The Sky at Night
The Sky at Night is a monthly documentary television programme on astronomy produced by the BBC. The show had the permanent presenter, Patrick Moore, from its first airing on 24 April 1957 until 7 January 2013. This made it the longest-running programme with the presenter in television history. Many early episodes are missing, either because the tapes were wiped or thrown out, beginning with the 3 February 2013 edition, the show has been co-presented by Lucie Green and Chris Lintott, with Maggie Aderin-Pocock announced in December 2013 as a new presenter. The programme covers a range of general astronomical and space-related topics. Topics include stellar life cycles, radio astronomy, artificial satellites, black holes, neutron stars and many others. The programme covers what is happening in the sky at the time it is being broadcast, especially when something less common. Explaining the shows enduring appeal, Moore said, Astronomys a fascinating subject and you cant help getting interested and its there.
Weve tried to bring it to the people and its not me, its the appeal of the subject. Other guests have included Arthur C, many well-known astronauts have appeared on the programme, such as Piers Sellers, Eugene Cernan, Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong. In July 2004, Moore was unable to make the broadcast owing to a bout of salmonellosis. He was replaced for one occasion by the cosmologist Chris Lintott of Oxford University. This was the occasion in the 55 years of Moores tenure that he did not host the programme. Brian May, the Queen guitarist and astrophysicist, has been a guest on the show time to time. On 1 April 2007, Moore presented the 50th Anniversary edition of the show, the 50th anniversary programme was filmed at Teddington Studios as the 1957 home of the programme, Lime Grove Studios, had been demolished in 1992. On 6 March 2011, Moore presented the 700th edition of the show, on 29 October it was announced that the programme would continue, but would only be shown on BBC Four, ending a 54-year run on the BBCs flagship channel.
In February 2007, the Royal Mail issued a set of six stamps to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the programme. In the Guinness Book of World Records, Patrick Moore is listed as the most prolific TV presenter in the world, having hosted all but one episode of the programme between 1957 and January 2013
Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
Sir Richard Hoare, 2nd Baronet
Hoare was born in Barnes and was descended from Sir Richard Hoare, Lord Mayor of London, the founder of the family banking business, C. His parents were Sir Richard Hoare, 1st Bt. and Anne Hoare and he was educated at Preparatory school at Wandsworth, Seminary school at Greenford, and taught the Classics by the Rev. d Joseph Eyre. In 1783 he had married Hester, daughter of William Lyttelton, after her death in 1785, following the birth of their second child, who died, he toured France and Switzerland. In 1786 he purchased Glastonbury Tor and funded the restoration of the tower on it. He took numerous views during his travels in the form of sketches from which he produced mainly sepia wash drawings. His tutor, John Warwick Smith, and the painter Francis Nicholson were commissioned to produce coloured reductions from some of his continental sketches, bound in volumes, many of these were dispersed in the Stourhead sales of the 1880s. A journey through Wales was followed by a translation of the Itinerarium Cambriae and of the Descriptio Cambriae of Gerald of Wales, with Hoare adding notes and this work was first published in 1804, and was subsequently revised by Thomas Wright in 1863.
Hoares further Tour in Ireland was published in 1807, Hoare was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1792 and was a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. He was appointed High Sheriff of Wiltshire for 1805 and he died at Stourhead, Wiltshire, in 1838. His mausoleum is at St Peters Church, Wiltshire, the first recorded excavations at Stonehenge were done by William Cunnington & Richard Colt Hoare in 1798 and again in 1810. They dug around a fallen Trilithon and a fallen slaughter stone, Colt Hoare excavated 379 barrows on Salisbury Plain as well as identifying many other sites in the area and classifying his findings. However, as the system had not yet been introduced he was unable to date his finds. His two-volume book The Ancient History of Wiltshire outlined his findings, Hoares most important work was his Ancient History of North and South Wiltshire, he sponsored and contributed significantly to the 11 volumes of the History of Modern Wiltshire. The Historical Works of Giraldus Cambrensis, includes Hoares translation Journal of a tour in Ireland, A. D.
