Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Good Night, Nurse!
Good Night, Nurse! is a 1918 American two-reel silent comedy film written by, directed by, starring Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and featuring Buster Keaton. The action centers in a sanitarium Arbuckle's character was involuntarily brought to by his wife to be operated on by Keaton's character for alcoholism. A drunken Arbuckle walks the streets on a depressing, rainy night, too drunk to realize that he is being soaked by the rain, he is denied entry to a drug store due to his drunken state and is forced to remain in the rain. He befriends a fellow drunk who he attempts to mail home by writing his address on his shirt, covering his face in stamps and placing him on top of a mailbox, he befriends a pair of street performers who play the National Anthem for him despite the pouring rain and as a reward he invites them to take shelter in his home from the rain. As Arbuckle parties in the living room with his newfound friends, his wife is awakened by the couple's pet monkey. Angered, his wife throws the street performers out and announces that she is sick of Arbuckle's drunken behavior.
Reading about an operation rumored to cure alcoholism, she orders Arbuckle to undergo the operation or be thrown out of the house. The hospital is revealed to be a sanitarium. Arbuckle is horrified when the doctor due to perform his operation emerges with his apron stained with blood. Arbuckle and a female patient attempt to escape, but are apprehended. Doctors tell claiming she is crazy. Arbuckle is taken to the operating room 13; as the doctors prepare for surgery, after Arbuckle's attempt at postponing the surgery by slipping a clock into his shirt to make the doctors think he has an irregular heartbeat fails, Arbuckle is given anesthetic and falls unconscious. Arbuckle awakes some time and decides to escape from the sanitarium and bumps into the female patient from his earlier escape attempt, she tries to convince Arbuckle that she has been mistakenly committed. They are pursued by doctors into the communal patients ward and a mass pillow fight breaks out between the inmates and the guards, allowing Arbuckle and the girl to escape.
Once in the clear, Arbuckle asks the girl. She asks him to help her get back into the sanitarium. Realizing the girl is genuinely crazy, Arbuckle ditches her by jumping into a nearby pond and pretending to drown, forcing the girl to go running for help. Doctors give chase and while attempting to flee, Arbuckle finds himself back at the sanitarium. Again he attempts to escape, this time by disguising himself as a nurse. With freedom in sight, Arbuckle runs into Keaton, who believes Arbuckle to be an actual woman and begins to flirt with him. Arbuckle goes along with it; the nurse whose uniform Arbuckle is wearing soon arrives. Arbuckle makes a break for it, pursued by Keaton across a farm and onto a track where a sponsored race is taking place. Arbuckle is declared the winner, he is awarded the prize money, which he realizes he can use to buy alcohol, but the doctors track him down once again. Arbuckle is wrestled to the ground by the doctors; the scene shifts back to the hospital bed with the doctors shaking Arbuckle awake after his operation, revealing the whole escape attempt to have been nothing more than a dream.
The cast is listed in credits order. Roscoe'Fatty' Arbuckle as Fatty Buster Keaton as Dr. Hampton/woman with umbrella Al St. John as Surgeon's Assistant Alice Lake as Crazy Woman Joe Bordeaux Kate Price as Nurse Dan Albert as Butler / Hospital orderly Joe Keaton as Man in Bandages Snitz Edwards as Drunken Man Like many American films of the time, Good Night, Nurse! was subject to cuts by city and state film censorship boards. For example, the Chicago Board of Censors cut, in Reel 1, Arbuckle kicking woman, Arbuckle putting foot on woman's posterior, Arbuckle pulling dress off woman and exposing her figure. List of American films of 1918 Fatty Arbuckle filmography Buster Keaton filmography The short film Good Night, Nurse! is available for free download at the Internet Archive Good Night, Nurse! on IMDb Good Night, Nurse! on YouTube Good Night, Nurse! at the International Buster Keaton Society
The Butcher Boy (1917 film)
The Butcher Boy is a 1917 American two-reel silent comedy film written by, directed by, starring Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle and featuring Buster Keaton. This was the first in Arbuckle's series of films with the Comique Film Corporation, Keaton's film debut. Fatty, a butcher boy in a country store, is in love with Almondine, the daughter of the store's general manager Mr. Grouch. Fatty's attempts to get close to her are sidetracked when the store's clerk Alum, a rival for Alice's affections, starts a fight with the rotund butcher, their confrontation in the store soon involves a customer as well as Grouch. The resulting mayhem includes small bags of flour being hurled and "exploding", pies being tossed, brooms being wildly swung amid the thick clouds of flour lingering in the air. Determined to marry Almondine, Fatty disguises himself as a female cousin and follows her to an all-girls boarding school. Alum has the same idea and masquerades, too, as a female student. After another fight breaks out between Fatty and Alum, Fatty is taken by the school's principal Miss Teachem to a separate room to be punished.
