Logan International Airport
Logan International Airport known as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport and commonly known as Boston Logan International Airport, is an international airport in the East Boston neighborhood of Boston, United States. It covers 2,384 acres, has six runways and four passenger terminals, employs an estimated 16,000 people, it is the largest airport in both the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the New England region in terms of passenger volume and cargo handling, as well as the 16th-busiest airport in the United States, with 38.4 million total passengers in 2017. The airport saw 40,941,925 passengers in the most in its history, it is named after a war hero native to Boston. Logan has service to destinations throughout the United States, Mexico, Latin America, the Caribbean, the North Atlantic region, Europe and Asia. Effective June 22, 2019, Logan will receive another direct connection to Africa, the first to mainland Africa, courtesy of Royal Air Maroc from their hub in Casablanca, Logan's second African link after Cabo Verde Airlines's weekly non-stop service to Praia.
Much of the expansion of international service over the last decade is attributed to the advent of mid-sized long-range airliners such as the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350, as well as the growing New England economy, which in turn has resulted in Logan seeing rapid growth in international traffic, with new routes as well as increased frequencies on existing routes. The airport is a focus city for Delta Air Lines and JetBlue Airways; the regional airline Cape Air carries out hub operations from Boston. American and United carry out significant operations from the airport, including daily transcontinental flights. All of the major U. S. air carriers offer flights from Boston to all or the majority of their primary and secondary hubs. Logan Airport opened on September 8, 1923, was used by the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corps, it was called Jeffery Field. The first scheduled commercial passenger flights were on Colonial Air Transport between Boston and New York City in 1927. On January 1, 1936, the airport's weather station became the official point for Boston's weather observations and records by the National Weather Service.
Until around 1950 the airline terminal was at 42.367°N 71.0275°W / 42.367. During the 1940s the airport added 1,800 acres of landfill in Boston Harbor, taken from the former Governors, Noddle's and Apple Islands. In 1943 the state renamed the airport after Lt. General Edward Lawrence Logan, a Spanish–American War officer from South Boston. In 1952, Logan Airport became the first in the United States with an indirect rapid transit connection, with the opening of the Airport station on the Blue Line; the March 1947 diagram shows 7,000 ft runway 4 in use, with runways 33 under construction. The December 1950 diagram shows a layout similar to the current one: 7,000 ft runway 4L, 10,000-ft 4R, 7,000-ft 9 and 7,650-ft 33. Boston became a transatlantic gateway after World War II. In the late 1940s, American Overseas Airlines began operating a weekly Boston-Shannon-London service, Pan American World Airways began operating nonstop service to Shannon Airport in Ireland and Santa Maria Airport in the Azores, continuing to London and Lisbon respectively.
By the early 1950s, BOAC offered nonstop Stratocruiser service to Prestwick Airport in Scotland, Air France operated a multi-stop Constellation service linking Boston to Orly Airport in Paris. During this time, BOAC employed the De Havilland Comet, the first commercial jetliner in the world, on direct flights to Boston from London Heathrow airport; as of April 1957, the Official Airline Guide showed 49 weekday departures on American, 31 Eastern, 25 Northeast, 8 United, 7 TWA domestic, 6 National, 6 Mohawk, 2 TCA and one Provincetown-Boston. In addition TWA had nine departures a week to or from the Atlantic, Pan Am had 18, Air France 8, BOAC 4 and LAI 4; the jumbo jet era began at Logan in summer 1970 when Pan Am started daily Boeing 747s to London Heathrow Airport. The Boeing 747-400 is scheduled on flights to Boston by British Airways. Lufthansa operates B747s, including the latest-model Boeing 747-8, on its daily nonstop flights to Frankfurt. Terminal E was the second largest international arrivals facility in the United States when it opened in 1974.
