An autobiography is a self-written account of the life of a person. The word autobiography was first used deprecatingly by William Taylor in 1797 in the English periodical The Monthly Review, when he suggested the word as a hybrid, its next recorded use was in its present sense, by Robert Southey in 1809. Despite only being named early in the century, first-person autobiographical writing originates in antiquity. Autobiography thus takes stock of the life from the moment of composition. While biographers generally rely on a variety of documents and viewpoints. The memoir form is associated with autobiography but it tends, as Pascal claims, to focus less on the self. See also, List of autobiographies and Category, Autobiographies for examples, in a classic essay on American autobiography James M. Autobiographical works are by nature subjective. The inability—or unwillingness—of the author to accurately recall memories has in certain cases resulted in misleading or incorrect information, some sociologists and psychologists have noted that autobiography offers the author the ability to recreate history.
Spiritual autobiography is an account of a struggle or journey towards God, followed by conversion a religious conversion. The author re-frames his or her life as a demonstration of divine intention through encounters with the Divine, the spiritual autobiography works as an endorsement of his or her religion. A memoir is slightly different in character from an autobiography, while an autobiography typically focuses on the life and times of the writer, a memoir has a narrower, more intimate focus on his or her own memories and emotions. Memoirs have often written by politicians or military leaders as a way to record. One early example is that of Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate. Leonor López de Córdoba wrote what is supposed to be the first autobiography in Spanish, the English Civil War provoked a number of examples of this genre, including works by Sir Edmund Ludlow and Sir John Reresby.
French examples from the period include the memoirs of Cardinal de Retz. Daniel Defoes Moll Flanders is an early example, charles Dickens David Copperfield is another such classic, and J. D. Salingers The Catcher in the Rye is a well-known modern example of fictional autobiography. Charlotte Brontës Jane Eyre is yet another example of fictional autobiography, the term may apply to works of fiction purporting to be autobiographies of real characters, e. g. Robert Nyes Memoirs of Lord Byron
The Cable News Network is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. It was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel, upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, and was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City and its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from its sister network. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households, broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on cable and satellite providers throughout Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories, as of February 2015, CNN is available to about 96,289,000 cable and telco television households in the United States.
The Cable News Network was launched at 5,00 p. m. Eastern Time on June 1,1980, after an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channels first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channels first 200 employees, including the networks first news anchor. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite providers, several websites. The company has 36 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, the channels success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warners eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1,1982, on January 28,1986, CNN carried the only live television coverage of the launch and subsequent break-up of Space Shuttle Challenger, which killed all seven crew members on board. On October 14,1987, Jessica McClure, an 18-month-old toddler, fell down a well in Midland, CNN quickly reported on the story, and the event helped make its name.
This was before correspondents reported live from the capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein held a press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned, before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory just a time ago. The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16,1991, as follows, lets describe to our viewers what were seeing. The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated, were seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
They may be a working journalist, assisting in the collection of news material and may, in addition, provide commentary during the program. News presenters most often work from a studio or radio studio. The role of the news presenter developed over time, the presenter would read the news from news copy which he may or may not have helped write with a producer or news writer. This was often taken almost directly from services and rewritten. Prior to the era, radio-news broadcasts often mixed news with opinion. These presenters were referred to as commentators, the last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the United States was Paul Harvey. With the development of the 24-hour news cycle and dedicated cable news channels, many anchors write or edit news for their programs, although modern news formats often distinguish between anchor and commentator in an attempt to establish the character of a news anchor. The mix of news and commentary varies depending on the type of program.
In 1948, anchor man was used in the game show Who Said That. to refer to John Cameron Swayze, the anchor term became commonly used by 1952 to describe the most prominent member of a panel of reporters or experts. The term anchorman was used to describe Walter Cronkites role at the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, the widespread claim that news anchors were called cronkiters in Swedish has been debunked by linguist Ben Zimmer. Anchors occupy a role in news broadcasts. Some argue anchors have become sensationalized characters whose identities overshadow the news itself, while others cite anchors as necessary figureheads of wisdom and truth in the news broadcast. Brian Williams, a minor character in NBCs sitcom 30 Rock. A criticism levied against the role of anchor stems from this dynamic, regurgitat or reproduc the report of others. Differentiating them from the occupations of journalists and on-site reporters. The identity of a particular anchor seems to influence viewer perception less than the presence of an anchor in general.
