The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates. In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which secretes milk to feed infants. Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause breast development in female humans and to a much lesser extent in other primates. Breast development in other primate females only occurs with pregnancy. Subcutaneous fat covers and envelops a network of ducts that converge on the nipple, these tissues give the breast its size and shape. At the ends of the ducts are lobules, or clusters of alveoli, where milk is produced and stored in response to hormonal signals. During pregnancy, the breast responds to a complex interaction of hormones, including estrogens and prolactin, that mediate the completion of its development, namely lobuloalveolar maturation, in preparation of lactation and breastfeeding. Along with their major function in providing nutrition for infants, female breasts have social and sexual characteristics.
Breasts have been featured in notable ancient and modern sculpture and photography. They can figure prominently in the perception of a woman's body and sexual attractiveness. A number of Western cultures associate breasts with sexuality and tend to regard bare breasts in public as immodest or indecent. Breasts the nipples, are an erogenous zone; the English word breast derives from the Old English word brēost from Proto-Germanic breustam, from the Proto-Indo-European base bhreus–. The breast spelling conforms to the North English dialectal pronunciations; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary states. Old Irish brú, Russian bryukho". A large number of colloquial terms for breasts are used in English, ranging from polite terms to vulgar or slang; some vulgar slang expressions may be considered to be sexist to women. In women, the breasts overlie the pectoralis major muscles and extend from the level of the second rib to the level of the sixth rib in the front of the human rib cage. At the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle to the middle of the sternum.
At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla, can reach as far to the back as the latissimus dorsi muscle, extending from the lower back to the humerus bone. As a mammary gland, the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue, predominantly two types: adipose tissue. Morphologically the breast is tear-shaped; the superficial tissue layer is separated from the skin by 0.5–2.5 cm of subcutaneous fat. The suspensory Cooper's ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from the superficial fascia to the skin envelope; the female adult breast contains 14–18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the nipple. The 2.0–4.5 mm milk ducts are surrounded with dense connective tissue that support the glands. Milk exits the breast through the nipple, surrounded by a pigmented area of skin called the areola; the size of the areola can vary among women. The areola contains modified sweat glands known as Montgomery's glands; these glands secrete oily fluid that protect the nipple during breastfeeding.
Volatile compounds in these secretions may serve as an olfactory stimulus for the newborn's appetite. The dimensions and weight of the breast vary among women. A small-to-medium-sized breast weighs 500 grams or less, a large breast can weigh 750 to 1,000 grams or more; the tissue composition ratios of the breast vary among women. Some women's breasts have varying proportions of glandular tissue than of adipose or connective tissues; the fat-to-connective-tissue ratio determines the firmness of the breast. During a woman's life, her breasts change size and weight due to hormonal changes during puberty, the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and menopause; the breast is an apocrine gland. The nipple of the breast is surrounded by the areola; the areola has many sebaceous glands, the skin color varies from pink to dark brown. The basic units of the breast are the terminal duct lobular units, which produce the fatty breast milk, they give the breast its offspring-feeding functions as a mammary gland. They are distributed throughout the body of the breast.
Two-thirds of the lactiferous tissue is within 30 mm of the base of the nipple. The terminal lactiferous ducts drain the milk from TDLUs into 4–18 lactiferous ducts, which drain to the nipple; the milk-glands-to-fat ratio is 2:1 in a lactating woman, 1:1 in a non-lactating woman. In addition to the milk glands, the breast is composed of connective tissues, white fat, the suspensory Cooper's ligaments. Sensation in the breast is provided by the peripheral nervous system innervation by means of the front and side cutaneous branches of the fourth-, fifth-, sixth intercostal nerves; the T-4 nerve, which innervates the dermatomic area, supplies sensation to the nipple-areola complex. 75% of the lymph from the breast travels to the axillary lymph nodes on the same side of the body, w
Female body shape
Female body shape or female figure is the cumulative product of her skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body. There is a wide range of normality of female body shapes. Female figures are narrower at the waist than at the bust and hips; the bust and hips are called inflection points, the ratios of their circumferences are used to define basic body shapes. Reflecting the wide range of individual beliefs on what is best for physical health and what is preferred aesthetically, as well as disagreements on the social standing and purported'purpose' of women in society, there is no universally-acknowledged ideal female body shape. Cultural ideals, have developed and continue to exert influence over how a woman relates to her own body, as well as how others in her society may perceive and treat her. Estrogens, which are primary female sex hormones, have a significant impact on a female's body shape, they are produced in both men and women, but their levels are higher in women in those of reproductive age.
Besides other functions, estrogens promote the development of female secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts and hips. As a result of estrogens, during puberty, girls develop their hips widen. Working against estrogen, the presence of testosterone in a pubescent female inhibits breast development and promotes muscle development. Estrogen levels rise during pregnancy. A number of other changes occur during pregnancy, including enlargement and increased firmness of the breasts due to hypertrophy of the mammary gland in response to the hormone prolactin; the size of the nipples may increase noticeably. These changes may continue during breastfeeding. Breasts revert to their previous size after pregnancy, although there may be some increased sagging. Breasts can decrease in size at menopause. Estrogens can affect the female body shape in a number of other ways, including increasing fat stores, accelerating metabolism, reducing muscle mass, increasing bone formation. Estrogens cause higher levels of fat to be stored in a female body than in a male body.
They affect body fat distribution, causing fat to be stored in the buttocks and hips in women, but not around their waists, which will remain about the same size as they were before puberty. The hormones produced by the thyroid gland regulate the rate of metabolism, controlling how the body uses energy, controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones. Body fat distribution may change from time to time, depending on food habits, activity levels and hormone levels; when women reach menopause and the estrogen produced by ovaries declines, fat migrates from their buttocks and thighs to their waists. Body fat percentage recommendations are higher for females, as this fat may serve as an energy reserve for pregnancy. Males have less subcutaneous fat in their faces due to the effects of testosterone; the lack of estrogen in males results in more fat being deposited around the waist and abdomen. Testosterone is a steroid hormone which helps build and maintain muscles with physical activity, such as exercise.
The amount of testosterone produced varies from one individual to another, but, on average, an adult female produces around one-tenth of the testosterone of an adult male, but females are more sensitive to the hormone. The muscles most to be affected are the pectoral muscles and the triceps in the arms and quadriceps in the thighs. On the other hand, estrogens reduce muscle mass. Muscle mass changes over time as a result of changes in testosterone and estrogen levels and exercise, besides other factors; the aging process has an inevitable impact on a person's body shape. A woman's sex hormone levels will affect the fat distribution on her body. According to Dr. Devendra Singh, "Body shape is determined by the nature of body fat distribution that, in turn, is correlated with women's sex hormone profile, risk for disease, reproductive capability." Concentrations of estrogen will influence. Before puberty both males and females have a similar waist–hip ratio. At puberty, a girl's sex hormones estrogen, will promote breast development and a wider pelvis tilted forward for child bearing, until menopause a woman's estrogen levels will cause her body to store excess fat in the buttocks and thighs, but not around her waist, which will remain about the same size as it was before puberty.
These factors result in women's waist–hip ratio being lower than for males, although males tend to have a greater upper-body to waist-hip ratio giving them a V shape look because of their greater muscle mass e.g. they have much larger, more muscular and broader shoulders, pectoral muscles, teres major muscles and latissimus dorsi muscles. During and after pregnancy, a woman experiences body shape changes. After menopause, with the reduced production of estrogen by the ovaries, there is a tendency for fat to redistribute from a female's buttocks and thighs to her waist or abdomen; the breasts of girls and women in early stages of development are "high" and rounded, dome- or cone-shaped, protrude horizontally from a female's chest wall. Over time, the sag on breasts tends to increase due to their natural weight, the relaxation of support structures, aging. Breasts sag if the ligaments become elongated, a natural process that can occur over time and is influenced by the breast bouncing during physical activity.
The circumferences of
Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person's physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful. The term implies sexual attractiveness or desirability, but can be distinct from either. There are many factors which influence one person's attraction to another, with physical aspects being one of them. Physical attraction itself includes universal perceptions common to all human cultures, as well as aspects that are culturally and dependent, along with individual subjective preferences. In many cases, humans subconsciously attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, to physically attractive people. From research done in the United States and United Kingdom, it was found that the association between intelligence and physical attractiveness is stronger among men than among women. Evolutionary psychologists have tried to answer why individuals who are more physically attractive should on average, be more intelligent, have put forward the notion that both general intelligence and physical attractiveness may be indicators of underlying genetic fitness.
A person's physical characteristics can signal cues to fertility and health, with statistical modelling studies showing that the facial shape variables that reflect aspects of physiological health, including body fat and blood pressure influence observers' perceptions of health. Attending to these factors increases reproductive success, furthering the representation of one's genes in the population. Men, on average, tend to be attracted to women who have a youthful appearance and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face, full breasts, full lips, a low waist-hip ratio. Women, on average, tend to be attracted to men who are both taller than they are as well as taller than other men, display a high degree of facial symmetry, masculine facial dimorphism, who have broad shoulders, a narrow waist, a V-shaped torso. Physical attractiveness can be viewed from a number of perspectives; the perception of attractiveness can have a significant effect on how people are judged in terms of employment or social opportunities, sexual behavior, marriage.
Some physical features are attractive in both men and women bodily and facial symmetry, although one contrary report suggests that "absolute flawlessness" with perfect symmetry can be "disturbing". Symmetry may be evolutionarily beneficial as a sign of health because asymmetry "signals past illness or injury". One study suggested people were able to "gauge beauty at a subliminal level" by seeing only a glimpse of a picture for one-hundredth of a second. Other important factors include skin clarity and smoothness of skin. However, there are numerous differences based on gender. A 1921 study of the reports of college students regarding those traits in individuals which make for attractiveness and repulsiveness argued that static traits, such as beauty or ugliness of features, hold a position subordinate to groups of physical elements like expressive behavior, affectionate disposition, grace of manner, aristocratic bearing, social accomplishments and personal habits. Grammer and colleagues have identified eight "pillars" of beauty: youthfulness, averageness, sex-hormone markers, body odor, skin complexion and hair texture.
Most studies of the brain activations associated with the perception of attractiveness show photographs of faces to their participants and let them or a comparable group of people rate the attractiveness of these faces. Such studies find that activity in certain parts of the orbitofrontal cortex increases with increasing attractiveness of faces; this neural response has been interpreted as a reaction on the rewarding nature of attractiveness, as similar increases in activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex can be seen in response to smiling faces and to statements of morally good actions. While most of these studies have not assessed participants of both genders or homosexual individuals, evidence from one study including male and female hetero- and homosexual individuals indicate that some of the aforementioned increases in brain activity are restricted to images of faces of the gender participants feel sexually attracted to. With regard to brain activation related to the perception of attractive bodies, one study with heterosexual participants suggests that activity in the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingulate cortex increases with increasing attractiveness.
The same study finds that for faces and bodies alike, the medial part of the orbitofrontal cortex responds with greater activity to both attractive and unattractive pictures. Women, on average, tend to be more attracted to men who have a narrow waist, a V-shaped torso, broad shoulders. Women tend to be more attracted to men who are taller than they are, display a high degree of facial symmetry, as well as masculine facial dimorphism. Women, regardless of sexual orientation, tend to be less interested in a partner’s physical attractiveness than men. Studies have shown that ovulating heterosexual women prefer faces with masculine traits associated with increased exposure to testosterone during key developmental stages, such as a broad forehead, prominent nose and cheekbones, large jaw and strong chin; the degree of differences between male and female anatomical traits is called sexual dimorphism. Female respondents in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle were more to choose a masculine face than those in menses and luteal phases.
This distinction s
The hourglass figure is one of four traditional female body shapes described by the fashion industry. The other shapes are the rectangular, inverted triangle, spoon; the hourglass shape is defined by a woman's body measurements- the circumference of the bust and hips. Hourglass body shapes have a wide bust, a narrow waist, wide hips with a similar measurement to that of the bust; this body shape is named for its resemblance to that of an hourglass where the upper and lower half are wide and equal while the middle is narrow in circumference, making the overall shape wide-narrow-wide. Women who exhibit the hourglass figure have been shown to be more admired, which can put pressure on women whose body shapes are much different to strive to achieve the hourglass figure; this can lead to body dissatisfaction which can cause eating disorders in young women from all over the globe. It has been proposed by scientists that the evolutionary reason for the female body shape is due in part to this sexual selection.
Sex-typical body shapes are an outcome of evolutionary adaptation for reproductive fitness because they convey information about gene quality and fertility, which are important elements for mate selection. Bipedalism may be related to the differences of the male body shapes. During pregnancy a woman's body is transformed. To prevent the center of gravity in a women's body from being off balance, it is believed that evolution could have favored fat deposits in the gluteal region and the thighs; when it comes to body weight and hormones, it is dependent on a female's family background and what changes she can expect while she goes through puberty. Fat distribution in women is at its highest from their early teens to late middle age. Sex hormones play an important role in specific regions of the body helping with the regulation and accumulation of fat. Fat distribution occurs in women because estrogen lessens the adipose distribution to the abdominal region and stimulates fat growth in the gluteofemoral region.
Testosterone, on the other hand, has the opposite effect. While estrogen lessens the production of fat in the abdominal region, testosterone stimulates the growth of fat in the abdominal region; this distribution means that women are more to be curvy thus making the hourglass figure a desirable and somewhat achievable body type. The first representations of fashionable women appear in the 14th century. Before this, the Venus of Willendorf dating from the Ice Age stresses full aesthetic encompassing. Between the 14th and 16th centuries in northern Europe, bulging bellies were deemed desirable, however the rest of the figure was thin; this is most visible in paintings of nudes from the time. When looking at clothed images, the belly is visible through a mass of otherwise concealing, loose robes. Since the stomach was the only visible anatomical feature, it became exaggerated in nude depictions while the rest of the body was de-emphasized; this was true in southern Europe around the time of the renaissance.
Though the classical aesthetic was being revived and studied, the art produced in the time period was influenced by both factors. This resulted in a beauty standard that reconciled the two aesthetics by using classically proportioned figures who had non-classical amounts of flesh and soft, padded skin. In the nude paintings of the 17th century, such as those by Rubens, the naked women appear quite fat. Upon closer inspection however, most of the women have normal figures- Rubens has painted their flesh with rolls and ripples that otherwise would not be there; this may be a reflection of the female style of the day: a long, corseted gown with rippling satin accents. Thus Rubens' women have a tubular body with rippling embellishments. While the corset continued to be fashionable into the 18th century, it shortened, became more conical, began to emphasize the waist, it lifted and separated the breasts as opposed to the 17th century corsets which compressed and minimized the breasts. Depictions of nude women in the 18th century tend to have a narrow waist and high, distinct breasts as if they were wearing an invisible corset.
La maja desnuda is a clear example of this aesthetic. The 19th century maintained the general figure of the 18th century. Examples can be seen in the works of many contemporary artists, both academic artists, such as Cabanel and Bouguereau, impressionists, such as Degas and Toulouse-Lautrec; as the 20th century began, the rise of athletics resulted in a drastic slimming of the female figure. This culminated in the 1920s flapper look, which has informed modern fashion since; the last 100 years envelop the time period in which that overall body type has been seen as attractive, though there have been small changes within the period as well. The 1920s was the time. There was dramatic flattening of the entire body resulting in a more youthful aesthetic. In the 1930s, American goods such as the Coca-Cola bottle were exported for the first time to Jamaica. Today in the Jamaican culture the Coca-Cola bottle has now become the representation of a perfect women's body. Women with curves that are shaped to look like the coke bottle got the highest compliments from men while skinny women were mocked and ridiculed for not having this idolized body shape.
