Classical architecture denotes architecture, more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, or sometimes more from the works of Vitruvius. Different styles of classical architecture have arguably existed since the Carolingian Renaissance, prominently since the Italian Renaissance. Although classical styles of architecture can vary they can in general all be said to draw on a common "vocabulary" of decorative and constructive elements. In much of the Western world, different classical architectural styles have dominated the history of architecture from the Renaissance until the second world war, though it continues to inform many architects to this day; the term "classical architecture" applies to any mode of architecture that has evolved to a refined state, such as classical Chinese architecture, or classical Mayan architecture. It can refer to any architecture that employs classical aesthetic philosophy; the term might be used differently from "traditional" or "vernacular architecture", although it can share underlying axioms with it.
For contemporary buildings following authentic classical principles, the term New Classical Architecture may be used. Classical architecture is derived from the architecture of ancient ancient Rome. With a collapse of the western part of the Roman empire, the architectural traditions of the Roman empire ceased to be practised in large parts of western Europe. In the Byzantine Empire, the ancient ways of building lived on but soon developed into a distinct Byzantine style; the first conscious efforts to bring back the disused language of form of classical antiquity into Western architecture can be traced to the Carolingian Renaissance of the late 8th and 9th centuries. The gatehouse of Lorsch Abbey, in present-day Germany thus displays a system of alternating attached columns and arches which could be an direct paraphrase of e.g. that of the Colosseum in Rome. Byzantine architecture, just as Romanesque and to some extent Gothic architecture, can incorporate classical elements and details but do not to the same degree reflect a conscious effort to draw upon the architectural traditions of antiquity.
In general, they are not considered classical archerchitectural styles in a strict sense. During the Italian renaissance and with the demise of Gothic style, major efforts were made by architects such as Leon Battista Alberti, Sebastiano Serlio and Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola to revive the language of architecture of first and foremost ancient Rome; this was done in part through the study of the ancient Roman architectural treatise De architectura by Vitruvius, to some extent by studying the actual remains of ancient Roman buildings in Italy. Nonetheless, the classical architecture of the Renaissance from the outset represents a specific interpretation of the classical ideas. In a building like the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence by Filippo Brunelleschi, one of the earliest Renaissance buildings, the treatment of the columns for example has no direct antecedent in ancient Roman architecture. During this time period, the study of ancient architecture developed into the architectural theory of classical architecture.
Most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture; the elements of classical architecture have been applied in radically different architectural contexts than those for which they were developed, however. For example, Baroque or Rococo architecture are styles which, although classical at root, display an architectural language much in their own right. During these periods, architectural theory still referred to classical ideas but rather less sincerely than during the Renaissance; as a reaction to late baroque and rococo forms, architectural theorists from circa 1750 through what became known as Neoclassicism again consciously and earnestly attempted to emulate antiquity, supported by recent developments in Classical archaeology and a desire for an architecture based on clear rules and rationality. Claude Perrault, Marc-Antoine Laugier and Carlo Lodoli were among the first theorists of neoclassicism, while Étienne-Louis Boullée, Claude Nicolas Ledoux, Friedrich Gilly and John Soane were among the more radical and influential.
Neoclassical architecture held a strong position on the architectural scene c. 1750–1850. The competing neo-Gothic style however rose to popularity during the early 1800s, the part the 19th century was characterised by a variety of styles, some of them only or not at all related to classicism, eclecticism. Although classical architecture continued to play an important role and for periods of time at least locally dominated the architectural scene, as exemplified by the "Nordic Classicism" during the 1920s, classical architecture in its stricter form never regained its former dominance. With the advent of Modernism during the early 20th century, classical architecture arguably completely ceased to be practised; as noted above, classical styles of architecture dominated Western architecture for a long time from the Renaissance until the advent of Modernism. That is to say, that classical antiquity at least in theory was considered the prime s
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon; the royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when the youngest son of King Louis IX married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings; the senior line of the House of Bourbon became extinct in the male line in 1527 with the death of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon. This made the junior Bourbon-Vendome branch the genealogically senior branch of the House of Bourbon. In 1589, at the death of Henry III of France, the House of Valois became extinct in the male line. Under the Salic law, the Head of the House of Bourbon, as the senior representative of the senior-surviving branch of the Capetian dynasty, became King of France as Henry IV.
