New Zealand Labour Party
The New Zealand Labour Party, or simply Labour, is a centre-left political party in New Zealand. With its historic rival, the New Zealand National Party, Labour has dominated New Zealand governments since the 1930s, Labour currently promotes a social-democratic platform. It is a participant of the international Progressive Alliance, the New Zealand Labour Party was formed in 1916 by various socialist parties and trade unions. It is thus the countrys oldest political party still in existence, there have been five Labour governments. The party was first in power from 1935 and 1949, when it established New Zealands welfare state and it governed most recently from 1999 to 2008 with Helen Clark as party leader and Prime Minister. Since the partys defeat in the 2008 general election, Labour has comprised the second-largest caucus represented in the New Zealand Parliament, on 18 November 2014 Andrew Little was confirmed outside of Parliament and in a press conference as the new Labour leader. Labours 1916 policy objectives called for the socialisation of the means of production and exchange, up to the 1980s Labour remained a party that believed in a strong role for governments in economic and social matters.
However, it had transformed from a trade union-dominated, socialist-oriented movement to a moderate social-democratic party. The Labour Government of the 1980s deviated sharply from a social-democratic path, in a series of economic reforms dubbed Rogernomics, the Government removed a swathe of regulations and subsidies, privatised state assets and introduced corporate practices to state services. Equal access to all social, cultural and legal spheres, co-operation as the main governing factor in economic relations, to ensure a just distribution of wealth. Universal rights to dignity, self-respect and the opportunity to work, the right to wealth and property, subject to the provisos of regarding people as always more important than property and the obligations of the state to ensure a just distribution of wealth. The Treaty of Waitangi as the document of New Zealand, and its honouring in the Party, society. The promotion of peace and social justice throughout the world by international co-operation, Equality in human rights regardless of race, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, religious faith, political belief or disability.
Its origins lie in the British working class movement, heavily influenced by Australian radicalism and it is the oldest surviving New Zealand political party. The New Zealand Labour Party was an amalgamation of a number of early groups, the process of unifying these diverse groups into a single party was difficult, with tensions between different factions running strong. At the turn of the century, the side of New Zealand working class politics was represented by the Socialist Party. The more moderate leftists were generally supporters of the Liberal Party and this established the basic dividing line in New Zealands left-wing politics – the Socialists tended to be revolutionary and militant, while the moderates focused instead on progressive reform. In 1910, the Independent Political Labour League was relaunched as a called the Labour Party
The proletariat is a term for the class of wage-earners, in a capitalist society, whose only possession of significant material value is their labor-power, a member of such a class is a proletarian. The proletarii constituted a class of Roman citizens owning little or no property. This assembly, which met on the Campus Martius to discuss public policy issues, was used as a means of designating military duties demanded of Roman citizens. The top infantry class assembled with full arms and armor, the two classes brought arms and armor, but less and lesser, the fourth class only spears. In voting, the cavalry and top class were enough to decide an issue, as voting started at the top. As a result of the Marian reforms initiated in 107 B. C. by the Roman general Gaius Marius, proletarians are wage-workers, while some refer to those who receive salaries as the salariat. For Marx, wage labor may involve getting a salary rather than a wage per se, intermediate positions are possible, where some wage-labor for an employer combines with self-employment.
Socialist parties have often struggled over the question of whether they should seek to organize and represent all the lower classes, according to Marxism, capitalism is a system based on the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. Instead of hiring those means of production, they themselves get hired by capitalists and work for them and these goods or services become the property of the capitalist, who sells them at the market. Surplus value is the difference between the wealth that the proletariat produces through its work, and the wealth it consumes to survive and to provide labor to the capitalist companies. A part of the value is used to renew or increase the means of production, either in quantity or quality. What remains is consumed by the capitalist class, the commodities that proletarians produce and capitalists sell are valued for the amount of labor embodied in them. The same goes for the labor power itself, it is valued, not for the amount of wealth it produces. Marxists argue that new wealth is created through labor applied to natural resources, prole drift, short for proletarian drift, is a term that suggests the tendency in advanced industrialized societies for everything inexorably to become proletarianized, or to become commonplace.
