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Burrel, Albania

Burrel is a town in northern Albania, 91 km from Tirana. At the 2015 local government reform it became the seat of the municipality Mat, it was the seat of the former District of Mat. The population at the 2011 census was 10,862; the last archaeological researches has explored different trails which demonstrate the population of the area till al the paleolithic and after. The valley of Mati, has been populated during all the historic periods; the main inhabitant were the Illrian Tribe Pirustae. They resisted the Roman invasion until the second century BC. Burrel is one of the largest districts in Albania, it is known among Albanians as the "Land of Kings", as Gjon Kastrioti, the father of Gjergj Kastrioti, better known as Skanderbeg, was born there. He was a hereditary prince of a large district of Epirus. Another famous native of Burrel was Ahmet Zogu, first King of the Albanians, who reigned as King Zog I from 1928 to 1939, he had been a Prime Minister of Albania between 1922 and 1924 and President of Albania between 1925 and 1928.

At one time, Burrel was referred to as the "city of apples" because of the apple trees that lined many of the town's streets, during the time of the Communist regime and the unrest following the change of government, the apple trees were cut down for profit or personal use as firewood. There are hardly any apple trees left in the town now. Burrel was a miners' town during Communist Albania, but the mines closed, with the exception of a ferrochrome plant still operational near Burrel. During the Kosovo conflict there was a refugee camp near Burrel for 2,000 people. With food and water and supplies from NATO and United States Armed Forces; the city used to be the site of one of the most terrible prisons of the communist regime, where both ordinary criminals and political prisoners such as Bashkim Shehu and Fatos Lubonja or the Catholic priest Dom Simon Jubani were held. Another famous inmate was Pjetër Arbnori to become a member of the free Albanian Parliament. Arbnori was known as "the Mandela of the Balkans" because of the length of his internment, which lasted for over 28 years.

It was one of the Communist Albania concentration camps. The political prisoners used to be condemned for attempts at overthrowing the state or anti-communist propaganda and agitation, for terms of at least 20 years, they were re-condemned while in prison. After the fall of the communist regime, the government of the Democratic Party of Albania closed the prison and made it a museum; however in 1997, Sali Berisha re-opened it as an active prison. The region of Mati is an ancient cradle of the Illyrian culture. Dilaver Kurti explored objects which demonstrate fact for all ancient historic periods, cultural development not only from the region of Mati but for all the surroundings, it is a important zone for the study of the Illyrian culture. The Museum of Mat is a real gem of the Illyrian culture, displaying many artifacts of the Illyrians displayed and analyzed in the book Trashigime Iliro-Arberore by Dilaver Kurti. Kurti traveled from village to village collecting ethnographic materials and photographs which make up the material of his books Shenime Etnografike Neper Mat and Foklor Nga Mati.

Klubi Sportiv Burreli is an Albanian football club based in Burrel. Its home stadium is Liri Ballabani Stadium known as the Burreli Stadium, which has a capacity of 3,000 visitors. Founded in 1952 under the name "KS 31 Korriku Burrel", the club first participated in the Albanian First Division in 1982; as of the 2006-2007 season, KS Burreli is playing in the Albanian First Division. Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha - Ottoman Grand Vizier Ador Gjuci - footballer Kurt Agë Kadiu - one of the signatories of the Albanian Declaration of Independence Ndrek Luka - actor Henri Mata - footballer Hysni Milloshi - Communist Juliana Pasha - singer Saimir Patushi - footballer Zog I of Albania - king of Albania from 1928-1939 Xhelal Bey Zogu - Albanian prince Xhemal Pasha Zogu - father of Zog I of Albania Florina Tefa - singer Dilaver Kurti - Archeologist, Historian 1934-1998 Feride Kurti - Folk music singer and songwriter Ulëz Lake Regional Nature Park List of cities in Albania

Fiscal fine

A fiscal fine is a form of deferred prosecution agreement in Scotland issued by a procurator fiscal for certain summary offences as an alternative to prosecution. Alternatives to prosecution are called direct measures in Scotland. Fiscal fines can vary between £50 and £300, but a compensation offer may be issued either separately or additionally with similar effect but with payment going to the victim of crime: these can be of any amount not exceeding £5,000. Whilst not being recorded as a conviction or formal admission of guilt, the payment of a fiscal fine can be revealed in certain circumstances, including a requirement by the General Medical Council for disclosure; the power to issue fiscal fines is conferred by section 302 of the Criminal Procedure Act 1995 as amended by section 50 of the Criminal Proceedings etc. Act 2007. Fiscal fines were introduced in Scotland by section 56 of the Criminal Justice Act 1987, following recommendations made by the Stewart Committee in Keeping Offenders Out of Court: Further Alternatives to Prosecution.

Under the 1987 Act the fiscal fine was fixed at £25, changed by the Criminal Procedure Act 1995 to four levels of £25, £50, £75 and £100, the maximum fine was increased following the McInnes Report from Sheriff Principal John McInnes. The maximum fine was subsequently increased to £300 by section 50 of the Criminal Proceedings etc. Act 2007; the 2007 Act modified the system from one where the offender had to accept a fiscal fine as an alternative fine, to one in which the offender was determined to have accepted fine if they did not object The move to an opt-out system was another recommendation of the McInnes report. The Scotsman newspaper reported in 2008 that fiscal fines were being used to deal with violent and serious crimes, contrary to previous assurances from the Crown Office The Inspectorate of Prosecution examined the use of fiscal fines in 2009 and found that most fiscal fines for assault were dealt with appropriately; the Crown Office responded by rejecting any claims that some sex offenders were offered fiscal fines instead of facing prosecution.

In the four years leading up to September 2013 showed that 189,256 fiscal fines had seen warning letters issued for non-payment. The enforcement regime was criticised in 2017 in the Scottish Parliament when figures revealed 45% of fiscal fines issued remained unpaid

Four Corners, Florida

Four Corners known as Citrus Ridge, is an unincorporated suburban community and census-designated place in the U. S. state of Florida, located near the borders of Lake, Orange and Polk counties. The population of the Four Corners CDP was 26,116 at the 2010 census, up from 12,015 at the 2000 census; the Lake and Osceola County portions of Four Corners are part of the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Polk County portion is part of the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area. Four Corners is located at 28°20′1″N 81°38′33″W, with the four-way intersection of the Lake, Orange and Polk County borders near the center of the CDP. Neighboring communities are Horizon West and Bay Lake to the northeast, Celebration to the east, Loughman to the southeast, it is 25 miles southwest of Orlando and 37 miles northeast of Lakeland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Four Corners CDP has a total area of 50.8 square miles, of which 47.4 square miles are land and 3.4 square miles, or 6.74%, are water.

The Census-drawn boundaries for the area include Interstate 4 along part of the southern border and U. S. Route 27 along part of the western border; the Western Beltway travels through the eastern portion of the CDP. Areas outside the CDP that are sometimes considered part of Four Corners include north along US 27 to Lake Louisa State Park, south along US 27 to Heart of Florida Hospital, west to SR 33, east to Walt Disney World Resort and Celebration. Four Corners is the only community in Florida to be located in four counties. Splendid China was a theme park in Four Corners, it opened in 1993, closed on December 31, 2003, sat abandoned for 10 years after that. Splendid China Florida cost $100 million to build, it was a 75-acre miniature park with more than 60 replicas at one-tenth scale. Margaritaville Resort opened on the former Splendid China site, with resort homes and timeshares in a Jimmy Buffett-themed setting. In the summer of 2019, the Sunset Walk restaurants and shops opened next to the Margaritaville Resort.

Radio Margaritaville broadcasts from the Margaritaville Resort. As of the census of 2010, there were 26,116 people, 9,904 households, 6,976 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 551 people per square mile. There were 26,531 housing units, of which or 62.7 %, were vacant. 13,499 of the vacant units were for recreational use. The racial makeup of the CDP was 76.1% White, 8.0% African American, 0.5% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.2% some other race, 3.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 30.1% of the population. Of the 9,904 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were headed by married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.6% were non-families. 21.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 4.9% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64, the average family size was of the CDP population were under the age of 18, 8.6% were from 18 to 24, 30.1% were from 25 to 44, 25.0% were from 45 to 64, 12.7% were age 65 or older.

The median age was 36.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. For the period 2013-17, the estimated median annual income for a household in the CDP was $53,750, the median income for a family was $57,173. Male full-time workers had a median income of $36,079 versus $30,070 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,653. About 12.8% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. Osceola County Fire Rescue operates Station 71 in Four Corners. Polk County Fire Rescue operates Station 33 in Four Corners. Lake County Fire Rescue operates Station 112 in Four Corners. Orange County Fire Rescue operates Station 32 in Four Corners; the CDP is served by four different school districts: Lake County Schools Polk County Public Schools School District of Osceola County, Florida Orange County Public Schools Residents of that section are zoned to: Keene's Crossing Elementary School, Bridgewater Middle School, starting in 2017, Windermere High School.