Bourbon monarchs united to France the small kingdom of Navarre, which Henry's father had acquired by marriage in 1555, ruling both until the 1792 overthrow of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Restored in 1814 and definitively in 1815 after the fall of the First French Empire, the senior line of the Bourbons was overthrown in the July Revolution of 1830. A cadet Bourbon branch, the House of Orléans ruled for 18 years, until it too was overthrown; the Princes de Condé were a cadet branch of the Bourbons descended from an uncle of Henry IV, the Princes de Conti were a cadet line of the Condé branch. Both houses were prominent French noble families well known for their participation in French affairs during exile in the French Revolution, until their respective extinctions in 1830 and 1814. In 1700, at the death of Charles II of Spain, the Spanish Habsburgs became extinct in the male line. Under the will of the childless Charles II, the second grandson of Louis XIV of France was named as his successor, to preclude the union of the thrones of France and Spain.
The prince Duke of Anjou, became Philip V of Spain. Permanent separation of the French and Spanish thrones was secured when France and Spain ratified Philip's renunciation, for himself and his descendants, of the French throne in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1714, similar arrangements kept the Spanish throne separate from those of the Two Sicilies and Parma; the Spanish House of Bourbon has been overthrown and restored several times, reigning 1700–1808, 1813–1868, 1875–1931, since 1975. Bourbons ruled in Naples from 1734 to 1806 and in Sicily from 1734 to 1816, in a unified Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from 1816 to 1860, they ruled in Parma from 1731 to 1735, 1748–1802 and 1847–1859. Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg married a cadet of the Parmese line and thus her successors, who have ruled Luxembourg since her abdication in 1964, have been members of the House of Bourbon. Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil, regent for her father, Pedro II of the Empire of Brazil, married a cadet of the Orléans line and thus their descendants, known as the Orléans-Braganza, were in the line of succession to the Brazilian throne and expected to ascend its throne had the monarchy not been abolished by a coup in 1889.
All legitimate, living members of the House of Bourbon, including its cadet branches, are direct agnatic descendants of Henry IV through his son Louis XIII of France. The pre-Capetian House of Bourbon was a noble family, dating at least from the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by the Sire de Bourbon, a vassal of the King of France; the term House of Bourbon is sometimes used to refer to this first house and the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, the second family to rule the seigneury. In 1272, Count of Clermont and youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married Beatrix of Bourbon, heiress to the lordship of Bourbon and member of the House of Bourbon-Dampierre, their son Louis was made Duke of Bourbon in 1327. His descendant, the Constable of France Charles de Bourbon, was the last of the senior Bourbon line when he died in 1527; because he chose to fight under the banner of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and lived in exile from France, his title was discontinued after his death.
The remaining line of Bourbons henceforth descended from James I, Count of La Marche, the younger son of Louis I, Duke of Bourbon. With the death of his grandson James II, Count of La Marche in 1438, the senior line of the Count of La Marche became extinct. All future Bourbons would descend from James II's younger brother, who became the Count of Vendôme through his mother's inheritance. In 1525, at the death of Charles IV, Duke of Alençon, all of the princes of the blood royal were Bourbons. In 1514, Count of Vendôme had his title raised to Duke of Vendôme, his son Antoine became King of Navarre, on the northern side of the Pyrenees, by marriage in 1555. Two of Antoine's younger brothers were Cardinal Archbishop Charles de Bourbon and the French and Huguenot general Louis de Bourbon, 1st Prince of Condé. Louis' male-line descendants, the Princes de Condé, survived until 1830. In 1589, the House of Valois died out and Antoine's son Henry III of Navarre became Henry IV of France. Family from India's claim to be a branch and their claim to The "Throne of France" Bourbons of India, claim to be descendants of Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, of the first House of Bourbon-Montpensier.
As per the latest research carried out by
Mortlake is a suburban district of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames on the south bank of the River Thames between Kew and Barnes. It was part of Surrey and until 1965 was in the Municipal Borough of Barnes. For many centuries it had village status and extended far to the south, to include East Sheen and part of what is now Richmond Park, its Stuart and Georgian history was economically one of malting, farming, watermen and a great tapestry works. A London landmark, the former Mortlake Brewery or Stag Brewery, is on the edge of Mortlake; the Waterloo to Reading railway line runs through Mortlake, which has a pedestrianised riverside, two riverside pubs and a village green. The Boat Race finishes at Mortlake every March/April; the Mortlake and Barnes Common ward of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames has proved marginal. In the 2010 local elections local Liberal Democrats lost all three seats to local Conservatives, the latter forming an administration on Richmond Council; this remained the case until the 2018 local elections when the Liberal Democrats regained one of the three seats by a single vote.