This trend is attributed to mass production, mass selling, mass communication, examples include best-seller lists and music that must appeal to the masses and shopping malls. Why workers can change the world, hal Draper, Karl Marxs Theory of Revolution, Vol.2, The Politics of Social Classes
The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers. The most common purpose of these associations or unions is maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment and this may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades. The agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members, originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of workers, past workers, students. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a union, is highest in the Nordic countries. The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level that is maintained in the various branches of industry.
That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value, yet historian R. A. the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all labouring men and women for a different order of things. The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote, We rarely hear, it has said, of the combination of masters. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, there were severe penalties for attempting to organize unions, up to and including execution. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England.
In 1799, the Combination Act was passed, which banned trade unions, although the unions were subject to often severe repression until 1824, they were already widespread in cities such as London. Sympathy for the plight of the workers brought repeal of the acts in 1824, by the 1810s, the first labour organizations to bring together workers of divergent occupations were formed. Possibly the first such union was the General Union of Trades, known as the Philanthropic Society, the latter name was to hide the organizations real purpose in a time when trade unions were still illegal. The Association quickly enrolled approximately 150 unions, consisting mostly of textile related unions, but including mechanics and various others
Labour Party (Norway)
The Labour Party, formerly the Norwegian Labour Party, is a social-democratic political party in Norway. It was formerly the senior partner of the governing Red-Green Coalition, the party is currently led by Jonas Gahr Støre. The Labour Party is officially committed to social-democratic ideals and its slogan since the 1930s has been everyone shall take part, and the party traditionally seeks a strong welfare state, funded through taxes and duties. During the first Stoltenberg government, the policies were inspired by Tony Blairs New Labour. The party has frequently described as increasingly neoliberal since the 1980s. The Labour Party profiles itself as a party that subscribes to cooperation on a national as well as international level. Its youth wing is the Workers Youth League, the party is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, and is an observer member of the Socialist International. The Labour Party has always been a supporter of Norways NATO membership and has supported Norwegian membership in the European Union during two referendums.
Founded in 1887, the party increased in support until it became the largest party in Norway in 1927. This year saw the consolidation of surrounding the party during the 1920s following its membership in the Comintern from 1919 to 1923. It formed its first government in 1928, and has led the government for all but 16 years since 1935, from 1945 to 1961, the party had an absolute majority in the Norwegian parliament, the only time this has ever happened in Norwegian history. The domination by the Labour Party, during the 1960s and early 1970s, was broken by competition from the left. From the end of the 1970s however, the party started to lose voters to the right, in 2001 the party achieved its worst electoral results since 1924. Between 2005 and 2013, Labour returned to power after committing to an agreement with other parties in order to form a majority government. Since losing 9 seats in the 2013 election, Labour has been in opposition, the party was founded in 1887 in Arendal and first ran in elections to the Parliament of Norway in 1894.
It entered Parliament in 1904 after the 1903 election, and steadily increased its vote until 1927, the party were members of Comintern, a Communist organisation, between 1918 and 1923. From the establishment of Vort Arbeide in 1884, the party had a growing and notable organisation of newspapers, the party press system eventually resulted in Norsk Arbeiderpresse. In January 1913 the party had 24 newspapers, and 6 more newspapers were founded in 1913, the party had the periodical Det 20de Aarhundre
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at federal level since the 2013 election, Bill Shorten has been the partys federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013. The party is a party with branches in each state. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. Labors current National Platform describes the party as a social democratic party, the party of opportunity and security for working people. The ALP was not founded as a party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. Nevertheless, it is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the labour movement in Australia. Labor is thus the countrys oldest political party, colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, and federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election.
Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having previously been a member of the Socialist International. The Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation, Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891. The Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia, Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia,1893 in Queensland, and in the other colonies. The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, the major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power. It offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions, the United Labor Party of South Australia was founded in 1891, and three candidates were that year elected to the South Australian Legislative Council.
