A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody, they are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, are under 6 m tall. Plants of many species may grow either depending on their growing conditions. Small, low shrubs less than 2 m tall, such as lavender and most small garden varieties of rose, are termed "subshrubs". An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or a garden is known as a shrubbery; when clipped as topiary, suitable species or varieties of shrubs develop dense foliage and many small leafy branches growing close together. Many shrubs respond well to renewal pruning, in which hard cutting back to a "stool" results in long new stems known as "canes". Other shrubs respond better to selective pruning to reveal their character. Shrubs in common garden practice are considered broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as mountain pine and common juniper are shrubby in structure. Species that grow into a shrubby habit may be either evergreen.
In botany and ecology, a shrub is more used to describe the particular physical structural or plant life-form of woody plants which are less than 8 metres high and have many stems arising at or near the base. For example, a descriptive system adopted in Australia is based on structural characteristics based on life-form, plus the height and amount of foliage cover of the tallest layer or dominant species. For shrubs 2–8 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-shrub mid-dense foliage cover — open-shrub sparse foliage cover — tall shrubland sparse foliage cover — tall open shrublandFor shrubs less than 2 metres high the following structural forms are categorized: dense foliage cover — closed-heath or closed low shrubland— mid-dense foliage cover — open-heath or mid-dense low shrubland— sparse foliage cover — low shrubland sparse foliage cover — low open shrubland Those marked with * can develop into tree form
Bush Tower called the Bush Terminal International Exhibit Building and as the Bush Terminal Sales Building, is a historic 30-story, 433-foot-tall skyscraper located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, just east of Times Square. The building occupies a plot at 130-132 West 42nd Street between Sixth Avenue, it was built in 1916–1918 for Irving T. Bush's Bush Terminal Company, which operated Bush Terminal in the Sunset Park neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. Bush Tower was intended as a commercial display space and social space, its notable design combined narrowness and Neo-Gothic architecture. In addition, it played a large role in the evolution of Times Square and of New York skyscrapers after the 1916 Zoning Resolution. Under Irving T. Bush the Bush Terminal Co. created Bush Tower to bring buyers and designers together. As such, the company promoted a "vast centralized marketplace under one roof where complete lines of goods can be examined without loss of time"; the Bush Terminal Company attempted a similar melding of commercial displays and social space at Bush House in London, built in three phases during the 1920s, but that concept was not carried through.
The building site measured only 50 feet wide and 90 feet long, but rose over 433 feet to its highest point. The architects remarked that they wanted to make the building "a model for the tall, narrow building in the center of a city block"; the New York firm of Helmle and Corbett —and architect Harvey Wiley Corbett—gave Bush Tower a Neo-Gothic appearance, in some ways similar in style to New York's landmark Woolworth Building, a skyscraper, completed just three years earlier. The thinness of the building and its function precluded the need for conventional skyscraper fenestration; the windows are concentrated on south facades. With the exception of a recessed mid-facade lightwell on the east facade, the east and west walls were left blank. Instead, Trompe-l'œil brickwork creates vertical "ribs" with a false "shade" pattern to enhance the verticality. High pointed; the water tower was hidden behind a mansard roof at the tower's peak. The tower's lowest three floors were planned for the comfort and convenience of buyers visiting New York.
These floors were modeled after a traditional large metropolitan private club and housed the newly created International Buyers Club, which contained "that mysterious element called'atmosphere' and'social standing'", yet representatives of any "reputable" firm could join for free. The company wrote these floors were designed to be "welcoming of women members"; the club offered conference rooms, multiple lounges, buffet service, a large second-floor reading room staffed with trained librarians. The third-floor auditorium could host lectures, the viewing of manufacturers' own promotional motion pictures, or "fashion parades" for "displaying gowns."These lowest floors featured extensive oak panelling, oriental carpets and antique furniture. The upper 27 stories held displays of manufacturers' goods, a concept explained as "the museum idea applied to commerce" by a writer for the Metropolitan Museum of Art's Bulletin. Bush Tower influenced subsequent skyscraper design. Architect Raymond Hood credited the architects of this structure as an influence on his landmark American Radiator Building of 1924.