The Liberal Democrats regained control of the Council. Richmond Park, the constituency which includes Mortlake, had changed from Liberal Democrat to Conservative in the 2010 general election, was recaptured by the Liberal Democrats in the 2016 by-election, reverted to Conservative MP Zac Goldsmith in the 2017 general election by a margin of only 45 votes; the London Assembly constituency South West, which includes Mortlake, is represented by former local councillor Tony Arbour. The place-name'Mortlake' is first attested in the Domesday Book of 1086, where it appears as Mortelaga and Mortelage, a name with two possible derivations. If the second element is the Old English lacu meaning a stream the first element is likely the fish-name mort meaning a young salmon, hence'salmon stream'. If the second element is the dialect lag meaning a long, narrow marshy meadow the name means'Morta's meadow'. Mortlake lay in the hundred of Brixton. According to the Domesday Book, the manor and parish of Mortlage was held by Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury when its assets were: 25 hides.
It rendered a large £38 plus 4s 4d from 17 houses in London, 2s 3d from houses in Southwark and £1 from tolls at Putney per year to its feudal system overlords. The manor belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury until the time of Henry VIII, when it passed by exchange to the Crown. From the early part of the 17th century until after the English Civil War, Mortlake was celebrated for the manufacture of tapestry, founded during the reign of James I at the Mortlake Tapestry Works. Mortlake was reduced by 732 acres when Richmond Park was created by Charles I in 1637. Other parishes lost smaller amounts of land to the new deer park. Colston House's forebear was built by Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex acquired by Edward Colston, major benefactor and investor to the port city of Bristol; this was pulled down in 1860. John Barber, Lord Mayor in 1733, a suspected Jacobite opposed to the'Georgian' House of Hanover but Member of Parliament for the City on the strength of his opposition to Walpole's protectionist excise scheme, was buried in Mortlake in 1741.
He had given land to extend the churchyard. Sir Henry Taylor, KCMG, the dramatic poet, lived in Mortlake in the 19th century. Sir John Barnard, Lord Mayor of London in the year 1737 and an MP, used public addresses and private campaigns to outstanding effect in supporting the government against the Jacobite movement in 1745. Since 1845, the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race has had its finish point at Mortlake, marked by the University Boat Race stone just downstream of Chiswick Bridge. Several other important rowing races over the Championship Course either start or finish at the stone; the first National School in Mortlake was built providing compulsory education at primary level in 1869, followed by an infants school in 1890 and county level, into secondary level school in 1906. Katherine Jenkins, classical singer, lives in Mortlake. Mortlake's most famous former resident is John Dee, astronomer, astrologer and adviser to Queen Elizabeth I, he lived at Mortlake from 1565 to 1595 except for the six years between 1583 and 1589 when he was travelling in Europe.
His house no longer exists but it became the Mortlake Tapestry Works and at the end of the 18th century was a girls' school. Sir Christopher Packe, Lord Mayor of London, lived in Mortlake in about 1655–60. John Partridge was apprenticed to a local shoemaker, he is buried there. The cemetery of St Mary Magdalen’s Roman Catholic Church Mortlake contains the tomb of the Victorian explorer and orientalist Sir Richard Burton. Former British Prime Minister Henry Addington who, as Lord Sidmouth, was Ranger of Richmond Park, after whom the park's Sidmouth Plantation is named, is buried at St Mary the Virgin Mortlake; the town is residential commuter town with a strong history of self-employed trades as it has traditionally centred its commerce on its foreshortened boundary, the Upper Richmond Road, arguably half part of East Sheen. Some businesses on the north side of the Upper Richmond Road make reference to the old ecclesiastical and ward boundaries supported by their still Mortlake side streets. East Sheen was once a manor in the parish of Mortlake and since early times an economic forum, now a dining and convenience hub of the two districts.
The Victoria County History's volume on Surrey, written from 1910 to 1912, does not list East Sheen as a parish
National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The National Physical Laboratory is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park in Teddington, England. It comes under the management of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the National Physical Laboratory was established in 1900 at Bushy House "to bring scientific knowledge to bear upon our everyday industrial and commercial life". It grew to fill a large selection of buildings on the Teddington site. NPL procured a large state-of-the-art laboratory under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 1998; the construction, being undertaken by John Laing, the maintenance of this new building, being undertaken by Serco, was transferred back to the DTI in 2004 after the private sector companies involved made losses of over £100m. The laboratory was run by the UK government, with members of staff being part of the civil service. Administration of the NPL was contracted out in 1995 under a Government Owned Contractor Operated model, with Serco winning the bid and all staff transferred to their employ.