The first successful South Australian House of Assembly candidate was John McPherson at the 1892 East Adelaide by-election, at the 1893 South Australian elections the ULP was immediately elevated to balance of power status with 10 of 54 lower house seats. The liberal government of Charles Kingston was formed with the support of the ULP, so successful, less than a decade at the 1905 election, Thomas Price would form the worlds first stable Labor government. John Verran led Labor to form the states first of many majority governments at the 1910 election, in 1899, Anderson Dawson formed a minority Labour government in Queensland, the first in the world, which lasted one week while the conservatives regrouped after a split. The colonial Labour parties and the unions were mixed in their support for the Federation of Australia. They feared that federation would further entrench the power of the conservative forces, the first Labour leader and Prime Minister, Chris Watson, was a supporter of federation
Labour Party (Ireland)
The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. Unlike the other main Irish political parties, Labour did not arise as a faction of the original Sinn Féin party. This gives Labour a cumulative total of nineteen years served as part of a government, the current party leader is Brendan Howlin. It is currently the fourth largest party in Dáil Éireann, with seven seats, the Labour Party is a member of the Progressive Alliance, Socialist International, and Party of European Socialists. In 1912 James Connolly, James Larkin and William OBrien established the Irish Labour Party as the wing of the Irish Trade Union Congress. This party was to represent the workers in the expected Dublin Parliament under the Third Home Rule Act 1914, the Irish Citizen Army, formed during the 1913 Lockout, was informally the military wing of the Labour Movement. The ICA took part in the 1916 Rising, councillor Richard OCarroll, a Labour Party member of Dublin Corporation, was the only elected representative to be killed during the Easter Rising.
OCarroll was shot and died days on 5 May 1916. The ICA was revived during Peadar ODonnells Republican Congress but after the 1935 split in the Congress most ICA members joined the Labour Party. The British Labour Party had previously organised in Ireland, but in 1913 the Labour NEC agreed that the Irish Labour Party would have organising rights over the entirety of Ireland. A group of trade unionists in Belfast objected and the Belfast Labour Party, in Larkins absence, William OBrien became the dominant figure in the Irish Transport and General Workers Union and wielded considerable influence in the Labour Party. OBrien dominated the Irish Trade Union Congress and it refrained from contesting the 1921 elections. As a result, the party was left outside Dáil Éireann during the years of the independence struggle. The Anglo-Irish Treaty divided the Labour Party, some members sided with the Irregulars in the Irish Civil War that quickly followed. OBrien and Johnson encouraged its members to support the Treaty, in the 1922 general election the party won 17 seats.
However, there were a number of strikes during the first year, in the 1923 general election the Labour Party only won 14 seats. From 1922 until Fianna Fáil TDs took their seats in 1927, Labour attacked the lack of social reform by the Cumann na nGaedheal government. In 1923 Larkin returned to Ireland and he hoped to take over the leadership role he had left, but OBrien resisted him
A general strike is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers in a multitude of workplaces, General strikes first occurred in the mid-19th century, and have characterised many historically important strikes. An early predecessor of the strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In the Outline Of History, H. G. Wells recorded the general strike of the plebeians, the plebeians seem to have invented the strike, which now makes its first appearance in history. Wells noted that he made a mean use of their political advantages to grow rich through the national conquests at the expense not only of the defeated enemy. The plebeians, who were expected to obey the laws, but were not allowed to know the laws, were successful, in 450 BC. in a concession resulting from the rebellion of the plebeians, the laws of Rome were written for all to peruse. The general strike action became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution.
For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the working class, they lived in cities. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak, the first theorist to formulate and popularise the idea of a general strike for the purpose of political reform was the radical pamphleteer William Benbow. On 28 January 1832 Benbow published a pamphlet entitled Grand National Holiday, Benbow began to advocate direct and even violent action for political reform, in particular he advanced his idea for a national holiday and national convention. The striking workers were to support themselves with savings and confiscated parish funds, benbows idea of a Grand National Holiday was adopted by the Chartist Congress of 1839, Benbow having spent time in Manchester during 1838-9 promoting his the cause and his pamphlet. In 1842 the demands for wages and conditions across many different industries finally exploded into the first modern general strike. Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by a hard-headed agenda to win concessions.