In the mid to late 1800s, during the Victorian era, the hourglass corset was used to accentuate the hourglass body shape that became popular and ideal. It accentuated the women's waist by compressing and reducing its size by force to allow a woman who had a straight figure have
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal and ratio scales. Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science and quantitative research in many disciplines. Many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields; these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators. Since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units.
This system reduces all physical measurements to a mathematical combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology; the measurement of a property may be categorized by the following criteria: type, magnitude and uncertainty. They enable unambiguous comparisons between measurements; the level of measurement is a taxonomy for the methodological character of a comparison. For example, two states of a property may be compared by difference, or ordinal preference; the type is not explicitly expressed, but implicit in the definition of a measurement procedure. The magnitude is the numerical value of the characterization obtained with a suitably chosen measuring instrument. A unit assigns a mathematical weighting factor to the magnitude, derived as a ratio to the property of an artifact used as standard or a natural physical quantity. An uncertainty represents the systemic errors of the measurement procedure. Errors are evaluated by methodically repeating measurements and considering the accuracy and precision of the measuring instrument.
Measurements most use the International System of Units as a comparison framework. The system defines seven fundamental units: kilogram, candela, ampere and mole. Six of these units are defined without reference to a particular physical object which serves as a standard, while the kilogram is still embodied in an artifact which rests at the headquarters of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres near Paris. Artifact-free definitions fix measurements at an exact value related to a physical constant or other invariable phenomena in nature, in contrast to standard artifacts which are subject to deterioration or destruction. Instead, the measurement unit can only change through increased accuracy in determining the value of the constant it is tied to; the first proposal to tie an SI base unit to an experimental standard independent of fiat was by Charles Sanders Peirce, who proposed to define the metre in terms of the wavelength of a spectral line. This directly influenced the Michelson–Morley experiment.
With the exception of a few fundamental quantum constants, units of measurement are derived from historical agreements. Nothing inherent in nature dictates that an inch has to be a certain length, nor that a mile is a better measure of distance than a kilometre. Over the course of human history, first for convenience and for necessity, standards of measurement evolved so that communities would have certain common benchmarks. Laws regulating measurement were developed to prevent fraud in commerce. Units of measurement are defined on a scientific basis, overseen by governmental or independent agencies, established in international treaties, pre-eminent of, the General Conference on Weights and Measures, established in 1875 by the Metre Convention, overseeing the International System of Units and having custody of the International Prototype Kilogram; the metre, for example, was redefined in 1983 by the CGPM in terms of light speed, while in 1960 the international yard was defined by the governments of the United States, United Kingdom and South Africa as being 0.9144 metres.
In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a division of the United States Department of Commerce, regulates commercial measurements. In the United Kingdom, the role is performed by the National Physical Laboratory, in Australia by the National Measurement Institute, in South Africa by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and in India the National Physical Laboratory of India. Before SI units were adopted around the world, the British systems of English units and imperial units were used in Britain, the Commonwealth and the United States; the system came to be known as U. S. is still in use there and in a few Caribbean countries. These various systems of measurement have at times been called foot-pound-second systems after the Imperial units for length and time though the tons, hundredweights and nautical miles, for example, are different for the U. S. units. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain, which has switched to the SI system—with a few exceptions such as road signs, which are still in miles.
Draught beer and cider must be sold by the imperial pint, milk in returnable bottles can be sold by the imperial pint. Many people meas
The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips. This is calculated as waist measurement divided by hip measurement. For example, a person with a 30″ waist and 38″ hips has a waist-hip ratio of about 0.78. The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health, the risk of developing serious health conditions. WHR correlates with fertility. According to the World Health Organization's data gathering protocol, the waist circumference should be measured at the midpoint between the lower margin of the last palpable ribs and the top of the iliac crest, using a stretch‐resistant tape that provides a constant 100 g tension. Hip circumference should be measured around the widest portion of the buttocks, with the tape parallel to the floor. Other organizations use different standards; the United States National Institutes of Health and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest.