Between 1974 and 2015, the number of international travelers at Logan has tripled. International long-haul travel has been the fastest growing market sector at the airport. Massachusetts Port Authority undertook the "Logan Modernization Project" from 1994 to 2006: a new parking garage, a new hotel, moving walkways, terminal expansions and improvements, two-tiered roadways to separate arrival and departure traffic. Massport's relationship with nearby communities has been strained since the mid-1960s, when the agency took control of a parcel of residential land and popular fishing area near the northwest side of the airfield; this project was undertaken to extend Runway 15R/33L, which became Logan's longest runway. Residents of the neighborhood, known as Wood Island, were bought out of their homes and forced to relocate. Public opposition came to a head when residents lay down in the streets to block
Northeastern United States
The Northeastern United States referred to as the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, to the west by the Midwestern United States. The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the United States Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics; the Census Bureau-defined region has a total area of 181,324 sq mi with 162,257 sq mi of that being land mass. Although it lacks a unified cultural identity, the Northeastern region is the nation's most economically developed, densely populated, culturally diverse region. Of the nation's four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its population residing in urban areas, led by the West with 90 percent. Geographically there has always been some debate as to where the Northeastern United States begins and ends; the vast area from central Virginia to northern Maine, from western Pennsylvania to the Atlantic Ocean, have all been loosely grouped into the Northeast at one time or another.
Much of the debate has been what the cultural and urban aspects of the Northeast are, where they begin or end as one reaches the borders of the region. Using the Census Bureaus definition of the northeast, the region includes nine states: they are Maine, New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania; the region is subdivided into New England and the Mid-Atlantic states. This definition has been unchanged since 1880 and is used as a standard for data tabulation. However, the Census Bureau has acknowledged the obvious limitations of this definition and the potential merits of a proposal created after the 1950 census that would include changing regional boundaries to include Delaware and the District of Columbia, with the Mid-Atlantic states, but decided that "the new system did not win enough overall acceptance among data users to warrant adoption as an official new set of general-purpose State groupings; the previous development of many series of statistics and issued over long periods of time on the basis of the existing State groupings, favored the retention of the summary units of the current regions and divisions."
The Census Bureau confirmed in 1994 that it would continue to "review the components of the regions and divisions to ensure that they continue to represent the most useful combinations of States and State equivalents."Many organizations and reference works follow the Census Bureau's definition for the region. The Association of American Geographers divides the Northeast into two divisions: "New England", which consists of Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut; the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland and the District of Columbia. The narrowest definitions include only the states of New England. Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, but exclude Pennsylvania and New Jersey. States beyond the Census Bureau definition are included in Northeast Region by various other entities: Various organizations include: Delaware and District of Columbia; the US EPA and NOAA include in their Northeast Region: Delaware and West Virginia.
The National Fish and Wildlife Service includes in their Northeast Region: Delaware, District of Columbia, West Virginia, Virginia. The National Park Service includes in their Northeast Region: Delaware, West Virginia, Virginia. Anthropologists recognize the "Northeastern Woodlands" as one of the cultural regions that existed in the Western Hemisphere at the time of European colonists in the 15th and centuries. Most did not settle in North America until the 17th century; the cultural area, known as the "Northeastern Woodlands", in addition to covering the entire Northeast U. S. covered much of what is now Canada and others regions of what is now the eastern United States. Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those that made up the Iroquois nations and the numerous Algonquian peoples. In the United States of the 21st century, 18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast. For the most part, the people of the Northeastern Woodlands, on whose lands European fishermen began camping to dry their codfish in the early 1600s, lived in villages after being influenced by the agricultural traditions of the Ohio and Mississippi valley societies.
All of the states making up the Northeastern region were among the original Thirteen Colonies, though Maine and Delaware were part of other colonies before the United States became independent in the American Revolution. The two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories; the first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, who landed in present-day Massachusetts in 1620. The Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years a larger group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1636, colonists established Providence Plantations. Providence was founded by Roger Williams, banished
Midwest Airlines was a U. S.-based airline and, for a short time, an operating brand of Republic Airways Holdings based in Oak Creek, operating from Milwaukee's General Mitchell International Airport. On April 13, 2010, parent company Republic announced that Midwest Airlines and Frontier Airlines would merge, with the Midwest brand disappearing in late 2011. Midwest Airlines' final flight operated with a Boeing 717-200 and staffed with Midwest Airlines flight crews landed in Milwaukee on November 2, 2009. Effective November 3, 2009, Midwest Airlines ceased to exist as an actual operating airline. Midwest Airlines began its existence in 1948, when Kimberly-Clark began providing air transportation for company executives and engineers between the company's Neenah, Wisconsin headquarters and its mills. Operating out of the nearby Appleton International Airport, early employee shuttle destinations included Chicago O'Hare and Atlanta's Fulton County Airport. In 1969, K-C Aviation was born from this, was dedicated to the maintenance of corporate aircraft.
