Nigel Paul Farage is a British politician and political analyst who was the leader of the UK Independence Party from 2006 to 2009 and again from 2010 to 2016. Since 1999 he has been an MEP for South East England and he co-chairs the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group. A prominent Eurosceptic in the UK, he has noted for his sometimes controversial speeches in the European Parliament and has strongly criticised the euro currency. Farage was a member of UKIP, having left the Conservative Party in 1992 after the signing of the Maastricht Treaty. After unsuccessfully campaigning in European and Westminster parliamentary elections for UKIP since 1994 and he was subsequently re-elected in 2004,2009 and, most recently, at the 2014 European parliament election. He stepped down in November 2009 to concentrate on contesting Buckingham, in November 2010, Farage successfully stood in the 2010 UKIP leadership contest, following the resignation of Lord Pearson of Rannoch. Farage announced his resignation as leader when he did not win the South Thanet seat in Kent at the 2015 general election, in June 2016, Farage was a prominent supporter of the successful campaign for a vote in favour of leaving the EU in the UK EU membership referendum.
On 4 July 2016, Farage again announced his resignation as leader of UKIP, diane James was elected to succeed him, but she resigned as leader after just 18 days and Farage became interim leader on 5 October 2016. A second leadership election was held in November, which was won by Paul Nuttall, Farage was ranked second in The Daily Telegraphs Top 100 most influential right-wingers poll in October 2013, behind Prime Minister David Cameron. He was named Briton of the Year by The Times in 2014, Farage was born in Downe in Kent, England, as the son of Barbara and Guy Justus Oscar Farage. The Farage name comes from a distant Huguenot ancestor, one of his great-grandfathers was born to German parents who migrated to London in the 19th century. His grandfather, Private Harry Farage, fought in World War I and was wounded near Vimy Ridge at Arras and his father was a stockbroker who worked in the City of London. A2012 BBC Radio 4 profile described Guy Farage as an alcoholic who left the home when Nigel was five years old.
From 1975 to 1982, Farage was educated at Dulwich College, on leaving school in 1982, he decided not to go to university, but to work in the City, trading commodities at the London Metal Exchange. Initially, he joined the American commodity operation of brokerage firm Drexel Burnham Lambert and he joined Refco in 1994, and Natexis Metals in 2003. Farage was active in the Conservative Party from his days, having seen a visit to his school by Enoch Powell. However, he voted for the Green Party in 1989 because of what he saw as their sensible and he left the Conservatives in 1992 in protest at Prime Minister John Major governments signing of the Treaty on European Union at Maastricht. He was a member of UKIP in 1993
Thomas Samuel Tom Okker is a former Dutch tennis player. He was ranked among the worlds top 10 singles players for seven years, 1968–74. He was ranked World No.1 in doubles in 1969, Okker was the Dutch champion from 1964 through 1968. In 1968, his first year as a professional, he won in singles, at Wimbledon, Okker reached the quarterfinals in 1968 and the semifinals in 1978. Okker reached the final after defeating Pancho Gonzales in the quarterfinal and he lost the final to American Arthur Ashe in five sets, 12–14, 7–5, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6. