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Bursitis is the inflammation of one or more bursae of synovial fluid in the body. They are lined with a synovial membrane. There are more than 150 bursae in the human body; the bursae rest at the points where internal functionaries, such as muscles and tendons, slide across bone. Healthy bursae create a smooth frictionless functional gliding surface making normal movement painless; when bursitis occurs, movement relying on the inflamed bursa becomes difficult and painful. Moreover, movement of tendons and muscles over the inflamed bursa aggravates its inflammation, perpetuating the problem. Muscle can be stiffened. Bursitis affects superficial bursae; these include the subacromial, prepatellar and pes anserinus bursae of the shoulder, knee and shin, etc.. Symptoms vary from localized warmth and erythema to joint pain and stiffness, to stinging pain that surrounds the joint around the inflamed bursa. In this condition, the pain is worse during and after activity, the bursa and the surrounding joint becomes stiff the next morning.

Bursitis could also cause a snapping, grinding or popping sound – known as snapping scapula syndrome – when it occurs in the shoulder joint. This is not painful. There can be several concurrent causes. Trauma, auto-immune disorders and iatrogenic factors can all cause bursitis. Bursitis is caused by repetitive movement and excessive pressure. Shoulders and knees are the most affected. Inflammation of the bursae may be caused by other inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, gout. Immune deficiencies, including HIV and diabetes, can cause bursitis. Infrequently, scoliosis can cause bursitis of the shoulders. Traumatic injury is another cause of bursitis; the inflammation irritates because the bursa no longer fits in the original small area between the bone and the functionary muscle or tendon. When the bone increases pressure upon the bursa, bursitis results. Sometimes the cause is unknown, it can be associated with various other chronic systemic diseases. The most common examples of this condition: Prepatellar bursitis, "housemaid's knee" Infrapatellar bursitis, "clergyman's knee" Trochanteric bursitis, giving pain over lateral aspect of hip Olecranon bursitis, "student's elbow", characterised by pain and swelling in the elbow Subacromial bursitis, giving shoulder pain, is the most common form of bursitis.

Achilles bursitis Retrocalcaneal bursitis Ischial bursitis, "weaver's bottom" Iliopsoas bursitis Anserine bursitis It is important to differentiate between infected and non-infected bursitis. People may have surrounding cellulitis and systemic symptoms include a fever; the bursa should be aspirated to rule out an infectious process. Bursae that are not infected can be treated symptomatically with rest, elevation, anti-inflammatory drugs and pain medication. Since bursitis is caused by increased friction from the adjacent structures, a compression bandage is not suggested because compression would create more friction around the joint. Chronic bursitis can be amenable to aspiration. Bursae that are infected require antibiotic therapy. Steroid therapy may be considered. In cases when all conservative treatment fails, surgical therapy may be necessary. In a bursectomy the bursa is cut out either endoscopically or with open surgery; the bursa grows back in place without any inflammatory component. Calcific bursitis Snapping scapula syndrome Bursitis treatment from NHS Direct Questions and Answers about Bursitis and Tendinitis – US National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Carlos Iturgaiz

Carlos José Iturgaiz Angulo is a Spanish politician of the People's Party who served as a Member of the European Parliament from 2004 until 2019. He first studied extinct languages and became a qualified accordion teacher. Iturgaiz served as vice-chairman of the Committee on Petitions and of the delegation for relations with the countries of Central America from 2009, he was chairman of the delegation for relations with the Maghreb countries and the Arab Maghreb Union from 27 February 2008 until 13 July 2009. From 16 September 2009, Iturgaiz was a substitute member of the delegation for relations with the countries of Southeast Asia and the ASEAN. From 2010, he was as substitute member of the Committee on Fisheries. Iturgaiz failed to secure his re-election in the 2014 European elections. However, when his party colleague Miguel Arias Cañete was nominated as European Commissioner in late 2014, Iturgaiz took his seat in the European Parliament, he has since been a member of the Committee on Fisheries.

In September 2018, Iturgaiz voted against the European Union triggering article 7 procedure against Hungary, due to the country's government posing a “systematic threat” to democracy and the rule of law. 1994–2004: Member of the Basque Parliament 1991–1993: Member of the Biscay Provincial Council 1991–1995: Member of Bilbao City council 1993–1996: Secretary-General of the PP in the Basque Country 1996–2004: Chairman of the PP in the Basque Country 2004-2009: Member of the European Parliament, European People's Party and European Democrats Since 2009: Member of the European Parliament, European People's Party 2004 European Parliament election in Spain Personal profile of Carlos Iturgaiz in the European Parliament's database of members Declaration of financial interests

Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

Edwards v Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Botham v Ministry of Defence UKSC 58 is a UK labour law case, concerning wrongful dismissal. Mr Edwards was dismissed from his surgeon job for ‘gross misconduct’ without having his contractual disciplinary procedure followed for alleged impropriety toward a female patient; the contract said “the employment is subject to three months’ notice on either side”. The General Medical Council summarily dismissed his appeal, he claimed £3.8m in lost earnings and damage to reputation, arguing that if the procedure were proper, by having a lawyer and someone from his department on the panel, the allegations would not have been established against him, his career would not have been wrecked. The GMC, did not prevent him continuing to work; the judge held that damages could not exceed the earnable income in the notice period, plus the period that a disciplinary procedure would last, further damages were excluded by Johnson for the manner of the dismissal.

The Court of Appeal held Mr Edwards could recover full damages for breach of express contractual disciplinary proceedings, Johnson v Unisys Ltd only precludes a term being implied at common law for the manner of dismissal. Moore-Bick LJ ‘in cases where the claimant relies on the common law implied term it will sometimes be necessary to determine whether the act relied on formed part of the process of dismissal or preceded it; the need for that inquiry does not arise, however, in a case where the employee relies on an express term of the contract and accordingly in such cases the Johnson exclusion area is not a relevant concept.’ Ward LJ and Lloyd LJ concurred. The case was joined to Botham v Ministry of Defence. Mr Botham was a youth community worker in Germany till he was dismissed by the MoD for gross misconduct for inappropriate behaviour with two teenage girls in September 2003, he was placed on a list of people unsuitable to work with children under the Protection of Children Act 1999, not removed until July 2007.

He claimed unfair dismissal. The Tribunal found he was unfairly dismissed, was awarded the maximum, his name removed from the register, he claimed damages for breach of contract in the High Court. Slade J in the High Court held that he could not recover damages, because it related to the manner of dismissal. Pill LJ approved an appeal, because of the Edwards case, gave permission to go to the Supreme Court; the Supreme Court held that neither Mr Edwards, nor Mr Botham, could claim more loss than would be available in an unfair dismissal claim. Breach of a disciplinary rule counted to the fairness of a dismissal in ERA 1996, and, so during the EA 2002 and EA 2008 amendments. Parliament’s enactment of unfair dismissal legislation, less generous than the common law, precluded any claim for damages relating to the manner of dismissal, whether formulated as either an express or an implied term. An employee could seek an injunction to halt the threatened breach of contract, however, as it still plainly remained a breach of contract.

Lord Dyson and Lord Walker said the following. Lord Phillips gave a short speech. Lady Hale said the following. Lord Mance agreed with Lord Dyson. Lord Kerr would have held that Mr Edwards should succeed in his claim, but because Mr Botham’s reputational damage was inextricably linked to the manner of his dismissal, he could not have a successful claim. UK labour law

Cro (musician)

Carlo Christopher Simon Waibel, better known by his stage name Cro, is a German musician, fashion designer and producer. He was represented by Chimperator Productions until July 2018, he describes his music as a mixture between rap and pop, which he calls "raop". Born on January 31, 1990, he attended the Realschule Galgenberg in Aalen and Johannes-Gutenberg-Schule, a vocational school in Stuttgart, Germany, he began recording music at the age of 13. He learned to play the guitar. In 2009, he released his first mixtape Trash. On February 11, 2011, his second mixtape Meine Musik was released, it was available for free download. Cro produced the entire mixtape by himself. Through the mixtape German hip-hop musician Kaas took notice of Cro. Besides his musical career, Cro is active as a designer. Since 2010, he has been designing under his clothing label Vio Vio. After receiving his Mittlere Reife, he completed an apprenticeship as a media designer and worked for the Stuttgarter Zeitung as a cartoonist.