Under this regime, overhead costs halved, third party revenues grew by 16% per annum, the number of peer-reviewed research papers published doubled. It was decided in 2012 to change the operating model for NPL from 2014 onward to include academic partners and to establish a postgraduate teaching institute on site; the date of the changeover was postponed for up to a year. The candidates for lead academic partner were the Universities of Edinburgh, Southampton and Surrey with an alliance of the Universities of Strathclyde and Surrey chosen as preferred partners. In January 2013 funding for a new £25m Advanced Metrology Laboratory was announced that will be built on the footprint of an existing unused building; the operation of the laboratory transferred back to the Department for Business and Skills ownership on 1 January 2015. The National Physical Laboratory is involved with new developments in metrology, such as researching metrology for, standardising, nanotechnology, it is based at the Teddington site, but has a site in Huddersfield for dimensional metrology and an underwater acoustics facility at Wraysbury Reservoir.
Notable researchers at NPL Researchers who have worked at NPL include: D. W. Dye who did important work in developing the technology of quartz clocks; the inventor Sir Barnes Wallis did early development work there on the "Bouncing Bomb" used in the "Dam Busters" wartime raids. H. J. Gough, one of the pioneers of research into metal fatigue, worked at NPL for 19 years from 1914 to 1938. Sydney Goldstein and Sir James Lighthill worked in NPL's aerodynamics division during World War II researching boundary layer theory and supersonic aerodynamics respectively. Dr Clifford Hodge worked there and was engaged in research on semiconductors. Others who have spent time at NPL include Robert Watson-Watt considered the inventor of radar, Oswald Kubaschewski, the father of computational materials thermodynamics and the numerical analyst James Wilkinson. NPL research has contributed to physical science, materials science and bioscience. Applications have been found in ship design, aircraft development, computer networking and global positioning.
The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen and Jack Parry in 1955 at NPL. Calibration of the caesium standard atomic clock was carried out by the use of the astronomical time scale ephemeris time; this led to the internationally agreed definition of the latest SI second being based on atomic time. NPL has undertaken computer research since the mid-1940s. From 1945, Alan Turing led the design of the Automatic Computing Engine computer; the ACE project was floundered, leading to Turing's departure. Donald Davies took the project over and concentrated on delivering the less ambitious Pilot ACE computer, which first worked in May 1950. Among those who worked on the project was American computer pioneer Harry Huskey. A commercial spin-off, DEUCE was manufactured by English Electric Computers and became one of the best-selling machines of the 1950s. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Donald Davies and his team at the NPL pioneered packet switching, now the dominant basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.
Davies designed and proposed a national data network based on packet switching in his 1965 Proposal for the Development of a National Communications Service for On-line Data Processing. Subsequently, the NPL team developed the concept into a local area network which operated from 1969 to 1986, carried out work to analyse and simulate the performance of packet switching networks, their research and practice influenced the ARPANET in the United States, the forerunner of the Internet, other researchers in the UK and Europe. Directors of NPL Directors of NPL include a number of notable individuals. Sir Richard Tetley Glazebrook, 1900–1919 Sir Joseph Ernest Petavel, 1919–1936 Sir Frank Edward Smith, 1936–1937 Lawrence Bragg, 1937–1938 Sir Charles Galton Darwin, 1938–1949 Sir Edward Victor Appleton, 1941 Sir Edward Crisp Bullard, 1948–1955 Dr Reginald Leslie Smith-Rose, 1955–1956 Sir Gordon Brims Black McIvor Sutherland, 1956–1964 Dr John Vernon Dunworth, 1964–1977 Dr Paul Dean, 1977–1990 Dr Peter Clapham, 1990–1995Managing Directors Dr John Rae, 1995–2000 Dr Bob McGuiness, 2000–2005 Steve McQuillan, 2005–2008 Dr Martyn Sené, 2008–2009, 2015 Dr Brian Bowsher, 2009–2015Chief Executive Officers Dr Peter Thompson, 2015–presentN
George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax
George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, was a British statesman of the Georgian era. Due to his success in extending American commerce he became known as "father of the colonies". President of the Board of Trade from 1748 to 1761, he aided the foundation of Nova Scotia, 1749, the capital Halifax being named after him; the son of the 1st Earl of Halifax, he was styled Viscount Sunbury until succeeding his father as Earl of Halifax in 1739. Educated at Eton College and at Trinity College, Cambridge, he was married in 1741 to Anne Richards, who had inherited a great fortune from Sir Thomas Dunk, whose name Halifax took. After having been an official in the household of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Halifax was made Master of the Buckhounds, in 1748 he became President of the Board of Trade. While filling this position he helped to found Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, named after him, he helped foster trade with North America. About this time he attempted, unsuccessfully, to become a Secretary of State, but was only allowed to enter the Cabinet in 1757.