K-C Aviation was sold in 1998 to Gulfstream Aerospace for $250 million. After the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, Kimberly-Clark and K-C Aviation decided to form a regular scheduled passenger airline, out of that initiative, Midwest Express began operations on June 11, 1984. At the time the airline had 83 employees. Early plans for the airline called for it to serve Appleton and Atlanta. Kimberly-Clark opted against this plan after local resistance over the carrier's desire to serve Atlanta's Fulton County Airport, a general aviation airport on the city's west side. From 1983 to 1985, the airline operated a single Convair 580 twin turboprop aircraft provided by Kimberly-Clark's corporate aviation department; the airline grew by adding additional DC-9 aircraft to its fleet, including larger McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 jets, with a total of 24 by the end of 1996. Midwest Express served most major Midwestern and East Coast destinations, its longtime slogan, "The Best Care in the Air", represented its inflight product.
For many years, all flights featured 2-by-2 leather seating, ample legroom, complimentary gourmet meals, warm chocolate chip cookies. This made the airline popular with business travelers. In addition, Midwest Express operated a sizable executive charter operation with a specially configured DC-9. In 1989, Midwest Express added two McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft to its fleet acquiring eleven additional aircraft between 1998 and 2001; these enabled the airline to expand services to Florida. The airline experienced steady growth and continued profitability, opening an additional hub in Omaha, Nebraska in early 1995. Midwest Express started its own regional subsidiary, Skyway Airlines, The Midwest Express Connection, to provide commuter airline service to small communities in Wisconsin and the surrounding region. Kimberly-Clark relinquished its ownership in two initial public offerings on September 22, 1995 and May 8, 1996; the airline's new parent company, Midwest Air Group, traded on the American Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "MEH."
Midwest Express added Midwest Vacations in the 1990s, naming GOGO Worldwide Vacations as the original partner to provide hotel service and partnering with Mark Travel. Midwest Airlines Vacations continues to operate as a vacation provider. In 1997, according to the Midwest Express timetable, the airline was code sharing with Virgin Atlantic Airways for flights between London Heathrow Airport and Milwaukee and Kansas City with passengers connecting between the two air carriers in Boston. After fourteen years of profit-making, Midwest Express was affected with serious financial problems after the September 11 terrorist attacks. To return to profitability, the airline made major changes; the Omaha hub was reduced to a focus city with hub status transferred to Kansas City. Some MD-80 series aircraft were reconfigured into a new "Saver Service", featuring cloth coach seats in a 2-by-3 arrangement. Saver Service, while decreasing the width of the seats, continued to feature ample legroom; this service was offered from the Milwaukee and Kansas City hubs to leisure destinations such as Florida, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Phoenix on McDonnell Douglas MD-80 aircraft.
The airline's Signature Service was affected by the financial difficulties. The signature gourmet meal services, served on china after being cooked on board, were discontinued in 2002 and replaced with a buy-on-board product. Midwest Express was serving the following destinations in October 1984: Appleton, WI Boston, MA Dallas/Fort Worth, TX Newark, NJ Milwaukee, WI – Hub & airline headquartersBy 1985, Atlanta had been added to the route system with service to Newark being discontinued at this time and by 1986 flights had been begun to Madison, New York City LaGuardia Airport and Washington, D. C. National Airport. All service was flown nonstop between Milwaukee and these destinations, with the exception of a nonstop route between Appleton and Newark in 1984, discontinued by 1985; the airline was serving the following destinations in June 2001: Appleton, WI Atlanta, GA Boston, MA Cleveland, OH Columbus, OH Dallas/Fort Worth, TX Denver, CO Des Moines, IA Fort Lauderdale, FL – seasonal service Fort Myers, FL – seasonal service Hartford, CT Kansas City, MO – Focus city Las Vegas, NV (LA
Fokker F28 Fellowship
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet airliner designed and built by Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker. Announced by Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker, MBB of West Germany, Fokker-VFW, Short Brothers of Northern Ireland. There was government money invested in the project, with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the West German government having 60% of the 35% German stake. Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km, the plane was designed to have 60–65 seats. On the design sheet, the F28 was to mount Bristol Siddeley BS.75 turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey Junior", a simplified version of the Rolls-Royce Spey. The F28 was similar in design to the British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven and Douglas DC-9, as it had a T-tail and engines mounted at the rear of the fuselage; the aircraft had wings with a slight crescent angle of sweep with ailerons at the tip, simple flaps, five-section liftdumper only operated after landing to dump the lift.