Through Kaas, Cro met Sebastian Andrej Schweizer, founder of the independent-label, Chimperator Productions, Kodimey Awokou. At the end of September 2011, a "Making of" video for a new artist was published by the label leading to speculations about which artist had been signed. In October 2011, Schweizer announced. From October 30 until November 7, 2011, Cro was a supporting act for the Norwegian band Madcon during their Glow Tour 2011. During the concert and for photos, Cro wore a panda-mask. Psaiko. Dino, producer at Chimperator Productions, adopted the role as a spokesperson for Cro for the video-blogs. In November 2011, the music video for Easy, directed by Harris Hodovic and was announcing the upcoming mixtape, was released on A few days the video was released on YouTube, where it gained more than 500,000 views in the first two weeks. In the beginning of 2012, it had gained 12,000,000 views, mid-May, the views had risen to a number of more than 44,000,000; the American blog reported about the video and Cro.

German hip hop and funk musician Jan Delay posted the video on his Facebook page and said, Cro was the "future of German rap." Besides "Easy", "Hi Kids" and "Kein Benz" were released prior to the release of the mixtape. On December 1, 2011, Cro was a guest on the show NeoParadise by the channel ZDFneo, where he performed snippets of three songs from his mixtapes Meine Musik and Easy. One day Chimperator Productions released the mixtape Easy, available for free download on their website. In the beginning of 2012, Cro signed an author's contract with Universal Music Publishing Group. On January 27, 2012, Cro embarked on a concert tour named "Pandas Gone Wild!", on which he was accompanied by Psaiko. Dino. In mid February 2012, the music video for "Easy" gained 1,000,000 views on YouTube. In mid May the number of the views rose to 3,000,000. On March 23, 2012, the song "Easy" was released as a single. Besides the Standard version, the Limited Edition version included the songs "Hi Kids," "Lieblingssong," as well as "Konfetti," a collaboration with Ahzumjot and Rockstah.

"Easy" entered the German Single-Charts on second place. In June 2012, Cro's single; the music video for the single gained 20,000,000 views on YouTube. From June 29 until July 1, Cro released on Single each day, "Du," "King of Raop," and "Meine Zeit." Music videos were filmed for every single. On July 6, Cro released Raop. Mid-July, "Easy," "Hi Kids," "Du," "King of Raop," and "Meine Zeit," all of his five released singles were placed in the Top 100 in the German Single-Charts. On September 7, 2012 Cro released a free mixtape called Raop which included 16 remixes of songs from his album Raop. On September 28, Cro competed in the Bundesvision Song Contest with his and Die Orsons' song "Horst & Monika" and took the fifth place. On October 19, 2012 Cro released the track "1 Millionen" through the iTunes and made it available for free download, he dedicated this track to having more than 1 million fans on Facebook. On October 21, he released a music video to accompany the track. On October 27, 2012 Cro released the music video for his fifth single "Einmal um die Welt", released on November 2.

In November, Cro's debut album and single "Easy" reached platinum status in Germany whereas "Du" was certified gold. In Austria, Raop and "Easy" and in Switzerland, "Easy" were certified gold, he won the Bambi award in the category "Pop National". On December 6, he won the 1LIVE Krone for "Beste Single" for his debut single, "Easy", he was named Newcomer of the Year 2012 by iTunes. His debut album, Raop was named "Album of the Year" by MTV. In March 2013, Cro won a Swiss Music Award in the category "Best Album Urban - International" for his album Raop. Cro has cooperated with H&M and has designed a collection of clothes for men and women, released on April 4, 2013. On March 11, H&M and Cro released additional behind the scenes images plus an interview. Apart from his music, Cro works as a Designer, and in 2010 founded his own fashion label called VioVio. In 2015 he made a unique design for a Mercedes-Benz CLA, given as a prize to one of his fans and is now part of the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany.

After the release of his last studio album tru. Cro started showing more of his art in general. So at 8 September 2017 he had his first vernissage at the circle culture gallery in Berlin, where he showed several pieces of art, including masks that he colored and self-made paintings. In 2016 Cro made his first movie named "Unsere Zeit ist jetzt", where he was working together with the German actor Til Schweiger; the story of the fil

Little Willie John

William Edward "Little Willie" John was an American R&B singer who performed in the 1950s and early 1960s. He is best known for his successes on the record charts, with songs such as "All Around the World", "Need Your Love So Bad", "Talk to Me, Talk to Me", "Leave My Kitten Alone", "Sleep", his number-one R&B hit "Fever". An important figure in R&B music of the 1950s, he faded into obscurity in the 1960s and died while serving a prison sentence for manslaughter. John was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996. John was born in Cullendale, Arkansas on November 15, 1937, he was one of ten children born to Mertis John. Many sources erroneously give his middle name as Edgar, his family moved to Detroit, when he was four, so that his father could find factory work. In the late 1940s, the eldest children, including Willie, formed a gospel singing group. Willie performed in talent shows, which brought him to the notice of Johnny Otis and the musician and producer Henry Glover.