Waist measurements are obtained by laypersons by measurings around the waist at the navel, but research has shown that these measurements may underestimate the true waist circumference. For both measurements, the individual should stand with feet close together, arms at the side and body weight evenly distributed, should wear little clothing; the subject should be relaxed, the measurements should be taken at the end of a normal respiration. Each measurement should be repeated twice. If the difference between the two measurements exceeds 1 cm, the two measurements should be repeated. However, the waist is more conveniently measured at the smallest circumference of the natural waist just above the belly button, the hip circumference may be measured at its widest part of the buttocks or hip. In case the waist is convex rather than concave, such as is the case in pregnancy, different body types, obesity, the waist may be measured at a horizontal level 1 inch above the navel; the WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health, the risk of developing serious health conditions.
Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies face more health risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies. WHR is used as a measurement of obesity, which in turn is a possible indicator of other more serious health conditions; the WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a body mass index above 30.0. The National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases states that women with waist-hip ratios of more than 0.8, men with more than 1.0, are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. WHR has been found to be a more efficient predictor of mortality in older people than waist circumference or BMI. If obesity is redefined using WHR instead of BMI, the proportion of people categorized as at risk of heart attack worldwide increases threefold; the body fat percentage is considered to be an more accurate measure of relative weight. Of these three measurements, only the waist-hip ratio takes account of the differences in body structure.
Hence, it is possible for two women to have vastly different body mass indices but the same waist–hip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but vastly different waist-hip ratios. WHR has been shown to be a better predictor of cardiovascular disease than waist circumference and body-mass index. However, other studies have found waist circumference, not WHR, to be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk factors, body fat distribution, hypertension in type 2 diabetes; the anti-stress hormone cortisol is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and has been associated with higher levels of abdominal fat and therefore a higher WHR. Abdominal fat is a marker of visceral fat and has greater blood flow and more receptors for cortisol than peripheral fat; the greater the number of cortisol receptors, the more sensitive the visceral fat tissue is to cortisol. This heightened sensitivity to cortisol stimulates fat cells to further increase in size. Women who have a combination of normal BMI and high WHR experience elevated cortisol reactivity to acute stressors and failure to habituate to repeated stressors, compared to women with normal WHR.
This suggests that high WHR might indicate HPA-axis dysregulation and over-exposure to cortisol. Evidence for the relationship between cortisol and central fat distribution has been studied in individuals with Cushing’s syndrome; this is characterized by over-exposure to cortisol due to elevated activity of the HPA axis. A primary component of Cushing’s syndrome is the accumulation of fat in the abdominal region, it is hypothesized that elevated cortisol levels contribute to this accumulation. However, this hypothesis remains contested as cortisol levels only modestly explain variation in central fat distribution, it is more that a complex set of biological and neuroendocrine pathways related to cortisol secretion contribute to central adiposity, such as leptin, neuropeptide y, corticotropin releasing factor and the sympathetic nervous system. In general, adults with growth hormone deficiencies have increased WHRs. Adults with untreated congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency have increased WHRs from increased cortisone:cortisol ratios and insulin sensitivities.
Since these individuals have increased visceral obesity, it has been
The Shadows were an English instrumental rock group, were Cliff Richard's backing band from 1958 to 1968 and have collaborated again on numerous reunion tours. The Shadows have placed 69 UK charted singles from the 1950s to the 2000s, 35 credited to the Shadows and 34 to Cliff Richard and the Shadows; the group, who were in the forefront of the UK beat-group boom, were the first backing band to emerge as stars. As pioneers of the four-member instrumental format, the band consisted of lead guitar, rhythm guitar, bass guitar and drums, their range covers pop, surf rock and ballads with a jazz influence. The core members from 1958 to 2015 were Bruce Welch. Along with the Fender guitar, another cornerstone of the Shadows sound was the Vox amplifier; the Shadows, with Cliff Richard, dominated British popular music in the late 1950s and early 1960s in the years before the Beatles. The Shadows' number one hits included "Apache", "Kon-Tiki", "Wonderful Land", "Foot Tapper" and "Dance On!". They reunited in the 1970s for further commercial success.
