Intercity bus service
An intercity bus service or intercity coach service called a long-distance, over-the-road, long-haul, or highway bus or coach service, is a public transport service using coaches to carry passengers significant distances between different cities, towns, or other populated areas. Unlike a transit bus service, which has frequent stops throughout a city or town, an intercity bus service has a single stop at one location in or near a city, travels long distances without stopping at all. Intercity bus services may be operated by government agencies or private industry, for profit and not for profit. Intercity coach travel can serve areas or countries with no train services, or may be set up to compete with trains by providing a more flexible or cheaper alternative. Intercity bus services are of prime importance in populated rural areas that have little or no public transportation. Intercity bus services are one of four common transport methods between cities, not all of which are available in all places.
The others are by airliner and private automobile. The first intercity scheduled transport service was called the stagecoach and originated in the 17th century. Crude coaches were being built from the 16th century in England, but without suspension, these coaches achieved low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time. By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure was being put in place; the first stagecoach route ran from Edinburgh to Leith. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country. A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century; the coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and travelled at a few miles per hour. Shakespeare's first plays were staged at coaching inns such as Southwark; the speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century.
Reforms of the turnpike trusts, new methods of road building and the improved construction of coaches all led to a sustained rise in the comfort and speed of the average journey—from an average journey length of 2 days for the Cambridge-London route in 1750 to a length of under 7 hours in 1820. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach", it was advertised with the following announcement: "However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years using coaches with steel spring suspension. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour. More dramatic improvements to coach speed were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office, who commissioned a fleet of mail coaches to deliver the post across the country.
His experimental coach left Bristol at 4 pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London just 16 hours later. The golden age of the stagecoach was during the Regency period, from 1800 to 1830; the era saw great improvements in the design of the coaches, notably by John Besant in 1792 and 1795. His coach had a improved turning capacity and braking system, a novel feature that prevented the wheels from falling off while the coach was in motion. Obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle; each wheel had two durable steel leaf springs on each side and the body of the carriage was fixed directly to the springs attached to the axles. Steady improvements in road construction were made at this time, most the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up and down the country. Coaches in this period travelled at around 12 miles per hour and increased the level of mobility in the country, both for people and for mail; each route had an average of four coaches operating on it at one time - two for both directions and a further two spares in case of a breakdown en route.
The development of railways in the 1830s spelt the end for the stagecoaches across Europe and America, with only a few companies surviving to provide services for short journeys and excursions until the early years of the 20th century. The first motor coaches were acquired by operators of those horse-drawn vehicles. W. C. Standerwick of Blackpool, England acquired its first motor charabanc in 1911, Royal Blue from Bournemouth acquired its first motor charabanc in 1913. Motor coaches were used only for excursions. In 1919, Royal Blue took advantage of a rail strike to run a coach service from Bournemouth to London; the service was so successful. In 1920 the Minister of Transport Eric Campbell Geddes was quoted in Punch magazine as saying "I think it would be a calamity if we did anything to prevent the economic use of charabancs" and expressed concern at the problems caused to small charabanc and omnibus operators in parliament. In America, Carl Eric Wickman began providing the first service in 1913.
Frustrated about being unable to sell a seven-passenger automobile on the showroom floor of the dealership where he worked, he purchased the vehicle himself and started using it to transport miners between Hibbing and Alice, Minnesota. He began providing this service in what would start a new company and industry; the company would one day be known as Greyhound. In 1914
In scheduled transportation, a layover is a point where a vehicle stops, with passengers changing vehicle. In public transit, this takes a few minutes at a trip terminal. For air travel, where layovers are longer, passengers will exit the vehicle and wait in the terminal. A layover for mass transit a short period of recovery time built into the schedule. Layovers are used for one or more of the following reasons: recover from delays, provide breaks for the driver, and/or allow time for a driver change. Delays may be caused by excess boarding times. In addition to being used at the end of vehicle trip, layovers can be scheduled at timing points during the trip, in which case they are referred to as loading/unloading time. In this case, they serve as extra time provided for the loading and unloading of passengers, most scheduled at busy stops, they allow time to pass if a service is running early, to prevent arriving at a timing point ahead of schedule. A layover in long-distance travel by train or intercity bus is a break that a passenger must take between vehicles in a multi-vehicle trip.