Hoare, victoria Hutchings, Messrs Hoare, Bankers, A History of the Hoare Banking Dynasty
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body. They are usually personal possessions, supplies to smooth the journey into the afterlife or offerings to the gods. Grave goods may be classed as a type of votive deposit, most grave goods recovered by archaeologists consist of inorganic objects such as pottery and stone and metal tools but organic objects that have since decayed were placed in ancient tombs. Funerary art is a term but generally means artworks made specifically to decorate a burial place. Where grave goods appear, grave robbery is a potential problem, etruscans would scratch the word śuθina, Etruscan for from a tomb, on grave goods buried with the dead to discourage their reuse by the living. The tomb of pharaoh Tutankhamun is famous because it was one of the few Egyptian tombs that was not thoroughly looted in ancient times, Grave goods can be regarded as a sacrifice intended for the benefit of the deceased in the afterlife. Closely related are customs of worship and offerings to the dead, in modern western culture related to All Souls Day, in East Asia the hell bank note.
Also closely related is the custom of retainer sacrifice, where servants or wives of a deceased chieftain are interred with the body, evidence for intentional burial is found in Neanderthal sites from 130,000 years ago or earlier. In Homo sapiens burials beginning about 100,000 years ago, the body of the deceased was sprinkled with red ochre, and offerings of food and fresh flowers may have been deposited in the grave. Beads made of basalt deposited in graves in the Fertile Crescent date to the end of the Upper Paleolithic, the distribution of grave goods are a potential indicator of the social stratification of a society. It is possible that burial goods indicate a level of concern and consciousness in regard to an afterlife, the expression of social status in rich graves is taken to extremes in the royal graves of the Bronze Age. In the Theban Necropolis in Ancient Egypt, the pyramids and the graves in the Valley of the Kings are among the most elaborate burials in human history. This trend is continued into the Iron Age, an example of an extremely rich royal grave of the Iron Age is the Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.
In the sphere of the Roman Empire, early Christian graves lack grave goods, in the Christian Middle Ages, high-status graves are marked on the exterior, with tomb effigies or expensive tomb stones rather than by the presence of grave goods. The importance of goods, from the simple behavioural and technical to the metaphysical. However, care must be taken to avoid naive interpretation of grave goods as a sample of artefacts in use in a culture. Because of their context, grave goods may represent a special class of artifacts. Burial Grave field Necropolis Mingqi, the traditional Chinese burial goods The Earliest Beads, Treasures From the Ancient World, Museum of Ancient and Modern Art, at muma. org
Normanton Down Barrows
Normanton Down is a Neolithic and Bronze Age barrow cemetery located about 0.6 miles south of Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England. The burials date from between 2600 and 1600 BC and consist of a Neolithic long barrow and some 40 or more Bronze Age round barrows, sited along the crest of a low ridge. The barrows of Normanton Down, visible from Stonehenge along the horizon, have been part of the scenery of Salisbury Plain since 2000 BC. Barrow excavation was a hobby in the 18th and 19th centuries among amateur archaeologists. In 1808, William Cunnington and Sir Richard Colt Hoare excavated several of the barrows, including the most important barrow, the Bush Barrow. Almost all of these barrows are believed to be from the Bronze Age and Hoare noted four sets of curiously huddled together human remains in the east end of the Long barrow. Unlike many of the excavations, Hoare published a detailed account of their findings in 1812. South of the long barrow lies a mortuary enclosure, this rectangular neolithic earthwork, now ploughed out, was discovered by aerial photography, legal protection for many of the barrows was introduced in 1925 when they were designated a scheduled monument.