Residents were assigned to West Orange High School. The Four Corners area is served by U. S. Routes 27 and 192, which intersect one mile west of the quadripoint; the area is served by two Lynx bus routes, which terminate at Legacy Boulevard on US 192. Link 55 travels east on US 192, link 427 travels south on US 27

Mrika Nik├ži

Mrika Nikçi is an Albanian mountaineer from the Republic of Kosovo. She is the youngest female in the world to climb all the Seven Summits. On 15 August 2019, as a seventeen years old, she became the youngest female in the world to climb all the Seven Summits, together with her father Arianit Nikçi, they became the first Albanians to summit all the Seven Summits. They reached all the Seven Summits for six hardest peaks summit-ed for 240 days, they reached this goal following their project Mrika Seven Summits. After their success, they have appeared in all Albanian media and have been an attraction with their interviews She has appeared at International media expressing her experiences She was born in Peja, Republic of Kosovo where she lives now. Since she was 7 she started training karate, was a successful competitor, champion of Kosovo in Kata and Kumite she has black belt grade, Dan1. Mrika was a successful ski competitor too, now she skis for fun with her friends and her clients. Mrika with the support of her father, who accompanies her in all mountaineering activities, has begun with mountaineering when she was 13 years old.

As a result of the relentless work to develop the skills of a mountaineer, Mrika has climbed national and regional summits like: Gjeravica, winter climb Jezerca, winter climb, hights peak in entire Dinaric Alps, the highest peak in Albania, winter climb Hajla winter climbing Maja e Titos -winter climb Maja e Zezë –winter climbing During 2017 Mrika has continued with her mountaineering activities by climbing 2 summits in Bulgaria the summit of the Seven Lakes in Rila with an altitude of 2,648 meters, the summit of Musala 2,925 alt, the highest peak in Balkan. During 2017 Mrika has attempted the climbing of other European summits. Due to the weather conditions that have undermined the safety of the mountaineers participating in the expedition, these summit attempts will need to repeat: Mount Blanc– alt4,880 m – attempt and climb up to the alt of 3,700 m. Grand Paradiso– alt4,061m – attempt and climb up to the alt of 3.650 m. In 2018 Mrika has continued with mountaineering and achieved additional success by climbing to another 2 summits Grossglockner - 3,798 alt, one of the Seven World Summits, the summit of Kilimanjaro - 5,895 alt.

Based on the success achieved so far and her will to reach a world class level and her father have begun preparations for the accomplishment of the Seven World Summits Challenge, climbed all the seven summits by the following itinerary: Kilimanjaro-Africa, climbed January 29th 2018 Vinson-Antarctica, climbed on December 16, 2018 Aconcagua-South America, climbed 16 February 2019 Mount Everest-Asia, climbed 27 May 2019 Denali–North America climbed on 20 June 2019 Mount ElbrusRussia, climbed on 20 July 2019 Carstensz Pyramid–Indonesia, climbed on 15 August, 2019During her challenge she has experienced difficulties that each mountaineer dream off. During the Mount Everest Summit she has avoided the risks by cleverly choosing the time where to climb. In here interview with CNN she said: "You know what, when you decide to come and climb Everest, you prepare yourself that you are going to see dead bodies," Mrika adds. "Maybe something can happen to you, your father, or whoever you're climbing with, so you prepare.

You see a dead body and it's like, it's ok. He's gone. I don't want to be like him. "We saw dead bodies along the way. I think that maybe this could reflect negatively on her -- she's only 17 -- but no, she passed that," Arianit says

Arytenoid adduction

Arytenoid adduction is a surgical procedure used to treat vocal cord paralysis. A suture is used to emulate the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and position the paralyzed vocal cord closer to the midline; this allows the two vocal cords to meet and can improve speaking and swallowing ability for affected patients. Arytenoid adduction is performed in conjunction with medialization thyroplasty. One of the key functions of the larynx is the production of sound. Phonation requires the vocal cords to be adducted so that they can meet and vibrate together as air is expelled between them. Physiologically, the glottis is closed by intrinsic laryngeal muscles such as the lateral cricoarytenoid and interarytenoid muscles; these muscles act on the arytenoid cartilages at the posterior ends of the vocal cords and are innervated by the left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves. Damage to these nerves results in vocal cord paralysis - the reduced mobility and inability to adduct one or both vocal cords.