After seeing him sing with the Paul "Hucklebuck" Williams orchestra, Glover signed him to a recording contract with King Records in 1955. He was nicknamed "Little Willie" for his short stature. John's first recording, a version of Titus Turner's "All Around the World", was a hit, reaching number 5 on the Billboard R&B chart, he followed up with a string of R&B hits, including the original version of "Need Your Love So Bad", written by his elder brother Mertis John Jr. One of his biggest hits, "Fever", was awarded a gold disc. A famous cover version was recorded by Peggy Lee in 1958. Another song, "Talk to Me, Talk to Me", recorded in 1958, reached number 5 on the R&B chart and number 20 on the Pop chart, it sold over one million copies. A few years it was a hit once again in a cover version by Sunny & the Sunglows. John recorded "I'm Shakin'", by Rudy Toombs, "Suffering with the Blues", "Sleep". In all, John made the Billboard Hot 100 a total of fourteen times. A cover version of "Need Your Love So Bad" by Fleetwood Mac was a hit in Europe.

Another of his songs to be covered was "Leave My Kitten Alone", recorded by The Beatles in 1964 and intended for their Beatles for Sale album. However, the track was not released until 1995. John performed for the famed Cavalcade of Jazz concert produced by Leon Hefflin Sr. held at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles on August 3, 1958. The other headliners were Ernie Freeman and his Band, Ray Charles, Sam Cooke, The Clark Kids and Bo Rhambo. Sammy Davis Jr. was there to crown the winner of the Miss Cavalcade of Jazz beauty contest. The event featured the top four prominent disc jockey of Los Angeles. John was involved in the civil rights fight against segregation, he performed a benefit concert for the NAACP in 1964, telling Jet magazine: "As entertainers, we can no longer sit and wait for the Sammy Davis' and Harry Belefonte's to raise all of the money."John was known for his short temper and propensity to abuse alcohol. He was arrested multiple times for charges that include narcotics and grand larceny.

John was dropped by his record company, King Records, in 1963. In 1965, he was convicted of manslaughter for the 1964 stabbing of Kendall Roundtree in Seattle, he was sent to Washington State Penitentiary in Walla Walla. John appealed the conviction and was released on probation while the case was reconsidered, during which time he recorded what was intended to be his comeback album. Due to contractual disputes and the decline of his appeal, it was not released until 2008. John died at Washington State Penitentiary on May 26, 1968. Despite counterclaims, the cause of death stated on his death certificate was a heart attack, his interment was in Warren, Michigan. John was survived by his wife Darlynn who he married on May 25, 1957. One of his sisters was Mable John, who recorded for Motown and Stax and was member of The Raelettes, the vocal quartette backing Ray Charles, his son Keith John is a backing vocalist for Stevie Wonder. John was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996, presented by Stevie Wonder.

James Brown, who early in his career had opened shows for John, recorded a tribute album, Thinking About Little Willie John and a Few Nice Things. The guitarist and songwriter Robbie Robertson of The Band, mentioned John in the song "Somewhere Down the Crazy River", on his 1987 self-titled album. John was mentioned in Tom Russell's "Blue Wing" and Mark Lanegan's "Like Little Willie John", from his 2004 album Bubblegum; the Swedish artist Peter LeMarc recorded a song entitled "Little Willie John" in 1991. A biography, Fever: Little Willie John, a Fast Life, Mysterious Death and the Birth of Soul, by Susan Whitall with Kevin John, was published by Titan Books in 2011. Little Willie John was posthumously inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame in 2014 as a singer and in 2016 as a songwriter. In June 2016, Little Willie John was inducted into the Michigan Roll Legends Hall of Fame. Little Willie John on AllMusicLittle Willie John at Find a Grave