The area was designated a World Heritage Site in 1987, since which excavation of any sort has been more strictly controlled. Recent study has therefore focussed on re-appraising existing finds and non-intrusive fieldwork, the Normanton Down site reveals the development of an entire Bronze Age cemetery. 24 barrows are covered by 6 different Scheduled Monument designations, the appeared gradually throughout the Bronze Age. Multiple graves all covered by a single barrow are characteristic of the area, the early part of the Bronze Age was marked by Beaker burials, characteristic of the Beaker people. The Beaker graves contained various funerary goods and were covered by round barrows, most of these barrows did not survive. It is assumed that these Beaker burials are located mostly to the west, mounds were erected over some of the preexisting Beaker graves, enabling early excavators to locate them. Later, the layout of the cemetery changed dramatically, the Normanton linear cemetery emerged along the main ridge, with three foci marking the landscape in a relatively straight line.
Even though it is likely that each focus was previously a Beaker grave. Grave clustering seems to be present to some extent, especially in one of the Beaker burials, although most of the barrows were constructed by the end of the Early Bronze Age, a significant change appears in the middle of the Bronze Age. Burials involving Deverel-Rimbury urns of middle Bronze Age manufacture are present in clusters of small mounds, the most famous burial mound at Normanton Down is called Bush Barrow and is 40m wide and 3m high
A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, a cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape, in this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a tumulus, commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, examples of barrows include Duggleby Howe and Maeshowe. The funeral of Patroclus is described in book 23 of the Iliad, Patroclus is burned on a pyre, and his bones are collected into a golden urn in two layers of fat. The barrow is built on the location of the pyre, achilles sponsors funeral games, consisting of a chariot race, wrestling, running, a duel between two champions to the first blood, discus throwing and spear throwing.
Beowulfs body is taken to Hronesness, where it is burned on a funeral pyre, during cremation, the Geats lament the death of their lord, a widows lament being mentioned in particular, singing dirges as they circumambulate the barrow. Afterwards, a mound is built on top of a hill, overlooking the sea, a band of twelve of the best warriors ride around the barrow, singing dirges in praise of their lord. Parallels have drawn to the account of Attilas burial in Jordanes Getica. Jordanes tells that as Attilas body was lying in state, the best horsemen of the Huns circled it, as in circus games. An Old Irish Life of Columcille reports that every funeral procession halted at a mound called Eala, whereupon the corpse was laid, archaeologists often classify tumuli according to their location and date of construction. Some British types are listed below, Bank barrow Bell barrow Bowl barrow D-shaped barrow - round barrow with a flat edge at one side often defined by stone slabs. Disc barrow Fancy barrow - generic term for any Bronze Age barrows more elaborate than a hemispherical shape.
Long barrow Oval barrow - a Neolithic long barrow consisting of an elliptical, platform barrow - The least common of the recognised types of round barrow, consisting of a flat, wide circular mound that may be surrounded by a ditch. They occur widely across southern England with a concentration in East and West Sussex. Pond barrow - a barrow consisting of a circular depression, surrounded by a bank running around the rim of the depression
Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites
Stonehenge and Associated Sites is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Wiltshire, England. The WHS covers two areas of land separated by nearly 30 miles, rather than a specific monument or building. The sites were inscribed as co-listings in 1986, more than 700 individual archaeological features have been identified. There are 160 separate Scheduled Monuments, covering 415 items or features, the Stonehenge area of the WHS is located in south Wiltshire. It covers an area of 26 square km and is centred on the monument of Stonehenge. Ownership is shared between English Heritage, the National Trust, the Ministry of Defence, the RSPB, Wiltshire Council and it covers an area of 22.5 square km and is centred on the prehistoric Avebury Henge. Other archives include the English Heritage Archive in Swindon, the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, UNESCO, Stonehenge and Associated Sites Website of Stonehenge & Avebury World Heritage Site Alexander Keiller Museum website Salisbury Museum website Wiltshire Heritage Museum website
Bush Barrow is a site of the early British Bronze Age, at the western end of the Normanton Down Barrows cemetery. It is among the most important sites of the Stonehenge complex and it was excavated in 1808 by William Cunnington for Sir Richard Colt Hoare. The finds, including worked gold objects, are displayed at Wiltshire Museum in Devizes, Bush Barrow is situated around 1 kilometre southwest of Stonehenge on Normanton Down. It forms part of the Normanton Down Barrows cemetery, the surviving earthworks have an overall diameter of 49 metres and comprise a large mound with breaks in the slope suggesting three phases of development. The barrow currently stands 3.3 metres high and its summit measures 10.5 metres in diameter, the barrow is one of the associated sites in the World Heritage Site covering Stonehenge and Associated Sites. The Normanton Down round barrow cemetery comprises some 40 barrows strung out along an east-west aligned ridge, Bush Barrow is towards the western end of the line of barrows, sited at the highest point of the ridge.
