Wakefield Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of All Saints in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom, is one of three co-equal Anglican cathedrals for the Diocese of Leeds and a seat of the Bishop of Leeds. The parish church, it has Anglo Saxon origins and after enlargement and rebuilding has the tallest spire in Yorkshire, its 247-foot spire is the tallest structure in the City of Wakefield. The cathedral was designated a Grade I listed building on 14 July 1953; the cathedral, situated in the centre of Wakefield on a hill on Kirkgate, is built on the site of a Saxon church, evidence of, uncovered in 1900 when extensions to the east end were made. A church in Wakefield is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086. In 1090 William II gave the church and land in Wakefield to Lewes Priory in Sussex and shortly after that a Norman church was built; the Norman church was rebuilt in 1329, apart from the tower and spire and enlarged in 1469. The church was reconstructed and altered at various times and its spire, damaged in a violent gale, was renewed in 1823.
Up to the 16th century the church was known by the Anglo Saxon All Hallows and after the Reformation changed to All Saints. All Saints' Church was rebuilt in the Perpendicular Gothic style in the early 15th century and, after years of neglect in the 18th century, owes its current late mediaeval appearance to a Victorian restoration by George Gilbert Scott and his son John Oldrid Scott between 1858 and 1874. In 1888, the Diocese of Wakefield was created and All Saints' Church became the cathedral of the diocese, it still serves as a parish church, meaning that until 2000 the head of the chapter of canons was called the provost, rather than the dean. The Treacy Hall built in memory of Bishop Eric Treacy was completed in 1982. In January 2000 a parish boundary change brought the chantry chapel, on Wakefield Bridge, into the care of the cathedral. In 2005 Queen Elizabeth II visited the cathedral to distribute Maundy money. In 2012 the cathedral, with £1.58 million of Heritage Lottery funding, had raised £2.5 million to restore and reorder the nave, to be cleared of its oak pews to create an open space for worship, public events and celebrations.
A decision to charge VAT on restoration work on historic buildings in the 2012 budget caused concern that the project would be halted or delayed. Its archives are held at West Yorkshire Archive Service in Wakefield; the cathedral walls are clad in ashlar sandstone. On the south wall is a sundial over the door arch; the wall of the north aisle is the oldest part of the church dating from about 1150. The nave piers date from the 12th and 13th centuries and the arcade and chancel arches date from the 14th century; the late 15th-century chancel now serves as the choir. The nave's original stone vaulted; the 15th-century wooden ceilings over the nave and aisles have carved bosses. The current chancel, a transept and St Mark's Chapel were built at the east end in 1904 to designs by John Loughborough Pearson and completed by his son, Frank L Pearson; the 20th-century chancel has a stone vaulted roof. The cathedral's large four-stage west tower has angle buttresses and a tall crocketed spire behind an embattled parapet with crocketed corner pinnacles and at 247 feet tall, is the highest spire in Yorkshire.
The cathedral's windows have some panel tracery. None of the medieval stained glass survives and most of the cathedral's glass was created by Charles Eamer Kempe who created many windows over 50 years, his windows are reminiscent in colour of those of the late Middle Ages, darker on the north wall with Old Testament themes and lighter on the south side where he placed New Testament figures. The cathedral has a 17th-century rood screen and above it a rood by Ninian Comper completed in 1950; the font dates from the mid 17th-century and the pulpit from 1708. Eleven of the 15th-century choir stalls, the gift of Thomas Savile, have misericords and other carvings including a green man and mythical beasts; the reredos is the work of John Oldrid Scott and incorporates earlier works while the high altar is by Frank Pearson. Some furniture in St Mark's Chapel is by Robert Thompson, the'Mouseman'; the cathedral has a fine collection of church plate. A monument to Lyon Pilkington dates from about 1700 and other memorial tablets are from the 18th and early 19th centuries.