Written about in the Literary Digest and Vanity Fair, by such critics as Lewis Mumford in Architecture, the tallest building in Midtown Manhattan when completed, Bush Tower signified the movement of the Manhattan business district to Midtown. The Buyers' Club on the lower floors was replaced by a bank in the early 1920s by the Old London Restaurant in 1931. After the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company foreclosed upon the tower in 1938 the upper floors were converted for regular office usage; the new tenants included an association of dress manufacturers, who moved into the tenth floor in 1939. The tower was purchased and auctioned off by real estate investor Jacob Freidus in 1945, it was subsequently bought by a syndicate co-headed by real estate developer Joseph Durst in 1951. By the early 1980s, the Times Square neighborhood and Bush Tower itself had deteriorated to the point where the owners considered demolishing the building, but it was instead renovated, with heating and electrical systems replaced throughout.
The skyscraper was acquired in the 1980s by the Lebanese Dalloul family. In 2002, the owners publicized their plans for a new building to the west of Bush Tower. In a design by the firm of Gruzen Samton, a 23-story glass tower would be separated by a 6-inch gap—necessitated by earthquake codes—but connected on every floor to double the original building's space. In October 2006, Dubai-based developer Istithmar World purchased the properties at 136-140 West 42nd St. between Bush Tower and Istithmar-owned 6 Times Square National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets List o
Ralph Waldo Emerson House
The Ralph Waldo Emerson House is a house museum located at 18 Cambridge Turnpike, Massachusetts, a National Historic Landmark for its associations with American philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. He and his family named the home Bush; the museum is open mid-April to mid-October. The house was built in 1828 by the Coolidge family and named "Coolidge Castle", it was used as a summer house beside the Cambridge and Concord Turnpike. It is a two-story frame building in a house style common to many New England towns. While Ralph Waldo Emerson was preparing to marry Lydia Jackson, he told her he could not live in her home town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. "Plymouth is streets", he wrote to her, "I live in the wide champaign." He had lived in Concord at The Old Manse, the Emerson family home, hoped to return to that town. In July 1835, he wrote in his journal, "I bought my house and two acres six rods of land of John T. Coolidge for 3,500 dollars." He and Jackson moved into the home the next day, along with his mother.
In a contemporary letter, he writes that he is pleased to avoid the trouble of building, but writes: "It is in a mean place, cannot be fine until trees and flowers give it a character of its own". To that end, he spent between $400 and $500 for finishing; the money came from a settlement with the family of his first wife, Ellen Tucker, who had died young. He wrote that he hoped to "crowd so many books and papers, and, if possible, wise friends into it, that it shall have as much wit as it can carry." It became a central meeting place for philosophers and poets. Emerson remained in the house for the rest of his life. In it he wrote his famous essays "The American Scholar" and "Self Reliance", he entertained a host of notable neighbors and visitors including Bronson and Louisa May Alcott, Margaret Fuller, Henry David Thoreau. Beginning in July 1836, the home hosted the meetings of the Transcendental Club, a group which included Orestes Brownson, Theodore Parker, others. Emerson made his living as a lecturer beyond.
He gave some 1,500 lectures in his lifetime. His earnings allowed him to expand his property, buying 11 acres of land by Walden Pond and a few more acres in a neighboring pine grove, he wrote that he was "landlord and waterlord of 14 acres, more or less". In April 1841, Thoreau accepted an invitation to move into Bush with the family; as Emerson described to his brother William: "He is to have his board, etc. for what labor he chooses to do, he is thus far a great benefactor... for he is an indefatigable and skillful laborer". Thoreau built his well-known cabin on Emerson's property at Walden Pond. After his experiment in living deliberately, he returned to Bush in September 1847 and stayed there until the next July. While living in the house, Emerson published his book of Essays in 1841, as well as a second series of essays in 1844, he published two volumes of poetry, Poems in 1846 and May-Day and Other Pieces in 1867. The house caught fire on the morning of July 24, 1872, Emerson ran out to call for help from neighbors.