The Shadows are the fourth most successful act in the UK singles chart, behind Elvis Presley, the Beatles, Cliff Richard. The Shadows and Cliff Richard & the Shadows each have had four No. 1 selling EPs. Formed as a backing band for Cliff Richard under the name The Drifters, the original members were founder Ken Pavey, Terry Smart on drums, Norman Mitham on guitar, Ian Samwell on guitar and Harry Webb on guitar and vocals, they had no bass player. Samwell wrote the first hit, "Move It" mistakenly attributed to "Cliff Richard and the Shadows". Norrie Paramor wanted to record using only studio musicians but after persuasion he allowed Smart and Samwell to play as well. Two session players, guitarist Ernie Shear and bassist Frank Clark, played on the "Move It/Schoolboy Crush" single on Paramor's insistence to ensure a strong sound. In his memoirs, Welch regrets that he and Marvin could not be at the start of making history with "Move It"; the Drifters signed for Jack Good's Oh Boy! television series.
Paramor of EMI signed Richard, asked Johnny Foster to recruit a better guitarist. Foster went to Soho's 2i's coffee bar, known for musical talent performing there in skiffle, in search of guitarist Tony Sheridan. Sheridan was not there but Foster's attention was caught by Marvin, who played guitar well and had Buddy Holly-style glasses. In spring the same year, the owner of the United States vocal group The Drifters threatened legal action after the release and immediate withdrawal of "Feelin Fine" in the US; the second single, Jet Black, was released in the States as by The Four Jets to avoid further legal aggravation, but a new band name was urgently needed. The name "The Shadows" was thought up by Harris while he and Marvin were at the Six Bells pub in Ruislip in July 1959. From The Story of the Shadows: With a combination of the American situation, Cliff Richard's runaway success and a bit of nudging from Norrie Paramor, we set about finding a permanent name, which arrived out of the blue one summer's day in July 1959.
When Hank Marvin and Jet Harris took off on their scooters up to the Six Bells pub at Ruislip, Jet hit upon a name straight away.'What about the Shadows?' The lad was a genius! So we became the Shadows for the first time on Cliff's sixth single "Travellin' Light". In 1960, "Apache", an instrumental by Jerry Lordan, topped the UK charts for five weeks. Further hits followed, including the number ones "Kon Tiki" and "Wonderful Land", another Lordan composition with orchestral backing; the Shadows played on further hits as Richard's band. In October 1961, Meehan left to be a producer at Decca records, he was replaced by Brian Bennett. In April 1962, Harris was replaced by Brian "Licorice" Locking. Bennett and Locking were friends from the 2I's, in Marty Wilde's backing group, the Wildcats, who recorded instrumentals as the Krew Kats; this Shadows line-up released seven hit singles, two of which, "Dance On!" and "Foot Tapper", topped the charts. In October 1963, Locking left to spend more time as a Jehovah's Witness.
Meanwhile and Meehan teamed up at Decca as an eponymous duo to record another Lordan instrumental, "Diamonds". It rose to UK no. 1 in January 1963. Two further hits, "Scarlett O'Hara" and "Applejack", followed in the same year. On the Lordan tunes, Harris played lead using a six-stringed Fender Bass VI. During 1963, the ex-Shadows were competing in the charts with their former bandmates; the Shadows had met John Rostill on tour with other bands and had been impressed by his playing, so they invited him to join. This final and longest-lasting line-up was the most innovative as they tried different guitars and developed a wider range of styles and higher musicianship, they produced albums but the chart positions of singles began to ease. The line-up had ten hits, the first and most successful of, "The Rise and Fall of Flingel Bunt". During the 1960s, the group appeared with Richard in the films The Young Ones, Summer Holiday, Wonderful Life, Finders Keepers, they appeared as marionettes in the Gerry Anderson film Thunderbirds Are GO, starred in a short B-film called Rhythm'n Greens which became the basis of a music book and an EP.
They appeared in pantomime: Aladdin and his Wonderful Lamp was in 1964 at the London Palladium with Arthur Askey as Widow Twankey, Richard as Aladdin, the Shadows as Wishee, Washee and Poshee. Their film and stage roles allowed