The organ built by Abbott and Smith in 1902, has a case made in 1743. It was rebuilt by John Compton in London in 1951-52 and rebuilt and restored by Phillip Wood and Sons of Huddersfield in 1985; the cathedral tower has a ring of 14 bells including a 35-1-0 cwt, tenor, a flat 6th, extra treble, to give a light 10 in. No more than 12 bells are rung at any one time. Practices range from rounds and call changes on six up to "Surprise Maximus"; the bells are rung on Sundays, to mark special occasions such as weddings and national events such as the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. As of 8 February 2019: Dean — Simon Cowling Sub Dean & Canon Pastor — Tony Macpherson Canon Precentor — Leah Vasey-Saunders Diocesan Director of Training and Canon Librarian — John Lawson Diocesan Director of Ordinands & Vocations, Diocesan Canon — Derek Walmsley Wakefield Cathedral Choir, directed by Thomas Moore, consists of boys and men who perform at the cathedral and have appeared on BBC One's Songs of Praise and BBC Radio 3's Choral Evensong.
In 1992 Wakefield Cathedral became only the second cathedral in Brit
The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Commons can be understood as natural resources that groups of people manage for individual and collective benefit. Characteristically, this involves a variety of informal norms and values employed for a governance mechanism. Commons can be defined as a social practice of governing a resource not by state or market but by a community of users that self-governs the resource through institutions that it creates; the Digital Library of the Commons defines "commons" as "a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest". The term "commons" derives from the traditional English legal term for common land, which are known as "commons", was popularised in the modern sense as a shared resource term by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in an influential 1968 article called The Tragedy of the Commons.
As Frank van Laerhoven and Elinor Ostrom have stated. The precision of this distinction is not always maintained; the use of "commons" for natural resources has its roots in European intellectual history, where it referred to shared agricultural fields, grazing lands and forests that were, over a period of several hundred years, claimed as private property for private use. In European political texts, the common wealth was the totality of the material riches of the world, such as the air, the water, the soil and the seed, all nature's bounty regarded as the inheritance of humanity as a whole, to be shared together. In this context, one may go back further, to the Roman legal category res communis, applied to things common to all to be used and enjoyed by everyone, as opposed to res publica, applied to public property managed by the government; the examples below illustrate types of environmental commons. In medieval England the common was an integral part of the manor, was thus part of the estate in land owned by the lord of the manor, but over which certain classes of manorial tenants and others held certain rights.
By extension, the term "commons" has come to be applied to other resources which a community has rights or access to. The older texts use the word "common" to denote any such right, but more modern usage is to refer to particular rights of common, to reserve the name "common" for the land over which the rights are exercised. A person who has a right in, or over, common land jointly with another or others is called a commoner. In middle Europe, commons were kept, till the present; some studies have compared the German and English dealings with the commons between late medieval times and the agrarian reforms of the 18th and 19th centuries. The UK was quite radical in doing away with and enclosing former commons, while southwestern Germany had the most advanced commons structures, were more inclined to keep them; the Lower Rhine region took an intermediate position. However, the UK and the former dominions have till today a large amount of Crown land, used for community or conservation purposes.
Based on a research project by the Environmental and Cultural Conservation in Inner Asia from 1992 to 1995, satellite images were used to compare the amount of land degradation due to livestock grazing in the regions of Mongolia and China. In Mongolia, where shepherds were permitted to move collectively between seasonal grazing pastures, degradation remained low at 9%. Comparatively and China, which mandated state-owned pastures involving immobile settlements and in some cases privatization by household, had much higher degradation, at around 75% and 33% respectively. A collaborative effort on the part of Mongolians proved much more efficient in preserving grazing land. Widespread success of the Maine lobster industry is attributed to the willingness of Maine's lobstermen to uphold and support lobster conservation rules; these rules include harbor territories not recognized by the state, informal trap limits, laws imposed by the state of Maine. The lobstermen collaborate without much government intervention to sustain their common-pool resource.
In the late 1980s, Nepal chose to decentralize government control over forests. Community forest programs work by giving local areas a financial stake in nearby woodlands, thereby increasing the incentive to protect them from overuse. Local institutions regulate harvesting and selling of timber and land, must use any profit towards community development and preservation of the forests. In twenty years, locals have noticed a visible increase in the number of trees. Community forestry may contribute to community development in rural areas – for instance school construction and drinking water channel construction, road construction. Community forestry has proven conducive to democratic practices at grass roots level. Acequia is a method of collective responsibility and management for irrigation systems in desert areas. In New Mexico, a community-run organization known as Acequia Associations
Lord of the manor
In English and Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism. In modern England and Wales, it is recognised as a form of property, one of three elements of a manor that may exist separately or be combined, may be held in moieties: the title. A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Seigneur du Manoir, Welsh as Breyr, Gutsherr in German, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Ambachtsheer in Dutch and Signore or Vassallo in Italian. A lord of the manor might be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown; the origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086; the title cannot nowadays be subdivided. This has been prohibited since 1290 in the Statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution.
Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council QB 360, described the manor thus: In medieval times the manor was the nucleus of English rural life. It was an administrative unit of an extensive area of land; the whole of it was owned by the lord of the manor. He lived in the big house called the manor house. Attached to it were many acres of grassland and woodlands called the park; these were the "demesne lands". Dotted all round were the enclosed homes and land occupied by the “tenants of the manor”; the owner of a lordship of the manor can be described as, Lord/Lady of the Manor of, sometimes shortened to Lord or Lady of. In modern times any person may choose to use a name, not the property of another. Under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name he sees fit as long as it is not done to commit fraud or evade an obligation. A manorial lordship is not a noble title. Lordship in this sense is a synonym for ownership, although this ownership involved a historic legal jurisdiction in the form of the court baron.
The journal Justice of the Peace & Local Government Law advises that the position is unclear as to whether a lordship of a manor is a title of honour or a dignity, as this is yet to be tested by the courts. Technically, lords freemen. John Selden in his esteemed work Titles of Honour writes, "The word Baro hath been so much communicated, that not only all Lords of Manors have been from ancient time, are at this day called sometimes Barons But the Judges of the Exchequer have it from antient time fixed on them."John Martin Robinson, Maltravers Herald Extraordinary and co-author of The Oxford Guide to Heraldry, gave his opinion that "Lordship of this or that manor is no more a title than Landlord of The Dog and Duck". The style'Lord of the Manor of X' or'Lord of X' is, in this sense, more of a description than a title, somewhat similar to the term Laird in Scotland. King's College, Cambridge have given the view that the term'indicated wealth and privilege, it carried rights and responsibilities'.
Since 1965 Lords of the Manor have been entitled to compensation in the event of compulsory purchase. Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible for manors to be registered with HM Land Registry. Manorial incidents, which are the rights that a lord of the manor may exercise over other people's land, lapsed on 12 October 2013 if not registered by with the Land Registry; this is a separate issue to the registration of lordships of manors, since both registered and unregistered lordships will continue to exist after that date. It is only their practical rights that will lose what is called'overriding interest', or in other words the ability to affect land if the interests or rights are not registered against that land, as of 12 October 2013. Manorial incidents can still be recorded for either unregistered manors; this issue does not affect the existence of the title of lord of the manor. There have been cases where manors have been sold and the seller has unknowingly parted with rights to unregistered land in England and Wales.
In England in the Middle Ages, land was held of the English monarch or ruler by a powerful local supporter, who gave protection in return. The people who had sworn homage to the lord were known as vassals. Vassals were nobles who served loyalty in return for being given the use of land. After the Norman conquest of England, all land in England was owned by the monarch who granted the use of it by means of a transaction known as enfeoffment, to earls and others, in return for military service; the person who held feudal land directly from the king was known as a tenant-in-chief. Military servic
The River Trent is the third-longest river in the United Kingdom. Its source is in Staffordshire on the southern edge of Biddulph Moor, it flows through and drains most of the metropolitan central and northern Midlands south and east of its source north of Stoke-on-Trent. The river is known for dramatic flooding after storms and spring snowmelt, which in past times caused the river to change course; the river passes through Stoke-on-Trent, Burton upon Trent and Nottingham before joining the River Ouse at Trent Falls to form the Humber Estuary, which empties into the North Sea between Hull in Yorkshire and Immingham in Lincolnshire. The course of the river has been described as the boundary between the Midlands and the north of England; the name "Trent" is from a Celtic word meaning "strongly flooding". More the name may be a contraction of two Celtic words and hynt; this may indeed indicate a river, prone to flooding. However, a more explanation may be that it was considered to be a river that could be crossed principally by means of fords, i.e. the river flowed over major road routes.