Carleton University Students' Association

The Carleton University Students' Association is a non-profit corporation that represents the undergraduate students at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. Executive members of CUSA carry out the daily work of the Association; the current executive are: President – Lily Akagbosu VP Internal – Farook Al-Muflehi VP Finance – Jacob Howell VP Student Issues – Sissi De Flavis VP Student Services – George Owusu Mensah VP Student Life – Jamie Laxton Council is the highest power within CUSA, as it represents the voice of the student body in the decision-making process of the Association. CUSA Council members are voted in and are accountable to undergraduate students of Carleton University. Seats are distributed based on number of students in the 5 major faculties and several programs at the University; the current council and their constituencies are listed below. 2017/2018 Council Members Term: May 1, 2017 – April 30, 2018 Faculty of Public Affairs Cameron Wales Julia Parsons Ryan Clancy Brittanie Jonidi Jenny Giang Connor Thibodeau Jon MacDougallFaculty of Arts and Social Sciences Lily Akagbosu Claudia Calagoure-Perna Scott Taylor Julia Van Drie Carley MurphyFaculty of Science Nima Dadar John Haddad Yvonne Osagie Hassan ZafarFaculty of Engineering and Design Julia Dalphy Yannick Brisbois Ryan Herbrand Sarah GorloughSprott School of Business Daniel Giacca Tom WhyteSpecial Student Brendan Mcloughlin CUSA holds general elections every year.

The association uses online voting and the instant-runoff voting system. Voter turnout in 2017 was over 37%. Several businesses are provided by CUSA: Oliver's Pub And Patio Roosters Coffee House Haven Books & Café The Wing The student union fees cover several services to students through service centres: Carleton Disability Awareness Centre The Food Centre Foot Patrol Gender and Sexuality Resource Centre Hatch Health and Wellness Centre International Students' Centre Mawandoseg Centre Multifaith Centre Race and Cultural Hall Womxn's Centre CUSA oversee's over 200 recognized clubs and societies. CUSA offers a number of different services to clubs and societies. All clubs and societies, services available to them, can be found at On December 5, 2006, CUSA voted 26-25-1-1 of becoming a "pro-choice" body, removing any of the associations support from all actions it claimed were "anti-choice", drawing critical reactions not only from pro-life groups, but from some campus groups, such as the Carleton University Debating Society, that claimed CUSA was stifling open debate.

Those in favour of the motion however, defended it as ensuring "women's rights" on campus. This vote was reversed in December 2012. In November 2008, the CUSA voted to drop its annual Shinerama cystic fibrosis fundraiser, in favour of a fundraiser for an as-yet-undetermined charity, because the illness is not "inclusive" enough. Shinerama is a fundraiser held at universities across Canada every fall in support of the Canadian Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, first held in 1961. Donnie Northrup, CUSA councillor representing the Faculty of Science, introduced the motion which stated that cystic fibrosis "has been revealed to only affect white people, men" and that therefore, it was inappropriate for the CUSA to donate money to researching a cure. Supporters of the motion argued that "all orientees and volunteers should feel like their fundraising efforts will serve the their diverse communities." The CUSA was criticized for this decision since the motion did not reveal the source of the claim that cystic fibrosis affects only Caucasians.

In fact, the CCFF's website states that: "The disease is most common in caucasians, but it can affect all races." Nick Bergamini, a CUSA council member who represents Journalism students, stated that "They're playing racial politics with something, supposed to bring people together – a charity." Bergamini commented. I see it as a loss for people with cystic fibrosis."Cathleen Morrison, the CEO of the CCFF, stated in an interview with CTV News that although cystic fibrosis "does affect Caucasian populations primarily," the term Caucasian includes people from South Asia, North Africa, the Persian Gulf and Israel. Morrison explained; these people do not have white skin. They have CF, it now seems, in the same ratios as other Caucasian people who do have white skin." Morrison stated that cystic fibrosis affects just as many young girls as boys. Jonathan Kay, a columnist for the National Post, blasted CUSA for this decision. Kay stated that "Even by the loopy standards of students governments, this has got to be a new low."

Kay argued that cystic fibrosis, although it has a much higher rate of occurrence in caucasian males, affects all races and both genders. Kay pointed out that many charity events raise money for breast cancer though it is a female disease, for Tay–Sachs disease, whose sufferers are exclusively Jewish. Editorial and opinion articles from the Ottawa Citizen have condemned CUSA's actions with the editorial declaring that "when does something as ignorant and thoughtless as Carleton University's did this week, the country pays attention." CUSA president Brittany Smyth stated that the council has been considering rotating the beneficiary of Shinerama instead of always giving the money to one charity, arguing that "It's about people wanting to do something different." Smyth said the colour of someo