gully, South Australia
Waterfall Gully is an eastern suburb of the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is located in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges around 5 km east-south-east of the Adelaide city centre. For the most part, the suburb encompasses one long gully with First Creek at its centre and Waterfall Gully Road running adjacent to the creek. At the southern end of the gully is First Falls, the waterfall for which the suburb was named. Part of the City of Burnside, Waterfall Gully is bounded to the north by the suburb of Burnside, from the north-east to south-east by Cleland Conservation Park, to the south by Crafers West, to the west by Leawood Gardens and Mount Osmond. Waterfall Gully was first explored by European settlers in the early-to-mid-19th century, became a popular location for tourists and picnickers; the government chose to retain control over portions of Waterfall Gully until 1884, when they agreed to place the land under the auspices of the City of Burnside. 28 years the government took back the management of the southern part of Waterfall Gully, designating it as South Australia's first National Pleasure Resort.
Today this area remains under State Government control, in 1972 the Waterfall Gully Reserve, as it was known, became part of the larger Cleland Conservation Park. Over the years Waterfall Gully has been extensively logged, early agricultural interests saw the cultivation of a variety of introduced species as crops, along with the development of local market gardens and nurseries. Attempts to mine the area were unsuccessful, but the region housed one of the state's earliest water-powered mills, a weir erected in the early 1880s provided for part of the City of Burnside's water supply. Today the suburb consists of private residences and parks; the Mount Lofty Ranges, which encompass Waterfall Gully, was first sighted by Matthew Flinders in 1802. The gully itself was discovered soon after the establishment of Adelaide, Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor General of South Australia, was said to have "decided on the site for Adelaide when viewing the plains from the hills near Waterfall Gully".
The gully had seen human visitors long before the arrival of the Europeans, as the native population had lived in the area for up to 40,000 years prior to Flinders' appearance off the South Australian coast. In Australian Aboriginal mythology, Waterfall Gully and the surrounding Mount Lofty Ranges are part of the story of the ancestor-creator Nganno. Travelling across the land of the native Kaurna people, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges; the ears of Nganno formed the peaks of Mount Lofty and Mount Bonython, the region was referred to as Yur-e-billa, or "the place of the ears". The name of the Greater Mount Lofty Parklands, was derived from this term, while the nearby town of Uraidla employs a more corrupted form. Although Hardy states that the Kaurna people did not live in the ranges themselves, they did live on the lower slopes. An early settler of the neighbouring suburb of Beaumont, James Milne Young, described the local Kaurnas: "At every creek and gully you would see their wurlies and their fires at night... as many as 500 to 600 would be camped in various places... some behind the Botanic Gardens on the banks of the river.
Their main presence, demarcated by the use of fire against purchasers of land, was on the River Torrens and the creeks that flowed into it, including Waterfall Gully's First Creek. The land around Waterfall Gully provided the original inhabitants with a number of resources; the bark from the local stringybark trees was used in the construction of winter huts, stones and native timbers were used to form tools. Food was present, cossid moth larvae along with other species of plants and animals were collected. There were only a few resources that could only be found on the slopes, "both hunting and food gathering would in general have been easier on the rich plains". One of the earliest accounts of Waterfall Gully comes from a "Mr Kent" who, along with Captain Collet Barker and Barker's servant, climbed Mount Lofty in 1831. In making their ascent the party skirted a ravine—described by Mr Kent as possessing "smooth and grassy sides"—which is believed by Anne Hardy to have been Waterfall Gully. Subsequent to Barker's ascent, the first settlers who were recorded as having climbed Mount Lofty were Bingham Hutchinson and his servant, William Burt.