This may explain the presence of the Celtic element rid in various place names along the Trent, such as Hill Ridware, as well as the Old English‐derived ford. Another translation is given as "the trespasser". According to Koch at the University of Wales, the name Trent derives from the Romano-British Trisantona, a Romano-British reflex of the combined Proto-Celtic elements *tri-sent-on-ā- ‘great thoroughfare’. A traditional but certainly wrong opinion is that of Izaak Walton, who states in The Compleat Angler that the Trent is "... so called from thirty kind of fishes that are found in it, or for that it receiveth thirty lesser rivers." The Trent rises on the Staffordshire moorlands near the village of Biddulph Moor, from a number of sources including the Trent Head Well. It is joined by other small streams to form the Head of Trent, which flows south, to the only reservoir along its course at Knypersley. Downstream of the reservoir it passes through Stoke-on-Trent and merges with the Lyme and other brooks that drain the'six towns' of the Staffordshire Potteries to become the River Trent.
On the southern fringes of Stoke, it passes through the landscaped parkland of Trentham Gardens. The river continues south through the market town of Stone, after passing the village of Salt, it reaches Great Haywood, where it is spanned by the 16th-century Essex Bridge near Shugborough Hall. At this point the River Sow joins it from Stafford; the Trent now flows south-east past the town of Rugeley until it reaches Kings Bromley where it meets the Blithe. After the confluence with the Swarbourn, it passes Alrewas and reaches Wychnor, where it is crossed by the A38 dual carriageway, which follows the route of the Roman Ryknild Street; the river turns north-east where it is joined by its largest tributary, the Tame and afterwards by the Mease, creating a larger river that now flows through a broad floodplain. The river continues north-east, passing the village of Walton-on-Trent until it reaches the large town of Burton upon Trent; the river in Burton is crossed by a number of bridges including the ornate 19th-century Ferry Bridge that links Stapenhill to the town.
To the north-east of Burton the river is joined by the River Dove at Newton Solney and enters Derbyshire, before passing between the villages of Willington and Repton where it turns directly east to reach Swarkestone Bridge. Shortly afterwards, the river becomes the Derbyshire-Leicestershire border, passing the traditional crossing point of King's Mill, Castle Donington, Weston-on-Trent and Aston-on-Trent. At Shardlow, where the Trent and Mersey Canal begins, the river meets the Derwent at Derwent Mouth. After this confluence, the river turns north-east and is joined by the Soar before reaching the outskirts of Nottingham, where it is joined by the Erewash near the Attenborough nature reserve and enters Nottinghamshire; as it enters the city, it passes the suburbs of Beeston and Wilford. On reaching West Bridgford it flows beneath Trent Bridge near the cricket ground of the same name, beside The City Ground, home of Nottingham Forest, until it reaches Holme Sluices. Downstream of Nottingham it passes Radcliffe on Trent, Stoke Bardolph and Burton Joyce before reaching Gunthorpe with its bridge and weir.
The river now flows north-east below the Toot and Trent Hills before reaching Hazelford Ferry and Farndon. To the north of Farndon, beside the Staythorpe Power Station the river splits, with one arm passing Averham and Kelham, the other arm, navigable, being joined by the Devon before passing through the market town of Newark-on-Trent and beneath the town's castle walls; the two arms recombine at Crankley Point beyond the town, where the river turns due north to pass North Muskham and Holme to reach Cromwell Weir, below which the Trent becomes tidal. The now tidal river meanders across a wide floodplain, at the edge of which are located riverside villages such as Carlton and Sutton on Trent and Girton. After passing the site of High Marnham power station, it becomes the approximate boundary between Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire and reaches the only toll bridge along its course at Dunham on Trent. Downstream of Dunham the river passes Church Laneham and reaches Torksey, where it meets the Foss Dyke navigation which connects the Trent to Lincoln and the River Witham.
Further north at Littleborough is the site of the Roman town of Segelocum, where a Roman road once
Royal Northumberland Fusiliers
The Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was an infantry regiment of the British Army. Raised in 1674 as the 5th Regiment of Foot, it was given the regional designation'Northumberland' in 1782 and granted the distinction of being a Fusilier regiment in 1836, becoming 5th Regiment of Foot; the regiment adopted the title Northumberland Fusiliers when regimental numbers were abolished under the Childers Reforms of 1881 and became the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers on 3 June 1935. In 1968, the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers, after service in many wars, including both World War I and World War II, were amalgamated with the other regiments in the Fusilier Brigade–the Royal Fusiliers, the Royal Warwickshire Fusiliers and the Lancashire Fusiliers–to form the present Royal Regiment of Fusiliers; the regiment was part of the Dutch service and known as the Irish Regiment, or Viscount Clare's Regiment, under the command of Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare. In the following year the colonelcy passed to John Fenwick and the "Irish" designation was discontinued and the regiment was referred to as a "Holland Regiment".