Probably as much as half of the industrial work force were on strike at its peak - over 500,000 men. The local leadership marshaled a growing working class tradition to politically organise their followers to mount a challenge to the capitalist. The mass abandonment of plantations by black slaves and poor whites during the American Civil War has, controversially, in his classic history Black Reconstruction in America, W. E. B. The trickling streams of fugitives swelled to a flood, once begun, the general strike of black and white went madly and relentlessly on like some great saga. The next large scale strike took place over half a century in Belgium
Labour law mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the relationship between employee and union. Individual labour law concerns employees rights at work and through the contract for work, Employment standards are social norms for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work. Labour law arose in parallel with the Industrial Revolution as the relationship between worker and employer changed from small-scale production studios to large-scale factories, Workers sought better conditions and the right to join a labour union, while employers sought a more predictable and less costly workforce. The state of law at any one time is therefore both the product of, and a component of struggles between various social forces. As England was the first country to industrialize, it was the first to face the often appalling consequences of industrial revolution in a less regulated economic framework.
This was largely achieved through the pressure from social reformers, notably Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. A serious outbreak of fever in 1784 in cotton mills near Manchester drew widespread public opinion against the use of children in dangerous conditions. A local inquiry presided over by Dr Thomas Percival, was instituted by the justices of the peace for Lancashire, in 1802, the first major piece of labour legislation was passed − the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act. This was the first, albeit modest, step towards the protection of labour, the act limited working hours to twelve a day and abolished night work. It required the provision of a level of education for all apprentices, as well as adequate sleeping accommodation. The Factory Act of 1819 was the outcome of the efforts of the industrialist Robert Owen and prohibited child labour under nine years of age, pivotal in the campaigning for and the securing of this legislation were Michael Sadler and the Earl of Shaftesbury.
This act was an important step forward, in that it mandated skilled inspection of workplaces, a lengthy campaign to limit the working day to ten hours was led by Shaftesbury, and included support from the Anglican Church. Many committees were formed in support of the cause and some established groups lent their support as well. The campaign finally led to the passage of the Factory Act of 1847 and these early efforts were principally aimed at limiting child labour. From the mid-19th century, attention was first paid to the plight of working conditions for the workforce in general, in 1850, systematic reporting of fatal accidents was made compulsory, and basic safeguards for health and limb in the mines were put in place from 1855. Further regulations, relating to ventilation, fencing of disused shafts, signalling standards, a series of further Acts, in 1860 and 1872 extended the legal provisions and strengthened safety provisions. The same Act included the first comprehensive code of regulation to govern legal safeguards for health, the presence of a more certified and competent management and increased levels of inspection were provided for
University of Chicago Press
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States. One of its quasi-independent projects is the BiblioVault, a repository for scholarly books. The Press building is located just south of the Midway Plaisance on the University of Chicago campus, the University of Chicago Press was founded in 1891, making it one of the oldest continuously operating university presses in the United States. Its first published book was Robert F. Harpers Assyrian and Babylonian Letters Belonging to the Kouyunjik Collections of the British Museum, for its first three years, the Press was an entity discrete from the university, it was operated by the Boston publishing house D. C. Heath in conjunction with the Chicago printer R. R. Donnelley and this arrangement proved unworkable, and in 1894 the university officially assumed responsibility for the Press. In 1902, as part of the university, the Press started working on the Decennial Publications, composed of articles and monographs by scholars and administrators on the state of the university and its facultys research, the Decennial Publications was a radical reorganization of the Press.