More specifically, the media may do an important social good when using the techniques of dramaturgy to make governance more interesting to people than would be the case otherwise. At the same time, there is an important difference between drama and democracy, with the former requiring spectators and the latter participants
Marietta is located in central Cobb County, United States, and is the countys seat and largest city. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 56,579. The 2013 estimate is 59,089, making it one of the Atlanta metropolitan areas largest suburbs, Marietta is the fourth largest of the principal cities of the Atlanta metropolitan statistical area. The origin of the name is uncertain and it is believed that the city was named for Mary Cobb, the wife of U. S. Senator and Superior Court judge Thomas Willis Cobb, judge Cobb is the namesake of the county. Homes were built by settlers near the Cherokee town of Big Shanty prior to 1824. The first plat was laid out in 1833, like most towns, Marietta had a square in the center with a courthouse. The Georgia General Assembly legally recognized the community on December 19,1834, built in 1838, Oakton House is the oldest continuously occupied residence in Marietta. The original barn, milk house and wellhouse remain on the property, the spectacular gardens contain the boxwood parterre from the 1870s.
Oakton served as Major General Lorings headquarters during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in 1864, Marietta was initially selected as the hub for the new Western and Atlantic Railroad, and business boomed. By 1838, roadbed and trestles had been built north of the city, however, in 1840, political wrangling stopped construction for a time. In 1842, the new management decided to move the hub from Marietta to an area that would become Atlanta. Nonetheless, in 1850, when the railroad operation, Marietta shared in the resulting prosperity. Businessman and politician John Glover arrived in 1848, a popular figure, Glover was elected mayor when the city incorporated in 1852. Another early resident was Dr. Carey Cox, who promoted a water cure, the Cobb County Medical Society recognizes him as the countys first physician. The Georgia Military Institute was built in 1851, and the first bank opened in 1855, during the 1850s, fire destroyed much of the city on three separate occasions. By the time the Civil War began in 1861, Marietta had recovered from the fires, in April 1862, James Andrews, a civilian working with the Union Army, came to Marietta, along with a small party of Union soldiers dressed in civilian clothing.
The group spent the night in the Fletcher House hotel located immediately in front of the Western and Atlantic Railroad
A newsreel is a form of short documentary film prevalent between 1910s to 1960s, regularly released in a public presentation place and containing filmed news stories and items of topical interest. It was a source of news, current affairs, and entertainment for millions of moviegoers until television supplanted its role in the 1950s, newsreels are now considered significant historical documents, since they are often the only audiovisual record of historical and cultural events of those times. Newsreels were typically exhibited as short subjects preceding the main feature film into the 1960s, the first official British news cinema that only showed newsreels was the Daily Bioscope that opened in London on May 23,1909. In 1929 William Fox purchased a former Broadway theater called the Embassy and he changed the format from a $2 show twice a day to a continuous 25 cent programme establishing the first newsreel theater in the USA. The idea was such a success that Fox and his backers announced they would start a chain of theaters across the USA.
The newsreels were often accompanied by cartoons or short subjects, in some countries, newsreels generally used music as a background for usually silent on-site film footage. In some countries, the narrator used humorous remarks for light-hearted or non-tragic stories, in the U. S. newsreel series included The March of Time, Pathé News, Paramount News, Fox Movietone News, Hearst Metrotone News, and Universal Newsreel. Pathé News was distributed by RKO Radio Pictures from 1931 to 1947 and their strike lasted through to at least Tuesday August 16, the Tuesday being the last day for production on new newsreels shown on the Thursday. Events of the resulted in over three hundred cinemas across Britain having to go without newsreels that week. An example of a story is in the film Citizen Kane. Citizen Kane includes a fictional newsreel News on the March that summarizes the life of title character Charles Foster Kane while parodying The March of Time, a 1978 Australian film, Newsfront, is a drama about the newsreel business.
On February 16,1948, NBC launched a television program called Camel Newsreel Theatre with John Cameron Swayze that featured newsreels with Swayze doing voiceovers. Also in 1948, the DuMont Television Network launched two short-lived newsreel series, Camera Headlines and I. N. S, the latter in cooperation with Hearsts International News Service. On August 15,1948, CBS started their evening news program Douglas Edwards. Later the NBC, CBS, and ABC news shows all produced their own news film, newsreels died out because of technological advances such as electronic news-gathering for television news, introduced in the 1970s, rendered them obsolete. Nonetheless, some such as Cuba and Spain continued producing newsreels into the 1980s and 1990s. Newsreel-producing companies excluded television companies from their distribution, but the television companies countered by sending their own cameramen to film news events, an international newsfilm conference, London, BUFVC,1998 Fielding, Raymond. The American Newsreel, A Complete History, 1911-1967, 985–991 The Newsreel Archive News on Screen
The Associated Press is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City that operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association. The AP is owned by its contributing newspapers and radio and television stations in the United States, all of which stories to the AP. Most of the AP staff are members and are represented by the Newspaper Guild, which operates under the Communications Workers of America. As of 2007, news collected by the AP was published and republished by more than 1,700 newspapers, in addition to more than 5,000 television, the photograph library of the AP consists of over 10 million images. The AP operates 243 news bureaus in 120 countries and it operates the AP Radio Network, which provides newscasts twice hourly for broadcast and satellite radio and television stations. Many newspapers and broadcasters outside the United States are AP subscribers, as part of their cooperative agreement with the AP, most member news organizations grant automatic permission for the AP to distribute their local news reports.