The regiment was transferred to the British Service on 5 June 1685, establishing its order of precedence as the 5th Regiment of the Line. Like most other regiments, it was known by the names of the colonels who successively commanded it at the time until it became the 5th Regiment of Foot in 1751; the regiment took part in the Irish campaign of 1690–1691, was present at the Battle of the Boyne, the Second Siege of Athlone and the 1691 Siege of Limerick. In 1692 the unit sailed for Flanders. In 1695 they were part of the allied forces. With the ending of the war by the Treaty of Ryswick they returned to England in 1697; the regiment spent the years 1707–1713 in Spain. They were one of four English regiments who fought a rearguard action with their Portuguese allies at Campo Maior in 1709, fought an action on the River Caia. During the Anglo-Spanish War of 1727, the regiment formed part of the garrison of Gibraltar which withheld the Spanish during the four-month-long siege. On 1 July 1751 a royal warrant provided that in future regiments would not be known by their colonels' names, but by their "number or rank".
Accordingly, Lieutenant-General Irvine's Regiment was redesignated as the 5th Regiment of Foot. The next major conflict in which the 5th foot was involved was the Seven Years' War; the regiment took part in the Raid on Cherbourg in 1758, the Battle of Warburg in 1760, the Battle of Kirch Denkern in 1761 and the Battle of Wilhelmsthal in 1762. The 5th left Ireland on 7 May 1774, for Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony, their presence was necessary because of strong civil unrest in the area. Arriving in July, 1774 the 5th camped near the town. On 19 April 1775, the Light Infantry and Grenadier Companies participated in the march to Concord, the resulting fighting at Lexington and the march back to Boston. Casualties were five men killed, three officers and 15 men wounded, one man captured. On 17 June 1775, after being under siege by American forces for two months, the regiment participated in the attack on the fortifications at Breed's Hill. After spending two months on board ship in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the 5th sailed to New York to participate in the effort to capture the city from the Americans.
They took part in the Battle of Long Island and the Battle of White Plains, the capture of Fort Washington, New York, the capture of Fort Lee, New Jersey. They spent the winter of 1776-1777 quartered near New York City and were involved in skirmishes with the American forces, they were part of Howe's campaign to capture Philadelphia, being engaged in the Battle of Brandywine Creek, where they broke the Continental Army's center at Chadds Ford, capturing five cannon. On the retreat through New Jersey, on 28 June 1778, the regiment was involved in the fighting at Monmouth Court House. While in New York, the 5th participated in several raids and skirmishes, including a raid on Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey, they embarked from New York on 3 November 1778, for the French West Indies, landing on 13 December 1778, on the island of Saint Lucia. The 5th was captured a four-cannon battery. On 18 December 1778, a force of 9,000 French troops landed on St. Lucia; the small British force of 1,400 men occupied a hill located on the neck of a peninsula.
The French were raw soldiers trained to fight in the classic European style of linear battles. The French advanced on the British force several times; the British, veterans of colonial fighting, inflicted a stinging defeat on the French. The French lost 400 killed and 1100 wounded to the British losses of ten killed and 130 wounded, which included two officers from the 5th Foot. After two years in the West Indies, the 5th Foot was sent to Ireland in December 1780, they were still in Ireland when hostilities between Great Britain, Spain, the Netherlands, the former Colonies ended in 1783. On 1 August 1782, all those regiments of the line that did not have a special title were given a county designation; the primary purpose was to improve recruiting, but no links were formed with the counties after which the regiments were named. The 5th became the "5th Regiment of Foot": the county being chosen as a compliment to the colonel, Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland; the regiment embarked for Portugal in July 1808 for service in the Peninsula War.