It is the time spent at a terminal after waiting to board the next. Many inter-city and international trips include layovers; as in mass transit, a layover in long-distance travel may provide for a break taken by the operator. A vehicle is said to be laying over after it finishes its route and is waiting prior to a return trip, or is taking a break to change crews or for the crew to rest. In air travel, a stop or transfer is considered to be a layover or connection up to a certain maximum allowed connecting time, while a so-called stopover is a longer break in the flight itinerary; the maximum time depends on many variables, but for most U. S. and Canadian itineraries, it is 4 hours, for most international itineraries, it is 24 hours. In general, layovers are cheaper than stopovers, because notionally layovers are incidental to traveling between two other points, whereas stopovers are among the traveler's destinations. Bus terminus Transport hub
A bus turnout, bus pullout, bus bay, bus lay-by, or off-line bus stop is a designated spot on the side of a road where buses or trams may pull out of the flow of traffic to pick up and drop off passengers. It is indented into the sidewalk or other pedestrian area. A bus bay is, in a way, the opposite of a bus bulb. With a bus bulb, the point is to save the bus the time needed to merge out of and back into moving traffic, at the cost of temporarily blocking that traffic while making a stop. With a bus bay, the goal is to not block traffic while the bus is stopped, but at the cost of the time necessary to merge back into flowing traffic. Bus bays, will produce longer dwell times than bus bulbs; the dwell time can be reduced by traffic legislation. E. g. in the Czech Republic, the drivers in the running traffic lane are obliged to enable to the bus to leave the bus stop, but this obligation applies only in built up area. The Czech technical standards from 1970s and 1990s preferred to build bus bays at all classes of roads, the new version ČSN 73 6425-1 from 2007 prefers bus stops in the running lane within traffic calming concept.
On roads of higher classes, bus bays or bus stop lanes are obliged. Bus bulb Bus lane Bus stop
A bus garage known as a bus depot, bus base or bus barn, is a facility where buses are stored and maintained. In many conurbations, bus garages are on the site of former car barns or tram sheds, where trams were stored, the operation transferred to buses. In other areas, garages were built to replace horse-bus yards or on virgin sites when populations were not as high as now; the largest bus depot in the world is Millennium Park Bus Depot In Delhi India. Most bus garages will contain the following elements: Internal parking External parking Fueling point Fuel storage tanks Engineering section Inspection pits Bus wash Brake test lane Staff canteen/break room Administration officeSmaller garages may contain the minimum engineering facilities, restricted to light servicing capabilities only. Garages may contain recovery vehicles converted buses, although their incidence has declined with the use of contractors to recover break-downs, the increase in reliability. Overnight, the more valuable or in-service buses will be stored in the interior of the garage, with less used or older service vehicles, vehicles withdrawn for storage or awaiting disposal, stored externally.
During the day and external areas will see a variety of movements. Heritage vehicles are exclusively stored inside the garage. Garages will feature rest rooms for drivers assigned to'as required' duties, whereby they may be required to drive relief or replacement buses in the event of breakdown; the garage may have'light duties' drivers, who move the buses internally around the garage called shunting. Several bus companies such as London Buses and Lothian Buses used to operate multiple storage garages around their operating area, supplemented by a central works facility. Central works have declined with increase in sub-contract engineering, improvements in mechanical reliability of bus designs; the practice of routine mid-life refurbishment of bus fleets has declined, which has resulted in shorter service lives. Some bus companies make use of outstations, as an additional bus storage facility; these are outdoor parking locations, where buses are stored overnight or between peaks, which are more conveniently located for operations, reducing dead mileage.