In March 1761, Halifax was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, during part of the time which he held this office he was First Lord of the Admiralty. He became Secretary of State for the Northern Department under Lord Bute in October 1762, switching to the Southern Department in 1763 and was one of the three ministers to whom King George III entrusted the direction of affairs during the premiership of George Grenville. In 1762, in search of evidence of sedition, he authorised a raid on the home of John Entick, declared unlawful in the case of Entick v. Carrington. In 1763, he signed the general warrant for the "authors and publishers" of The North Briton number 45, under which John Wilkes and 48 others were arrested, for which, six years the courts of law made Halifax pay damages, he was mainly responsible for the exclusion of the name of the King's mother, Princess of Wales, from the Regency Bill of 1765. Together with his colleagues, Halifax left office in July 1765, returning to the Cabinet as Lord Privy Seal under his nephew, Lord North, in January 1770.
He had just been restored to his former position of Secretary of State. Like his friends John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford and John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, Halifax was keen on cricket; the earliest surviving record of his involvement in the sport comes from 1741 when he led Northamptonshire in a match against Buckinghamshire at Cow Meadow in Northampton. In the same season and Halifax formed the Northamptonshire & Huntingdonshire team which twice defeated Bedfordshire, first at Woburn Park and at Cow Meadow. 1716–1739: Viscount Sunbury 1739–1748: The Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax 1748–1764: The Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax PC 1764–1771: The Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax KG PC Halifax, Lord-Lieutenant of Northamptonshire and a Lieutenant General, was extravagant. He was a political patron of playwright and civil servant Richard Cumberland, he left no legitimate male children, his titles became extinct on his death. Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford spoke slightingly of him and his mistress, Anna Maria Faulkner including alleging that Halifax had "sold every employment in his gift".
His mistress had kept a low profile while he was in Ireland, but she was have understood to have sold positions. Halifax was buried in the parish church of Northamptonshire. An obelisk is erected at Chicksands Wood in the parish of Haynes, Bedfordshire inscribed to his memory; the municipality of Halifax and Halifax County, Nova Scotia are named in his honour, as are the Halifax River in Central Florida. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Halifax, George Montagu Dunk, 2nd Earl of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Maun, Ian. From Commons to Lord's, Volume One: 1700 to 1750. Roger Heavens. ISBN 978-1-900592-52-9. Waghorn, H. T.. Cricket Scores, etc.. Blackwood. Andrew D. M. Beaumont, Colonial America and the Earl of Halifax, 1748-1761. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2015. Media related to George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax at Wikimedia Commons
George Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax
George Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1705 to 1715 when he became a peer. George Montagu was the son of Edward Montagu and Elizabeth Pelham and paternal great-grandson of Henry Montagu, 1st Earl of Manchester, George Montagu married twice: Ricarda Posthuma Saltonstale in 1706. Lady Mary Lumley, together they had seven or more children including: Lady Frances, m. Sir Roger Burgoyne, 6th Baronet Lady Mary, m. Sir Danvers Osborn, 3rd Baronet George, Lord Sunbury who inherited his father's titles in 1739, he sat as a MP for Northampton between 1705 and 1715 and from 1714 held four appointments: Auditor of the Exchequer: 1714 until death Privy Councillor: 27 November 1717 until death Lord Justice: 1720 Keeper/Ranger of Bushy ParkIn further honorifics he was appointed a Knight, Order of the Bath in 1725. His family's seat was Horton House, Northamptonshire, demolished in 1936; as Ranger of Bushy Park, Halifax had built and sometimes inhabited'Upper Lodge' or'New Lodge', today a function building of the National Physical Laboratory, on the north-west side of the park in its Teddington part.
This was in the first two years of the reign of George II. The property passed to his son, followed by Lord North, his eldest daughter's son. George's uncle, Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, a childless widower, ensured his titles would pass to George, gave him most of his estate. George succeeded his uncle as second Baron Halifax under its special remainder. A few weeks after succeeding, Gerge was created Earl of Halifax and Viscount Sunbury, reviving the other titles, created the previous year for his uncle. Two years he was sworn of Privy Council. George Montagu was succeeded in the titles by his son George. 1684–1705: Mr George Montagu 1705–1715: Mr George Montagu 1715: The Right Honourable The Lord Halifax 1715–1717: The Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax 1717–1739: The Right Honourable The Earl of Halifax PC References Notes