This allowed the Press, by 1905, to begin publishing books by scholars not of the University of Chicago. A manuscript editing and proofreading department was added to the staff of printers and typesetters, leading, in 1906. By 1931, the Press was an established, leading academic publisher, leading books of that era include Dr. Edgar J. Goodspeeds The New Testament, An American Translation and its successor, Goodspeed and J. M. In 1956, the Press first published books under its imprint. Of the Presss best-known books, most date from the 1950s, including translations of the Complete Greek Tragedies and Richmond Lattimores The Iliad of Homer. That decade saw the first edition of A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, in 1966, Morris Philipson began his thirty-four-year tenure as director of the University of Chicago Press. As the Presss scholarly volume expanded, the Press advanced as a trade publisher. In 1992, Norman Macleans books A River Runs Through It and Young Men and Fire were national best sellers, in 1982, Philipson was the first director of an academic press to win the Publisher Citation, one of PENs most prestigious awards.
Paula Barker Duffy served as director of the Press from 2000 to 2007, under her administration, the Press expanded its distribution operations and created the Chicago Digital Distribution Center and BiblioVault. The Press launched an electronic work, The Chicago Manual of Style Online. Garrett P. Kiely became the 15th director of the University of Chicago Press on September 1,2007, the Press publishes over 50 new trade titles per year, across many subject areas. It publishes regional titles, such as The Encyclopedia of Chicago, the Press has recently expanded its digital offerings to include most newly published books as well as key backlist titles
International comparisons of trade unions
Unions have been compared across countries by growth and decline patterns, by violence levels, and by kinds of political activity. In the mid-1950s, 36% of the United States labor force was unionized, at Americas union peak in the 1950s, union membership was lower in the United States than in most comparable countries. By 1989, that figure had dropped to about 16%, the lowest percentage of any developed democracy, union membership for other developed democracies, in 1986/87 were, 95% in Sweden and Denmark. 85% in Finland Over 60% in Norway and Austria Over 50% in Australia, Ireland, in 1987, United States unionization was 37 points below the average of seventeen countries surveyed, down from 17 points below average in 1970. Between 1970 and 1987, union membership declined in three other countries, Austria, by 3%, Japan, by 7%, and the Netherlands. In the United States, union membership had declined by 14%, in 2008,12. 4% of U. S. wage and salary workers were union members. 36. 8% of public workers were union members.
The most unionized sectors of the economy have had the greatest decline in union membership, from 1953 to the late 1980s membership in construction fell from 84% to 22%, manufacturing from 42% to 25%, mining from 65% to 15%, and transportation from 80% to 37%. From 1971 to the late 1980s, there was a 10% drop in membership in the U. S. public sector. For comparison, there was no drop in membership in the private sector in Sweden. In other countries included, 2% in Canada, 3% in Norway, 6% in West Germany, 7% in Switzerland, 9% in Austria, 14% in the United Kingdom. The General Confederation of Labour is a trade union center. Until the 1990s it was linked to the French Communist Party. It is the largest in terms of votes, and second largest in terms of membership numbers. Its membership decreased to 650,000 members in 1995–96, before increasing today to between 700,000 and 720,000 members, slightly fewer than the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail. The CGT is concentrating its attention, in particular since the 1995 general strikes, the French Democratic Confederation of Labour, CFDT is one of the five major confederations.
It is the largest French trade union confederation by number of members, the CFDT was created in 1964 when a majority of the members of the Christian trade union Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens decided to become secular. The minority kept the name CFTC, Labour unions emerged in Japan in the second half of the Meiji period, after 1890, as the country underwent a period of rapid industrialization
One Big Union (concept)
The One Big Union was an idea in the late 19th and early 20th centuries amongst trade unionists to unite the interests of workers and offer solutions to all labour problems. Unions initially organised as craft or trade unions, Workers were organised by their skill, plumbers, each into their respective unions. Capitalists could often divide craft and trade unionists along these lines in demarcation disputes, as capitalist enterprises and state bureaucracies became more centralised and larger, some workers felt that their institutions needed to become similarly large. A simultaneous disenchantment with the weakness of craft unions caused many unions to organise along industrial lines. In the 1911 pamphlet One Big Union, IWW supporters Father Thomas J, One Big Union was the notional organisational concept, while the IWWs revolutionary industrial unionism was the organizing method by which that concept could be realised. Organizing the One Big Union of all workers the world over was meant to achieve working class control, but the One Big Union organisations were resisted by government and industry, and subverted by existing trade unions.