Incidents of vandalism and a general reduction in services has seen their decline in the UK. Bus garages will have large areas unobstructed by supporting columns as well as high roofs for storage of double-decker buses. In London, the transfer of routes from double-decker operation to articulated buses has caused problems at some garages that were found to be too small to accommodate all the replacement buses, requiring splitting of allocations, or the building of new garages. Bus station Bus terminus
Express bus service
An express bus service is a bus service, intended to run faster than normal bus services between the same two commuter or destination points. Express buses operate on a faster schedule by not making as many stops as normal bus services and taking quicker routes, such as along freeways, or by using dedicated lanes or roadways. Express buses may operate out of park and rides, in some cases only during rush hour in the peak direction. Fares on express bus services may be higher than normal parallel services. Many express buses act as precursors to bus rapid transit lines and employ a proof-of-payment scheme, requiring passengers to purchase tickets before boarding the bus, speeding up the service; the vehicles used may feature amenities like comfortable seating and wireless Internet service on routes that travel long distances at higher speeds without stopping. In many cases, an express bus service is identified by a letter before or after the regular route number. For example, in Sydney, the letters L, E and X. L indicates that the bus runs along the normal route, while E and X indicate that the bus runs along a more direct route.
Express train Limited stop
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Intercity bus driver
An intercity bus driver is a bus driver whose duties involve driving a bus between cities. It is one of four common positions available to those capable of driving buses. Intercity bus drivers may be employed for private companies, it varies by country, more common. But many countries have regulations on the training and certification requirements and the hours of intercity drivers. In the United States, intercity bus driving is one of the fastest growing jobs, with attractive wages and good benefits. Besides the actual operation of the bus, duties of the intercity bus driver include cleaning and maintaining the vehicle, doing simple repairs, checking tickets of passengers or in some cases, collecting fares, loading passengers on and off the bus efficiently, handling the passengers' luggage, enforcing guidelines expected from passengers, dealing with certain types of emergencies. Good communication skills in the native language of the country and other languages spoken by a large part of the population are key.
Drivers must be able to engage in basic communication with passengers and to give them directions and other information they may need. Some countries require intercity bus drivers to fill out logs detailing the hours; this documents they are compliant with the country's laws regarding the maximum number of hours they are permitted to drive. Intercity bus drivers are required to hold a Commercial Driver's License; the requirements for this vary by country, but require more training than driving a passenger automobile. Safe driving skills and the willingness to obey traffic laws and handle driving under a variety of weather and traffic conditions are essential, as passengers expect a safe trip, the safety of those in other vehicles on the road is necessary; those hired as intercity bus are expected to have prior experience in the operation of a commercial vehicle. This may include the operation of school buses, or trucks. New hires by companies are oriented to their jobs by first riding along for one or more runs on a route driving the route under supervision of an experienced driver, or driving the route unsupervised without any passengers.
After passing the training, most new hires will only work as backups until a permanent position can be offered. Intercity bus drivers are provided with a lot of independence, though they are expected to follow a particular route and schedule as determined by their employer. On shorter routes, it is possible for a driver to make a round trip and return home on the same day, sometimes to complete a round trip multiple times in a single day. On longer routes that exceed or come close to the maximum number of hours an operator can drive, drivers will be changed over the course of the route. Either the driver will drive half the work day in one direction, switch places before driving part of a trip in the other direction on a different vehicle, or the driver will drive the maximum amount of time permitted by law in a single direction, stay overnight, complete a return trip on the following day; when the latter occurs, the employer will pay lodging and dining expenses for the driver. An issue with intercity bus drivers those on longer routes, is taking short breaks for eating and restroom use.
Stopping to meet these human needs is a necessity. But making these stops delays the trip, which many passengers want to be as quick and efficient as possible; the driver will pass these breaks onto the passengers and allow them to enjoy the benefits of the break as well. Intercity bus driving is safe but carries its risks for drivers. Accidents occur, which can be harmful to the driver and those in other vehicles involved alike. Dealing with unruly passengers can be another challenge, something which operators are not equipped to handle; such passengers can be harmful to other passengers alike. There have been incidents which have occurred involving intercity bus drivers being assaulted by passengers. One such event occurred on October 3, 2001, when Damir Igric slit a Greyhound driver's throat, resulting in seven deaths as the bus crashed. Hours of service Drivers' working hours List of bus operating companies BLS info on bus drivers