The AP employs the inverted pyramid formula for writing that enables the news outlets to edit a story to fit its available publication area without losing the storys essentials. Cutbacks at rival United Press International in 1993 left the AP as the United States primary news service, although UPI still produces and distributes stories and photos daily. Other English-language news services, such as the BBC, some historians believe that the Tribune joined at this time, documents show it was a member in 1849. The New York Times became a member shortly after its founding in September 1851, initially known as the New York Associated Press, the organization faced competition from the Western Associated Press, which criticized its monopolistic news gathering and price setting practices. The revelations led to the demise of the NYAP and in December 1892, when the AP was founded, news became a salable commodity. The invention of the press allowed the New York Tribune in the 1870s to print 18,000 papers per hour.
During the Civil War and Spanish–American War, there was a new incentive to print vivid, Melville Stone, who had founded the Chicago Daily News in 1875, served as AP General Manager from 1893 to 1921. He embraced the standards of accuracy and integrity, the cooperative grew rapidly under the leadership of Kent Cooper, who built up bureau staff in South America, Europe and, the Middle East. He introduced the telegraph typewriter or teletypewriter into newsrooms in 1914, in 1935, AP launched the Wirephoto network, which allowed transmission of news photographs over leased private telephone lines on the day they were taken. This gave AP a major advantage over other media outlets. While the first network was only between New York and San Francisco, eventually AP had its network across the whole United States, in 1945, the Supreme Court of the United States held in Associated Press v. The decision facilitated the growth of its main rival United Press International, AP entered the broadcast field in 1941 when it began distributing news to radio stations, it created its own radio network in 1974
Larry King Live
Larry King Live is an American talk show that was hosted by Larry King on CNN from 1985 to 2010. It was CNNs most watched and longest-running program, with one million viewers nightly. Every night, King interviewed one or more prominent individuals, usually celebrities, the one-hour show was broadcast three times a day in some areas, and was seen all over the world on CNN International. On June 29,2010, King announced that the program would be coming to an end, the final edition of the program aired on December 16, but a new episode on the war against cancer aired two days on December 18. Larry King mainly conducted interviews from the studio, but he interviewed people on-site in the White House, their cells, their homes. Critics have claimed that Larry King asks soft questions in comparison to other interviewers and his reputation for asking easy, open-ended questions has made him attractive to important figures who want to state their position while avoiding being challenged on contentious topics.
When interviewed on Late Night with Conan OBrien, King said that the secret to an interview is to get the guest to talk about him- or herself. A1996 interview in the Washington Post had King note that he sometimes slips hard questions in between softballs and he said that he tries to project an image of earnestness and sincerity in each interview, and the format of the show reinforces that. In response to softball questions accusations, King says, Ive never understood that, all Ive tried to do is ask the best questions I could think of, listen to the answers, and follow up. I dont attack anybody – thats not my style – but I follow up, Ive asked people who say this, Whats a softball question. Theyll say, You say to some movie star, whats your next project, to me, thats not a softball. To me, thats interesting – what are you doing next, King accepted call-in questions on some nights. Callers were identified only by city and state/province, and generally not by name, surprise guests telephoned the show and comment, like governors and celebrities.