Meanwhile and his accomplices attempt to kidnap Almondine. Luckily, Fatty's dog Luke distracts the gang while Almondine escape. Once outside, the couple see a sign on a tree identifying a nearby parsonage, so they run off arm-in-arm to get married there. Note that the subtitles in a release of The Butcher Boy cite new names for the characters: Alum is "Slim Snavely" and Almondine is "Amanda". Roscoe'Fatty' Arbuckle - Fatty / Saccharine Buster Keaton - Buster Al St. John - Alum Alice Lake - Almondine Arthur Earle - The Store Manager Joe Bordeaux - Accomplice Luke - The Dog Charles Dudley - Josephine Stevens - Agnes Neilson - Miss Teachem A review of The Butcher Boy was published in the April 20, 1917, issue of Variety, a trade magazine for the entertainment industry:The Comique Film Co.'s series of Arbuckle two-reelers starts off with Fatty shaking out a bag of laugh making tricks. The cast fits the star, not the least important member is "Luke," the bull terrier, it is a wonder. Arbuckle's juggling with the accessories of the country store where he is an important factor his way of handling the feminine clothes worn in his visit to the girl's boarding school, is done in such a serious, earnest way the comic effect is all the more forceful.
The butcher boy in a country store falls in love with the cashier, the daughter of the proprietor, when she is sent away to a boarding school, he goes to the school as her cousin. The first of the Arbuckle series has set a good mark to aim at. While there is some slapstick, the comedy is recommended. List of American films of 1917 Fatty Arbuckle filmography Buster Keaton filmography "The Butcher Boy" in Variety Weekly. April 20, 1917. Corliss, Richard; that Old Feeling: Fatty and Buster at Time online. The Butcher Boy on IMDb The Butcher Boy is available for free download at the Internet Archive The Butcher Boy on YouTube The Butcher Boy at the International Buster Keaton Society
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
The Balloonatic is a 1923 American short comedy film co-directed by and starring Buster Keaton. It was one of Keaton's final short films. A young man has a series of encounters in an amusement area, much like Coney Island, until happening upon a group of men preparing a hot air balloon for launch; the young man assists the group by climbing atop the balloon to affix a pennant, when the balloon mistakenly takes flight with no one aboard but the young man. The young man downs the balloon in a wilderness area, where he encounters a young outdoorswoman and proceeds to have a series of misadventures. Buster Keaton as The Young Man Phyllis Haver as The Young Woman Babe London as Fat Girl at The House of Trouble Buster Keaton filmography The Balloonatic on IMDb The short film The Balloonatic is available for free download at the Internet Archive The Balloonatic at the International Buster Keaton Society
The High Sign
The High Sign is a 1921 two-reel silent comedy film starring Buster Keaton. It was directed by Keaton and Edward F. Cline; the runtime is 21 minutes. Although One Week was the first of Keaton's independent shorts to be released, The High Sign was the first one to be produced. Disappointed with the result, Keaton shelved the film, it was not until a year that the film was released. The title refers to the secret signal used by the underworld gang in the film. Guitarist Bill Frisell released a soundtrack to the movie in 1995 on his album The High Sign/One Week; the Rats & People Motion Picture Orchestra premiered its new score for the movie in 2008. Buster plays a drifter. Believing Buster is an expert marksman, both the murderous gang the Blinking Buzzards and the man they want to kill end up hiring him; the film ends with a wild chase through a house filled with secret passages. Buster Keaton - Our Hero Bartine Burkett - Miss Nickelnurser Ingram B. Pickett - Tiny Tim Charles Dorety - Gang Member Al St. John - Man in during target practice List of American films of 1921 Buster Keaton filmography Senses of Cinema article on The High Sign The High Sign on IMDb The'High Sign' on YouTube The High Sign at the International Buster Keaton Society The High Sign at AllMovie The High Sign is available for free download at the Internet Archive