The pair made three attempts to scale the mount before succeeding, for their first attempt they attempted to traverse Waterfall Gully. The attempt was unsuccessful, but in July 1837, Hutchinson wrote about the gully through which they had travelled. Waterfall Gully he wrote, had proven difficult, as the plants were so thickly grown as to provide a significant barrier to their progress. Near the point of surrender, Hutchinson described how they were "agreeably surprised by seeing a wall of rock about fifty or sixty feet high, which stretched across the ravine, from the top of it leapt the brook which had so long been companion"; the brook was First Creek, the waterfall they sighted is today known as First Falls. Hutchinson was not the first to see First Falls; the first known recorded sighting of the waterfall by a colonial was that of John William Adams, an emigrant of HMS Buffalo in early January 1837, who named it "Adams' Waterfall". He was traveling with his wife, Susanna and a party consisting of Nicholson's and Breaker's who had the use of a dray to go into the hills.
Adams states "
City Cross Arcade
City Cross Arcade is a two-level shopping complex located on 32 Grenfell Street Adelaide South Australia with entrances to Rundle Mall, Grenfell Street, James Place and Gawler Place. The centre is owned by the Makris Group, who purchased the site in 2001 after it was placed up for sale by the previous owners, Hawaiian Investments, in 2000; the main two anchors are Amart Sports. The complex features smaller retailers and a large food court including KFC, Hungry Jack's, Oporto, Sumo Salad, Charlesworth Nuts, Bean Bar and many other food outlets. Amongst the smaller stores are Swiss Glory chocolates and, at one time, Quality 5 Crafts. Australia Post Adelaide Rundle Mall Post Shop is located on the first floor; the site was redeveloped at a cost of $6m in 1984 doubling the number of shops in the center by expanding on to the former sites of two local buildings – the Mutual Life Chambers and the Widow's Fund building. Among the suggestions for the site prior to the completion of the 1984 redevelopment was the construction of a Grenfell Street underpass, although these plans never eventuated.
Another, redevelopment occurred in 1996 when the centre was under the management of Hawaiian Investments. In April, 2003 a $100m redevelopment of the site was announced; the first stage of the redevelopment, completed at a cost of $25m, was opened by Premier Mike Rann on 22 November 2005, doubled the retail area of the centre. Shortly before the completion of the first stage, Amart All Sports announced that they would be moving into the new premises, joining Harvey Norman who had announced their tenancy in the expanded site; the second stage was to include a 450 car parking station above the site, with a planned third stage to incorporate a 10-storey office tower. 34°55′27″S 138°36′05″E
Port Canal Shopping Centre
Port Adelaide Plaza known as Port Canal Shopping Centre is located at 200 Commercial Road in Port Adelaide, South Australia. The centre originated as a $9 million Super Kmart development in November 1986. Port Adelaide's Super Kmart was South Australia's first hypermarket. Opposite the hypermarket was an open-air mall with specialty retailers. In 1989, the Super Kmart concept was scrapped, with the building divided in half to become a separate Coles and Kmart. In 1998 the Port Canal Shopping Centre was purchased by Precision Group for $36 million. In July 2014 the Port Adelaide Council approved a $10 million upgrade of the Port Canal Shopping Centre. In 2017, the South Australian government approved a $45 million redevelopment of the Port Canal Shopping Centre. Among other changes, centre will be rebranded as "Port Adelaide Plaza," and the existing Port Canal Shopping Centre demolished in place of a new mall. Stage 1 is expected to be complete by mid-2019. | https://www.portadelaideplaza.com.au
Mount Osmond, South Australia
Mount Osmond is a small suburb of 2,497 people in the South Australian capital city of Adelaide. It is part of the City of Burnside local government area and located in the foothills of the Adelaide Hills, five kilometres south east of the city centre; the suburb is high on the hill of the same name, the last hill on the right when approaching Adelaide down the South Eastern Freeway before the road levels out onto the Adelaide Plains. It is bounded to the north by the suburb of Beaumont, to the north-east by Burnside, to the east by Waterfall Gully, to the south by Leawood Gardens/Eagle On The Hill, to the south-west by Urrbrae, to the west by Glen Osmond and to the north-west by St Georges; the suburb is at a high elevation in the Mount Lofty Ranges, provides views over Adelaide as well as containing a renowned golf course and country club. Mining operations in the 19th century gave the area notoriety, but it has since developed into a small and secluded suburb. Mount Osmond is within the traditional lands of the Kaurna people, forms part of the Mount Lofty Ranges and is therefore part of the Dreamtime story of the ancestor-creator Nganno.