At times, prank calls came in, during major election coverage, the program may center on political analysis and commentary, as the shows airing generally coincides with the closing of polls in many states. One of Kings recurring topics is the paranormal, a frequent guest is John Edward of the popular television show Crossing Over with John Edward. Edward comes on the show and gives callers a free chance to communicate, via him. King had alleged psychics such as Sylvia Browne and James Van Praagh on from time to time to do readings, King sometimes allows skeptics such as James Randi to debate the psychics. In an April 2005 episode, King hosted a discussion regarding Evangelical, Jewish, Muslim
United Press International
At its peak, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. It was headed by Hugh Baillie from 1935 to 1955, at the time of his retirement, UP had 2,900 clients in the United States, and 1,500 abroad. In 1958 it became United Press International after absorbing the International News Service, at its peak, UPI had more than 2,000 full-time employees, and 200 news bureaus in 92 countries, it had more than 6,000 media subscribers. With the rising popularity of news, the business of UPI began to decline as the circulation of afternoon newspapers, its chief client category. Its decline accelerated after the 1982 sale of UPI by the Scripps company, the E. W. Scripps Company controlled United Press until its absorption of William Randolph Hearsts smaller competing agency, INS, in 1958 to form UPI. With the Hearst Corporation as a minority partner, UPI continued under Scripps management until 1982, since its sale in 1982, UPI has changed ownership several times and was twice in Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization.
With each change in ownership came deeper service and staff cutbacks and changes of focus, since the 1999 sale of its broadcast client list to its one-time major rival, the AP, UPI has concentrated on smaller information market niches. It no longer services media organizations in a major way, in 2000, UPI was purchased by News World Communications, an international news media company founded in 1976 by Unification Church leader Sun Myung Moon. It now maintains a website and photo service and electronically publishes several information product packages. It sells a premium service, which has deeper coverage and analysis of emerging threats, the security industry, UPIs content is presented in text and photo formats, in the English and Arabic languages. UPIs main office is in the Miami metropolitan area and it maintains office locations in five countries and uses freelance journalists in other major cities. Beginning with the Cleveland Press, publisher E. W. Scripps created the first chain of newspapers in the United States, Scripps hoped to make a profit from selling that news to papers owned by others.
At that time and until World War II, most newspapers relied on news agencies for stories outside their geographic areas. Despite strong newspaper industry opposition, UP started to sell news to the new and competitive radio medium in 1935, years before competitor AP, controlled by the newspaper industry, Scripps United Press was considered a scrappy alternative news source to the AP. UP reporters were called Unipressers and were noted for their aggressive and competitive streak. UP became a training ground for generations of journalists. Walter Cronkite, who started with United Press in Kansas City, gained fame for his coverage of World War II in Europe and that was part of the spirit. But we knew we could do a good job despite that
Midland is a city in and the county seat of Midland County, United States, on the Southern Plains of the states western area. A small portion of the city extends into Martin County, at the 2010 census, the population of Midland was 111,147, and a 2015 estimate gave a total of 132,950, making it the twenty-fourth most populous city in the state of Texas. Due to the oil boom in Midland, certain officials have given population estimates above 155,000, the metropolitan area is a component of the larger Midland−Odessa, Texas Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 295,987 on July 1,2012. People in Midland are called Midlanders, Midland was founded as the midway point between Fort Worth and El Paso on the Texas and Pacific Railroad in 1881. It is the hometown of former First Lady Laura Bush, and the home of former Presidents George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush. Midland was established in June 1881 as Midway Station, on the Texas, Midland became the county seat of Midland County in March 1885, when that county was first organized and separated from Tom Green County.
By 1890, it had one of the most important cattle shipping centers in the state. The city was incorporated in 1906, and by 1910 the city established its first fire department, Midland was transformed into the administrative center of the West Texas oil fields. During the Second World War, Midland was the largest bombardier training base in the country, a second boom period began after the war, with the discovery and development of the Spraberry Trend, still ranked as the third-largest oil field in the United States by total reserves. Yet another boom period took place during the 1970s, with the oil prices associated with the oil. Today, the Permian Basin produces one fifth of the total petroleum. Midlands economy still relies heavily on petroleum, the city has diversified to become a regional telecommunications. By August 2006, a period of crude oil production had caused a significant workforce deficit. According to the Midland Chamber of Commerce, at that time there were almost 2,000 more jobs available in the Permian Basin than there were workers to fill them, John Howard Griffin wrote a history of Midland in 1959, Land of the High Sky.
In 1967, the U. S. Supreme Court heard the case of Avery v. Midland County, Midland mayor Hank Avery had sued Midland County, challenging the electoral-districting scheme in effect for elections to the County Commissioners Court. The county districts geographically quartered the county, but the city of Midland, in the northwestern quarter, the majority of the U. S. Supreme Court held that the districting inequality violated the Fourteenth Amendments Equal Protection clause. The dissenting minority held that this example of the Warren Courts policy of incorporation at the local-government level exceeded the Courts constitutional authority, Midland is located at 32°0′N 102°6′W, in the Permian Basin in the plains of West Texas. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 71.5 square miles
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, at 11,39 EST. Disintegration of the vehicle began after an O-ring seal in its solid rocket booster failed at liftoff. The O-ring was not designed to fly under unusually cold conditions as in this launch and this led to the separation of the right-hand SRBs aft field joint attachment and the structural failure of the external tank. Aerodynamic forces broke up the orbiter, the crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. The exact timing of the death of the crew is unknown, the shuttle had no escape system, and the impact of the crew compartment with the ocean surface was too violent to be survivable. The Rogers Commission found NASAs organizational culture and decision-making processes had been key contributing factors to the accident, NASA managers had known since 1977 that contractor Morton Thiokols design of the SRBs contained a potentially catastrophic flaw in the O-rings, but they had failed to address this problem properly.