After the fire was put out, friends took up a collection to pay for repairs, raising some $12,000 in total, sending the Emersons to Europe and Egypt while the house was restored. In 1873 the Emersons returned to reoccupy the house. Emerson died in the house in 1882, in 1892 his wife Lidian followed, their daughter Ellen Tucker Emerson, who remained unmarried, lived in the house until her death in 1909. Other friends and relatives lived here until 1948. Today the house is still owned by the family, it was first opened to the public in 1930 as a private museum. The interior furnishings remain much as they did when Emerson lived in the home, with original furniture and Emerson's memorabilia; the exception is the furniture and books from his study, which are now on display in the Concord Museum across the street. His personal book collection has been moved to Harvard University's Houghton Library. List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places in Concord, Massachusetts National Historic Landmarks entry New England Travel Planner Fiddlersgreen.net article Frommers
Shepherd's Bush is a district of west London, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham 4.9 miles west of Charing Cross, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the Westfield London shopping centre a short distance to the north; the main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all with small and independent shops and restaurants. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherd's Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers. In 2011, the population of the area was 39,724; the district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton and Chiswick to the west. White City forms the northern part of Shepherd's Bush. Shepherd's Bush comprises the Shepherd's Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Wormholt and White City wards of the borough; the area's focal point is Shepherd's Bush Green, a triangular area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops, with Westfield shopping centre to its north.
The Green is a hub on the local road network, with four main roads radiating from the western side of the green and three roads approaching its eastern apex, meeting at the large Holland Park Roundabout. This position makes it an important node of the bus network, with eighteen bus routes arriving there, it is served by five London Underground stations: Shepherd's Bush and White City both on the Central line, Shepherd's Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane all on the Hammersmith & City line. To the east, Shepherd's Bush is bounded by the physical barrier of the West London railway line and the grade-separated West Cross Route. Most of the areas to the east of the barrier differ in character, being associated with the more affluent Holland Park and Notting Hill. Commercial activity in Shepherd's Bush is now focused on the Westfield shopping centre next to Shepherd's Bush Central line station and on the many small shops which run along the northern side of the Green. Built in the 1970s with a rooftop car park and connecting bridge to the station, the older West 12 Shepherds Bush shopping centre was redeveloped in the 1990s.
The bridge was removed, the centre now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice and a supermarket. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, another set of shops and restaurants line Goldhawk Road from the Green to the southwest. Many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. Running parallel to, under, an elevated section of the Hammersmith & City line there is a large permanent market, the Shepherd's Bush Market, selling all types of foodstuffs, cooked food, household goods and bric-à-brac; the Westfield Group opened a shopping centre in October 2008. As well as the offices within the BBC TV Centre on Wood Lane, opposite this is Network House, 1 Ariel Way, a 20,000 sq ft building, let by Frost Meadowcroft on behalf of Westfield to Zodiak Entertainment in September 2009 and in Rockley Road is the 160,000 sq ft Shepherds Building where Endemol another TV company are based and where Jellycat, a soft toy company, relocated their head office to in February 2010.
The same building houses Escape Studios, a digital art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherd's Bush are located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, subsequently divided up into small flats. Shepherd's Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate, constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s, it was built on the site of the grounds of the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition and close to the White City Stadium and has given its name to the northern part of Shepherd's Bush, now better known as White City. The name Shepherd's Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the common land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London.