According to the legend, Nganno was wounded in a battle and laid down to die, forming the Mount Lofty Ranges. When Adelaide was first planned and mapped out by Col. William Light, Mount Osmond received the three allotments 1070, 1277 and 1278. While much of Adelaide was quickly bought Mount Osmond did not enjoy any early buyers; the first reported activity in the area was after the mining rush of Glen Osmond due to the Wheal Watkins and Wheal Gawler mines. Lot 1277 yielded a mine in Slaughterhouse Gully but it was worked only briefly. Subsequent finds of bluestone proved fruitful and the mineral was extracted until 1900, when mining ended and the last of the mines were either filled in or cordoned off. Developers bought the lots that composed Mount Osmond but once again interest in the suburb was minor. Attempts to bring in settlers culminated in the construction of Mount Osmond Road in 1882, it wound around the hills from. Developers broke down the three large lots into two hundred 1-acre ones in the hope of sales.
A few lots were sold to quarrymen and gardeners around Mount Barker Road, but the vast remainder was leased to stockowners as pasture for their livestock. Much of Mount Osmond, along with a large portion of the surrounding area, was bought in 1907 by Ernest C. Sanders, his family made great use of the land, with his sons building houses on the vast property while raising sheep and growing hay. Considerable time was spent by the Sanders family in mapping the area; the Sanders family decided to sell much of their portion of Mount Osmond, around 1922–23 it was put on the market. Like earlier attempts at sales on Mount Osmond, little interest was received and none was sold until 1925; the land was developed into a golf course and Country Club with the assistance of the Burnside Council and its engineers. Credit to the novel idea went to H. E. S. Melbourne, Burnside's chief engineer at the time – who found support among numerous Burnside Councillors; the golf course and country club were developed on the highest part of the mount, on 85 acres of former Sanders estate.
The remaining land was sold by the country club to buyers with strict rules on the development and maintenance of the properties – specific rules applying to aesthetic features gardens, are of note. With a golf course and country club in the vicinity, as well as electricity and a water supply from Waterfall Gully's first creek the eighteen marketed lots once again sold poorly. One of the last large land purchases was that of Ross Thiem in the 1940s. A club member, C. W. Lloyd, sold 200 acres around the golf course, again used as pasture by Thiem, who ran sheep on the property – and was the last to do so; the Highways Department acquired land in 1951, buying 200 acres of land above Beaumont for future transport planning. Thiem's land was sold in the 1950s, to the Rossdale Property Co, their subsequent attempts at selling the land were just as fruitless as those before, once again the property changed hands to the Mount Osmond Heights Pty Ltd. The land was newly subdivided, it was in the late 1960s that much of Mount Osmond was sold to residential buyers.
Fifty-two out of the 116 new sites had been sold by 12 October 1968 at an average of $3,500, according to the Adelaide daily The Advertiser. Since the land sales of that era, Mount Osmond has developed because of the scarcity of land and the housing and development restrictions of the Hills Face Zone. Now the suburb is home to large, tree-filled houses and properties. With the upgrade of Mount Barker Road to become part of the South Eastern Freeway from 1997, Mount Osmond received its own freeway interchange as part of the development. Mount Osmond is composed of the Mount itself and a ridge stretching out to the south-east between the valley of the South Eastern Freeway and that of Waterfall Gully. Much of the suburb is more than 300 metres above sea level, with the Mount Osmond peak itself at 384 metres. Between the north-east and north-west are slopes leading down to the suburbs of Beaumont, Glen Osmond and Waterfall Gully, most of, owned as public land by various government departments – either as parks, tracks or vacant land for possible future use.
A somewhat "ring" of reserves exist on the slopes anti-clockwise from the Old Bullock Track to Mount Osmond Road near the freeway interchange. The South Australian Department of Environment and Natur