The regiment fought in the Battle of Roliça and the Battle of Vimeiro in August 1808, the Battle of Corunna in January 1809 and the Battle of Bussaco in Sep
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Lincoln and Cambridge, they marked the outbreak of armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in America. In late 1774, Colonial leaders adopted the Suffolk Resolves in resistance to the alterations made to the Massachusetts colonial government by the British parliament following the Boston Tea Party; the colonial assembly responded by forming a Patriot provisional government known as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress and calling for local militias to train for possible hostilities. The Colonial government exercised effective control of the colony outside of British-controlled Boston. In response, the British government in February 1775 declared Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion. About 700 British Army regulars in Boston, under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith, were given secret orders to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies stored by the Massachusetts militia at Concord.
Through effective intelligence gathering, Patriot leaders had received word weeks before the expedition that their supplies might be at risk and had moved most of them to other locations. On the night before the battle, warning of the British expedition had been sent from Boston to militias in the area by several riders, including Paul Revere and Samuel Prescott, with information about British plans; the initial mode of the Army's arrival by water was signaled from the Old North Church in Boston to Charlestown using lanterns to communicate "one if by land, two if by sea". The first shots were fired. Eight militiamen were killed, including their third in command; the British suffered only one casualty. The militia were outnumbered and fell back, the regulars proceeded on to Concord, where they broke apart into companies to search for the supplies. At the North Bridge in Concord 400 militiamen engaged 100 regulars from three companies of the King's troops at about 11:00 am, resulting in casualties on both sides.
The outnumbered regulars fell back from the bridge and rejoined the main body of British forces in Concord. The British forces began their return march to Boston after completing their search for military supplies, more militiamen continued to arrive from neighboring towns. Gunfire erupted again between the two sides and continued throughout the day as the regulars marched back towards Boston. Upon returning to Lexington, Lt. Col. Smith's expedition was rescued by reinforcements under Brigadier General Hugh Percy, a future duke of Northumberland styled at this time by the courtesy title Earl Percy; the combined force of about 1,700 men marched back to Boston under heavy fire in a tactical withdrawal and reached the safety of Charlestown. The accumulated militias blockaded the narrow land accesses to Charlestown and Boston, starting the Siege of Boston. Ralph Waldo Emerson describes the first shot fired by the Patriots at the North Bridge in his "Concord Hymn" as the "shot heard round the world".
The British Army's infantry was nicknamed "redcoats" and sometimes "devils" by the colonists. They had occupied Boston since 1768 and had been augmented by naval forces and marines to enforce what the colonists called The Intolerable Acts, passed by the British Parliament to punish the Province of Massachusetts Bay for the Boston Tea Party and other acts of defiance. General Thomas Gage was the military governor of Massachusetts and commander-in-chief of the 3,000 British military forces garrisoned in Boston, he had no control over Massachusetts outside of Boston, where implementation of the Acts had increased tensions between the Patriot Whig majority and the pro-British Tory minority. Gage's plan was to avoid conflict by removing military supplies from Whig militias using small and rapid strikes; this struggle for supplies led to one British success and several Patriot successes in a series of nearly bloodless conflicts known as the Powder Alarms. Gage considered himself to be a friend of liberty and attempted to separate his duties as governor of the colony and as general of an occupying force.
Edmund Burke described Gage's conflicted relationship with Massachusetts by saying in Parliament, "An Englishman is the unfittest person on Earth to argue another Englishman into slavery."The colonists had been forming militias since the beginnings of Colonial settlement for the purpose of defense against Indian attacks. These forces saw action in the French and Indian War between 1754 and 1763 when they fought alongside British regulars. Under the laws of each New England colony, all towns were obligated to form militia companies composed of all males 16 years of age and older, to ensure that the members were properly armed; the Massachusetts militias were formally under the jurisdiction of the provincial government, but militia companies throughout New England elected their own officers. Gage dissolved the provincial government under the terms of the Massachusetts Government Act, these existing connections were employed by the colonists under the Massachusetts Provincial Congress for the purpose of resistance to the military threat from Britain.
A February 1775 address to King George III, by both houses of Parliament, declared that a state of rebellion existed: We... find that a part of your Majesty' s subjects, in the Province of the Massachusetts Bay, have proceeded so far to resist the authority of the supreme Legislature, that a rebellion at this time