An alternative theory is that it could have been named after someone in the area, because in 1635 the area was recorded as "Sheppard's Bush Green". Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age. Shepherd's Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the "Fulanham" estate. A map of London dated 1841 shows Shepherd's Bush to be undeveloped and chiefly rural in character, with much open farmland compared to fast-developing Hammersmith. Residential development began in earnest in the late 19th century, as London's population expanded relentlessly. In 1904 the Catholic Church of Holy Ghost and St Stephen, built in the Gothic style with a triple-gabled facade of red brick and Portland stone, was completed and opened to the public. Like other parts of London, Shepherd's Bush suffered from bomb damage during World War II from V-1 flying bomb a
A plain bearing, or more sliding bearing and slide bearing, is the simplest type of bearing, comprising just a bearing surface and no rolling elements. Therefore, the journal slides over the bearing surface; the simplest example of a plain bearing is a shaft rotating in a hole. A simple linear bearing can be a pair of flat surfaces designed to allow motion. Plain bearings, in general, are the least expensive type of bearing, they are compact and lightweight, they have a high load-carrying capacity. The design of a plain bearing depends on the type of motion; the three types of motions possible are: Journal bearing: This is the most common type of plain bearing. In locomotive and railroad car applications a journal bearing referred to the plain bearing once used at the ends of the axles of railroad wheel sets, enclosed by journal boxes. Axlebox bearings today are no longer plain bearings but rather are rolling-element bearings. Linear bearing: This bearing provides linear motion. Thrust bearing: A thrust bearing provides a bearing surface for forces acting axial to the shaft.
One example is a propeller shaft. Integral plain bearings are built into the object of use as a hole prepared in the bearing surface. Industrial integral bearings are made from cast iron or babbitt and a hardened steel shaft is used in the bearing. Integral bearings are not as common because bushings are easier to accommodate and can be replaced if necessary. Depending on the material, an integral bearing may be less expensive. If an integral bearing wears out, the item may be reworked to accept a bushing. Integral bearings were common in 19th-century machinery, but became progressively less common as interchangeable manufacture became popular. For example, a common integral plain bearing is the hinge, both a thrust bearing and a journal bearing. A bushing known as a bush, is an independent plain bearing, inserted into a housing to provide a bearing surface for rotary applications. Common designs include solid and clenched bushings. A sleeve, split, or clenched bushing is only a "sleeve" of material with an inner diameter, outer diameter, length.
The difference between the three types is that a solid sleeved bushing is solid all the way around, a split bushing has a cut along its length, a clenched bearing is similar to a split bushing but with a clench across the cut connecting the parts. A flanged bushing is a sleeve bushing with a flange at one end extending radially outward from the OD; the flange is used to positively locate the bushing when it is installed or to provide a thrust bearing surface. Sleeve bearings of inch dimensions are exclusively dimensioned using the SAE numbering system; the numbering system uses the format -XXYY-ZZ, where XX is the ID in sixteenths of an inch, YY is the OD in sixteenths of an inch, ZZ is the length in eighths of an inch. Metric sizes exist. A linear bushing is not pressed into a housing, but rather secured with a radial feature. Two such examples include two retaining rings, or a ring, molded onto the OD of the bushing that matches with a groove in the housing; this is a more durable way to retain the bushing, because the forces acting on the bushing could press it out.
The thrust form of a bushing is conventionally called a thrust washer. Two-piece plain bearings, known as full bearings in industrial machinery, are used for larger diameters, such as crankshaft bearings; the two halves are called shells. There are various systems used to keep the shells located; the most common method is a tab on the parting line edge that correlates with a notch in the housing to prevent axial movement after installation. For large, thick shells a button stop or dowel pin is used; the button stop is screwed to the housing. Another less common method uses a dowel pin that keys the shell to the housing through a hole or slot in the shell; the distance from one parting edge to the other is larger than the corresponding distance in the housing so that a light amount of pressure is required to install the bearing. This keeps the bearing in place; the shell's circumference is slightly larger than the housing circumference so that when the two halves are bolted together the bearing crushes slightly.
This creates a large amount of radial force around the entire bearing. It forms a good interface for heat to travel out of the bearings into the housing. Plain bearings must be made from a material, durable, low friction, low wear to the bearing and shaft, resistant to elevated temperatures, corrosion resistant; the bearing is made up of at least two constituents, where one is soft and the other is hard. In general, the harder the surfaces in contact the lower the coefficient of friction and the greater the pressure required for the two to gall or to seize when lubrication fails. Babbitt is used in integral bearings, it is coated over the bore to a thickness of 1 to 100 thou, depending on the diameter. Babbitt bearings are designed to not damage the journal during direct contact and to collect any contaminants in the lubrication