These were employed rather than reverse thrust as the designers felt that doing so not only reduced weight, but maintenance also. Having no reversers meant that on unpaved airstrips there was less chance of the engines ingesting debris; the leading edge was anti-iced by bleed air from the engines. The tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake – used on the contemporaneous Blackburn Buccaneer; this design was used on the HS-146, which became the BAe-146. The design is unique in that it not only slows the aircraft down it can aid in rapid descents from economic cruising altitudes and allowed the engines to be set at higher RPM which helped eliminate'lag time'; this means the engines respond faster if needed for sudden speed increases or go-arounds on the approach to landing. The Fellowship had a retractable tricycle landing gear which used large low pressure tyres enabling the use of unpaved airstrips. Large wheel brakes helped in shortening the landing run.
In terms of responsibility for production, Fokker designed and built the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing. Final assembly of the Fokker F28 was at Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands; the F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on 9 May 1967, flown by Chief Test Pilot Jas Moll, Test Pilot Abe van der Schraaf and Flight Engineer Cees Dik. German certification was achieved on 24 February 1969; the first order was from German airline LTU, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathens on 28 March 1969. The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000 and could seat up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000; the prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, first flew on 28 April 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified F28-2000 and F28-1000 with slats, greater wingspan, more powerful and quieter engines as the main features; the F28-6000 and F28-5000 were not a commercial success. After being used by Fokker for a time, the F28-6000 were sold to Air Mauritanie, but not before they were converted to F28-2000s.
The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on 20 October 1976 with one of the world's largest Fokker operators, Linjeflyg. This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, had an increased seating capacity, a larger wingspan with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new "wide-look" interior featuring enclosed overhead lockers and a less'tubular' look; the F28-3000, the successor to the F28-1000, featured the same improvements as the F28-4000. F28s of Ansett Transport Industries' Western Australian intrastate airline, MacRobertson Miller Airlines of Western Australia, flew the longest non-stop F28 route in the world, from Perth to Kununurra, in Western Australia – a distance of about 2,240 km; this was the world's longest twin-jet route at the time. MMA'a F28's had the highest utilisation rates at the time, flying over 8 hours per day. By the time production ended in 1987, 241 airframes had been built. F.28 Mk 1000 With a maximum capacity of 70 passengers, it was approved on 24 February 1969, the 1000C had a Main Deck Large Cargo Door.
F.28 Mk 2000 Mark 1000 with a fuselage stretch of 57 in in front of and 30 in aft of the wing, 79 maximum passengers, approved on 30 August 1972. Though it first flew on 28 April 1971 and began revenue service with Nigeria Airways in October 1971, only ten were built. F.28 Mk 4000 Approved on 13 December 1976, it is built on the longer Mark 2000, with two overwing exits on both sides, a 60 in wing span extension, capacity for 85 passengers. The first prototype appeared on 20 October 1976 and it began service with Linjeflyg at the end of the year. F.28 Mk 3000 Mark 1000 with a 60 in wing span extension, approved on 19 July 1978, with a 3000C variant with a large main deck cargo door. A successful variant, featuring greater structural strength and increased fuel capacity, it began revenue service with Garuda Indonesia. F. 28 Mk 5000 Was to combine the shorter fuselage of an increased wingspan. Leading edge slats were to be added to the wings and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 Mk555-15H engines were to be used.
Although expected to be an excellent plane to operate on short runways due to its superior power, the project was abandoned. F.2
British Aerospace 146
The British Aerospace 146 is a short-haul and regional airliner, manufactured in the United Kingdom by British Aerospace part of BAE Systems. Production ran from 1983 until 2002. Manufacture of an improved version known as the Avro RJ began in 1992. A further-improved version with new engines, the Avro RJX, was announced in 1997, but only two prototypes and one production aircraft were built before production ceased in 2001. With 387 aircraft produced, the Avro RJ/BAe 146 is the most successful British civil jet airliner programme; the BAe 146/Avro RJ is a high-wing cantilever monoplane with a T-tail. It has four turbofan engines mounted on pylons underneath the wings, has retractable tricycle landing gear; the aircraft has quiet operation, has been marketed under the name Whisperjet. It sees wide usage at city-based airports such as London City Airport. In its primary role, it serves as a regional jet, short-haul airliner, or regional airliner, while examples of the type are in use as private jets.