The barrow was excavated in 1808 by William Cunnington for Sir Richard Colt Hoare, the design of the artifact known as the Bush Barrow Lozenge, and the smaller lozenge, has been shown to be based on a hexagon construction. Both the shape and the decorative panels appear to have created by repeating hexagons within a series of three concentric circles. The precision and accuracy displayed by the work both a sophisticated tool kit and a sound knowledge of geometric form. A similar gold lozenge from Clandon Barrow, in Dorset, used a decagon in its design, the studs are around 0.2 millimetres wide and 1 millimetre in length with over a thousand studs embedded in each square centimetre. It is thought that the gold came from Ireland, and the dagger was made in Brittany, the hilt lay forgotten for over 40 years from the 1960s, having been sent to Professor Atkinson at Cardiff University, and found by one of his successors in 2005. An unusual stone mace head, shaped into an out of a rare flecked fossilized corel stone.
It had a handle, from which bone zig-zag decorations survive, reminiscent of items from Greece. Some fragments of bronze rivets and other scraps of bronze have been identified as the remains of a knife that would have been at least 200 years older than the rest of the items. It is not known why this barrow contained such rich grave goods compared to those around it and it occupies the highest point, but is not the tallest barrow, and is not obviously marked out as the principal barrow in the cemetery. In particular it is not known if other barrows in the vicinity have simply had such goods plundered long ago, numerous finds have been made in other barrows, both by Cunnington and subsequently, but nothing to compare to these. According to Barrett and Bowden, absence of evidence does not necessarily evidence of absence. Rethinking Bush Barrow, Archaeology magazine January/February 2009 Bush Barrow page at the Wiltshire Museum website The Bush Barrow gold lozenge, The Sky at Night, BBC,8 July 2013
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Wiltshire Museum, formerly known as Wiltshire Heritage Museum and Devizes Museum, is a museum and library and art gallery in Devizes, England. The museum was established and is run by, the Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. After the purchase of an old school the museum was opened in 1873. Subsequently it expanded into two Georgian houses on side and still occupies this location today. The museum maintains a collection covering the archaeology, art and this collection covers periods of history from as far back as the Palaeolithic and includes Neolithic, Bronze Age, Saxon and more recent historical artefacts. Among the prehistoric collections are items from the Stonehenge and Avebury World Heritage Site, several of the collections have been designated as being a significant part of England’s cultural heritage. One of the most important collections at the museum is the finds from Bush Barrow, the barrow was excavated by William Cunnington in 1808 and produced the richest and most important finds from a Bronze Age grave in the Stonehenge Landscape to date.
The finds were acquired by the museum in 1883 and were displayed there until 1922 when they were loaned to the British Museum. After a controversial restoration of the largest piece that may not reflect its original finish and they are on display in the Gold from the Time of Stonehenge exhibition, opened in 2013. The natural history collection includes remains of a plesiosaur called Bathyspondylus found at Swindon in 1774, Bathyspondylus swindoniensis was first described in 1982 from the Museums specimens. In 2010 the Museum ran a community bus service, the Henge Hopper, linking Avebury with Amesbury and Stonehenge