Many cases of vocal cord paralysis result from trauma during surgery. Symptoms include hoarseness of voice, difficulty projecting, difficulty swallowing, throat pain; the arytenoid adduction procedure alleviates these symptoms by manually positioning the paralyzed vocal cord towards the midline. This is accomplished by passing a suture between the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage and the thyroid cartilage; this adducts the vocal cord. Local anesthesia is preferred for arytenoid adduction so that the voice can be tested during the procedure. A horizontal skin incision is made at the inferior border of the thyroid cartilage. A window is cut in the thyroid cartilage for a suture to be passed through in the procedure; the strap muscles and larynx are dissected to expose the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage. A permanent suture is passed through the muscular process. A tunnel is made in the thyroid cartilage and one end of the suture is passed through it; the suture is secured to the window made in the thyroid cartilage.

The vocal cords are observed endoscopically to ensure proper rotation of the arytenoid. The patient is asked to phonate to evaluate voice quality and the potential need for a concurrent thyroplasty. Options for surgical treatment of vocal cord paralysis include vocal cord injection, medialization thyroplasty, arytenoid adduction; each of these techniques results in medialization of the paralyzed vocal cord. However, arytenoid adduction is preferred in cases where there is a large posterior glottal gap or vertical misalignment between the vocal folds. Arytenoid adduction is performed at the same time as a medialization thyroplasty. Animal model studies suggest that combining the two procedures produces better outcomes than when performing either alone; the paralyzed vocal cord may rest close to or far from the midline. An laterally positioned vocal cord can result in a large posterior glottal gap - an opening between the two vocal cords when the functioning vocal cord is medialized. Vocal cord injection is ineffective for closing a large glottal gap.

Arytenoid adduction is more effective than medialization thyroplasty for closing a posterior gap. It has been suggested that this is because arytenoid adduction directly rotates the arytenoid cartilage and thus more medializes the posterior aspect of the vocal cord; the paralyzed vocal cord may rest on a different plane than the opposite vocal cord. This results in a vertical gap between the two vocal cords that cannot be resolved using vocal cord injection or medialization thryoplasty; the suture placed in the arytenoid adduction procedure mimics the action of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and pulls the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage medially and inferiorly. Thus arytenoid adduction can correct the vertical position of an elevated vocal cord. Arytenoid adduction with or without medialization thyroplasty improves quality of life for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Subjective outcome measures of voice quality include the Grade, Breathiness, Strain voice scale, Voice Handicap Index, closure of the glottic gap.

Objective outcome measures include mean and maximum phonation time, phonotory airflow, signal-to-noise ratio. Arytenoid adduction produces improvements in all of these parameters. Arytenoid adduction is more technically challenging than either vocal cord injection or medialization thyroplasty and has a high learning curve. Increased incidence of complications have been reported for arytenoid adduction compared to medialization thyroplasty. Potential complications include: Wound infection Edema Hematoma Vocal cord spasmsIntubation and/or tracheotomy may be required as a result of these complications

Bad River (South Dakota)

The Bad River is a tributary of the Missouri River 161 miles long, in central South Dakota in the United States. The river is formed at South Dakota, by the confluence of its North and South forks; the North Fork Bad River rises in eastern Pennington County and flows 51 miles east-southeast to Philip, while the South Fork Bad River rises at the confluence of Whitewater Creek and Big Buffalo Creek in Jackson County, within the Buffalo Gap National Grassland, flows 36 miles northeast to Philip. The main stem of the Bad River flows east-northeast from Philip, passing Capa, it joins the Missouri at Fort Pierre. The Bad drainage basin is about 3,000 square miles and is located south of the Cheyenne River in the Pierre Hills and Southern Plateaus; the river basin is noted for fuller's earth. At the river mouth near Fort Pierre, the Bad River flood stage contains large quantities of silt; the Bad carries hard water of poor quality. The name recalls an incident when a flash flood on the Bad River inundated an Indian village, causing a large loss of life.

The Bad River is historically known as the Teton River. As of November 2019, TC Energy was applying for permits in the state to tap the Bad River to use water for the construction of Phase 4 of the Keystone pipeline, including camp construction to house transient construction workers. List of rivers of South Dakota