The BAe 146/Avro RJ is in wide use with several European-based carriers such as CityJet. The largest operator of the type, Swiss Global Air Lines, retired its last RJ100 in August 2017; the BAe 146 was produced in -200 and -300 models. The equivalent Avro RJ versions are designated RJ70, RJ85, RJ100; the freight-carrying version carries the designation "QT", a convertible passenger-or-freight model is designated as "QC". A "gravel kit" can be fitted to aircraft to enable operations from unprepared airstrips. In August 1973, Hawker Siddeley launched a new 70-seat regional airliner project, the HS.146, to fill the gap between turboprop-powered airliners such as the Hawker Siddeley HS.748 and the Fokker F.27 and small jet airliners such as the BAC One-Eleven and Boeing 737. The chosen configuration had a high wing and a T-tail to give good short-field performance, while the aircraft was to be powered by four 6,500 lbf thrust Avco Lycoming ALF 502H turbofan engines. There were several reasons. A major factor would have been that no manufacturer was producing a 13,000-lbf-thrust-class high-bypass ratio turbofan engine at the time.
The programme was launched with backing from the UK government, which agreed to contribute 50% of the development costs in return for a share of the revenues from each aircraft sold. In October 1974, all work on the project was halted as a result of the world economic downturn resulting from the 1973 oil crisis. Low-key development proceeded, in 1978, British Aerospace, Hawker Siddeley's corporate successor, relaunched the project. British Aerospace marketed the aircraft as a quiet, low-consumption, turbofan aircraft, which would be effective at replacing the previous generation of turboprop-powered feeder aircraft; the first order for the BAe 146 was placed by Líneas Aéreas Privadas Argentinas in June 1981. Prior to the first flight, British Aerospace had forecast that the smaller 146-100 would outsell the 146-200 variant. By 1981, a large assembly line had been completed at British Aerospace's Hatfield site, the first completed aircraft flew that year followed by two more prototypes. Initial flight results showed climb performance.
In 1982, British Aerospace stated that the sale of a total 250 aircraft was necessary for the venture to break even. The BAe 146 received its Certificate of Airworthiness on 8 February 1983. Upon its launch into service, it was hailed as being "the world's quietest jetliner". Early production aircraft were built at Hatfield, a de Havilland factory; the Avro RJ family of aircraft was assembled at the Avro International BAE Systems Regional Aircraft Centre, at Woodford Aerodrome in Greater Manchester, England. Production of various sections of the aircraft was carried out at different BAE plants; the rear fuselage section was manufactured at BAE Systems' former Avro site at Chadderton, Greater Manchester. The centre fuselage section was manufactured at the Filton BAE site; the vertical stabilizer came from Brough, the engine pylons were made at Prestwick. The nose section was manufactured at Hatfield, where the assembly line for the early aircraft was located; some manufacturing was subcontracted outside the UK.
Due to the sales performance of the BAe 146, British Aerospace announced a development project in early 1991 to produce a new variant of the type, powered by two turbofan engines instead of four, offered to airlines as a regional jet aircraft. Dubbed the new regional aircraft, other proposed alterations from the BAe 146 included the adoption of a new enlarged wing and a lengthened fuselage. In 1993, the upgraded Avro RJ series superseded the BAe 146. Changes included the replacement of the original Lycoming ALF 502 turbofan engines by higher-thrust LF 507 turbofan engines, which were housed in redesigned nacelles; the Avro RJ series featured a modernised cockpit with EFIS replacing the analogue ADI, HSI, engine instrumentation. An arrangement between British Aerospace and Khazanah Nasional would have opened an Avro RJ production line in Malaysia, but this deal collapsed in 1997. In 2000, British Aerospace announced that it was to replace the Avro RJ series with a further-improved Avro RJX series.