By 1925, only the slogan of One Big Union remained, the Industrial Workers of the World adopted and promoted the concept of the One Big Union after the publication of the One Big Union pamphlet in 1911, the IWW continues to use the phrase. Members of the IWW historically, and currently and sign letters with the closing, many commentators regard One Big Union as synonymous with the Industrial Workers of the World. One of the popular IWW publications was called One Big Union Monthly, the IWW promoted the One Big Union concept in various ways, including as an invitation to racial equality. One IWW leaflet proclaimed, To Colored Workingmen and Women, If you are a wage worker you are welcome in the I. W. W, halls, no matter what your color. By this you may see that the I. W. W. is not a white mans union, not a black union, not a red or yellow mans union. All of the class in one big union. The IWW used the same sort of arguments to welcome women into the workforce, the appeal subsequently proclaimed the intent to organise all wage workers.
Into One Big Union, regardless of creed, color, or nationality, an injury to one is an injury to all. The One Big Union idea had the goals of better pay, shorter hours. The IWW propagandised, Organize in one big union and fight for a chance to live as human beings should live, all together now and victory will be ours. In North America, the most significant early impetus for the One Big Union concept came from the Western Federation of Miners which was headquartered in Denver, the WFM and its allies first launched the Western Labor Union. The Western Labor Union was initially intended to displace the conservative American Federation of Labor in the West, the WLUs rebranding in 1902 as the American Labor Union was a direct response to actions by President Samuel Gompers
Labor federation competition in the United States
A labor federation is a group of unions or labor organizations that are in some sense coordinated. The terminology used to such organizations grows out of usage. For example, nationals are sometimes named internationals, federations are named unions, the issues that divided labor federations and fostered competition were many and varied. Craft unions tended to organize skilled workers, to the exclusion of the unskilled, the role of government has been significant or decisive in tipping the balance of power between labor federations, or in crushing labor organizations outright. Even personalities of union leaders have sometimes guided the fortunes of labor federations and that may seem inevitable when labor organizations are headed by men like Big Bill Haywood, John L. Lewis or Andy Stern. Labor federation competition in the U. S. is not just a history of the labor movement, threads of union philosophy and ideology will be traced from one period to another. Conflicting union philosophies will be explored, moyer is here seen following Haywood with a knife.
Haywood is shown using sabotage on Samuel Gompers, the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners are after Sammy, as the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor, revoked their charter. The two factions of the popularly supposed defunct K. of L. are busy soaking each other while the Detroit I. W. W. lands a right swing to the jaw of the Chicago bogus outfit, the first labor federation was the National Labor Union. The NLU professed that all wealth and property were the products of labor, working men were receiving too little, and nonproducing capital was receiving too much of the wealth produced. He declared, The cause of all these evils is the WAGES SYSTEM, so long as we continue to work for wages. So long will we be subjected to pay, poverty. The federation was anti-monopolist, and advocated communitarianism — the pursuit of a more just society established on cooperative principles, the organization favored shorter work hours, and the establishment of libraries for the express purpose of educating workers.
The 1868 NLU convention embraced Sylviss view that a bank, sylvis was against privatizing the commons, and appeared to favor progressive taxation. The NLU wanted congress to control interest rates, which they thought would help to address the fairness issue, from the very first convention, certain divergent union tendencies were in conflict. The Workingmens Union of New York City expressed opposition to a call by the officers of unions for a National Convention of Trades. The compromise that avoided an impasse allowed organizations such as eight-hour leagues, composed of individuals supportive of labor but not themselves workers, to send representatives. Thus, due to suspicion of the large, national unions of skilled craftsmen by a general workmens union, reformist political groups became a part of the National Labor Union