Approximately 17 percent of Americans witnessed the launch live because of the presence of Payload Specialist Christa McAuliffe, media coverage of the accident was extensive, one study reported that 85 percent of Americans surveyed had heard the news within an hour of the accident. The Challenger disaster has been used as a study in many discussions of engineering safety. Each of the Space Shuttles two Solid Rocket Boosters was constructed of seven sections, six of which were joined in pairs at the factory. For each flight, the four resulting segments were assembled in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center, the factory joints were sealed with asbestos-silica insulation applied over the joint, while each field joint was sealed with two rubber O-rings. During the Space Shuttle design process, a McDonnell Douglas report in September 1971 discussed the safety record of solid rockets, while a safe abort was possible after most types of failures, one was especially dangerous, a burnthrough by hot gases of the rockets casing.
The report stated that if burnthrough occurs adjacent to tank or orbiter, timely sensing may not be feasible and abort not possible, Morton Thiokol was the contractor responsible for the construction and maintenance of the shuttles SRBs. This phenomenon, known as joint rotation, caused a drop in air pressure. This made it possible for combustion gases to erode the O-rings, in the event of widespread erosion, a flame path could develop, causing the joint to burst—which would have destroyed the booster and the shuttle. Evidence of serious O-ring erosion was present as early as the space shuttle mission, STS-2. Contrary to NASA regulations, the Marshall Center did not report this problem to senior management at NASA, by 1985, Marshall and Thiokol realized that they had a potentially catastrophic problem on their hands. They began the process of redesigning the joint with three inches of steel around the tang. This tang would grip the inner face of the joint and prevent it from rotating and they did not call for a halt to shuttle flights until the joints could be redesigned, but rather treated the problem as an acceptable flight risk
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and East Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China. The Pacific War saw the Allied powers pitted against the Empire of Japan, the formal and official surrender of Japan took place aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. In Allied countries during the war, The Pacific War was not usually distinguished from World War II in general, or was known simply as the War against Japan. Japan used the name Greater East Asia War, as chosen by a decision on 10 December 1941. Japanese officials integrated what they called the Japan–China Incident into the Greater East Asia War, in Japan, the Fifteen Years War is used, referring to the period from the Mukden Incident of 1931 through 1945. The Phayap Army sent troops to invade and occupy northeastern Burma, involved were the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and Mengjiang, and the collaborationist Wang Jingwei regime.
The official policy of the U. S. Government is that Thailand was not an ally of the Axis, Japan conscripted many soldiers from its colonies of Korea and Formosa. To a small extent, some Vichy French, Indian National Army and Italy both had limited involvement in the Pacific War. The German and the Italian navies operated submarines and raiding ships in the Indian, the Italians had access to concession territory naval bases in China, while the Germans did not. After Japans attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declarations of war, Free France and many other countries took part, especially forces from other British colonies. Between 1942 and 1945, there were four main areas of conflict in the Pacific War, the Central Pacific, South East Asia, U. S. sources refer to two theaters within the Pacific War, the Pacific theater and the China Burma India Theater. However these were not operational commands, in the Pacific, the Allies divided operational control of their forces between two supreme commands, known as Pacific Ocean Areas and Southwest Pacific Area.
In 1945, for a period just before the Japanese surrender. By 1937, Japan controlled Manchuria and was ready to move deeper into China, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident on 7 July 1937 provoked full-scale war between China and Japan. In August 1937, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek deployed his best army to fight about 300,000 Japanese troops in Shanghai, the Japanese continued to push the Chinese forces back, capturing the capital Nanking in December 1937 and committed which was known as Nanking Massacre. In March 1938, Nationalist forces won their first victory at Taierzhuang, but the city of Xuzhou was taken by Japanese in May. In June 1938, Japan deployed about 350,000 troops to invade Wuhan, the Japanese achieved major military victories, but world opinion—in particular in the United States—condemned Japan, especially after the Panay incident