Production of the Avro RJ ended with the final four aircraft being delivered in late 2003. British Ae
Dover, New Hampshire
Dover is a city in Strafford County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 29,987 at the 2010 census, the largest in the New Hampshire Seacoast region; the population was estimated at 31,398 in 2017. It is the county seat of Strafford County, home to Wentworth-Douglass Hospital, the Woodman Institute Museum, the Children's Museum of New Hampshire. First recorded in its Latinised form of Portus Dubris, the name derives from the Brythonic word for waters; the same element is present in the town's Modern Welsh forms. The first known European to explore the region was Martin Pring from Bristol, England, in 1603. In 1623, William and Edward Hilton settled Cochecho Plantation, adopting its Abenaki name, making Dover the oldest permanent settlement in New Hampshire, seventh in the United States. One of the colony's four original townships, it included Durham, Newington, Lee and Rollinsford; the Hiltons' name survives at Hilton Park on Dover Point, where the brothers settled near the confluence of the Bellamy and Piscataqua rivers.
They were fishmongers sent from London by The Company of Laconia to establish a colony and fishery on the Piscataqua. In 1631, however, it contained only three houses. William Hilton built, he served as Deputy to the General Court. In 1633, Cochecho Plantation was bought by a group of English Puritans who planned to settle in New England, including Viscount Saye and Sele, Baron Brooke and John Pym, they promoted colonization in America, that year Hilton's Point received numerous immigrants, many from Bristol. They renamed the settlement Bristol. Atop the nearby hill they built a meetinghouse surrounded with a jail nearby; the town was called Dover in 1637 by Reverend George Burdett. It was named after Robert Dover, an English lawyer who resisted Puritanism. With the 1639 arrival of Thomas Larkham, however, it was renamed after Northam in Devon, where he had been preacher, but Lord Saye and Sele's group lost interest in their settlements, both here and at Saybrook, when their plan to establish a hereditary aristocracy in the colonies met disfavor in New England.
The plantation was sold in 1641 to Massachusetts and again named Dover. Settlers built fortified log houses called garrisons, inspiring Dover's nickname "The Garrison City." The population and business center shifted upriver from Dover Point to Cochecho Falls, its drop of 34 feet providing water power for industry On June 28, 1689, Dover suffered a devastating attack by Native Americans. It was revenge for an incident on September 7, 1676, when 400 Native Americans were duped by Major Richard Waldron into performing a "mock battle" near Cochecho Falls. After discharging their weapons, the Native American warriors were captured. Half were sent to Massachusetts for predations committed during King Philip's War either hanged or sold into slavery. Local Native Americans deemed innocent were released, but considered the deception a dishonorable breach of hospitality. Thirteen years passed; when colonists thought the episode forgotten, they struck. Fifty-two colonists, a quarter of the population, were either slain.
During Father Rale's War, in August and September 1723, there were Indian raids on Saco and Dover, New Hampshire. The following year Dover was raided again and Elizabeth Hanson wrote her captivity narrative. Located at the head of navigation, Cochecho Falls brought the Industrial Revolution to 19th-century Dover in a big way; the Dover Cotton Factory was incorporated in 1812 enlarged in 1823 to become the Dover Manufacturing Company. In 1827, the Cocheco Manufacturing Company was founded, which in 1829 purchased the Dover Manufacturing Company. Expansive brick mills, linked by railroad, were constructed downtown. Incorporated as a city in 1855, Dover for a time became a leading national producer of textiles; the mills were purchased in 1909 by the Pacific Mills of Lawrence, which closed the printery in 1913 but continued spinning and weaving. During the Great Depression, textile mills no longer dependent on New England water power began moving to southern states in search of cheaper operating conditions, or went out of business.
Dover's millyard shut in 1937 was bought at auction in 1940 by the city itself for $54,000. There were no other bids. Now called the Cocheco Falls Millworks, its tenants include technology and government services companies, plus a restaurant. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 29.0 square miles, of which 26.7 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water, comprising 7.96% of the city. Dover is drained by the Bellamy rivers. Long Hill, elevation greater than 300 feet above sea level and located 3 miles northwest of the city center, is the highest point in Dover. Garrison Hill, elevation 290 ft, is a prominent hill rising directly above the center city, with a park and lookout tower on top. Dover lies within the Piscataqua River watershed; the city is crossed by New Hampshire Route 4, New Hampshire Route 9, New Hampshire Route 16, New Hampshire Route 16B, New Hampshire Route 108, New Hampshire Route 155. It is bordered by the town of Newington to the south, Madbury to the southwest and Rochester to the northwest and Rollinsford to th
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i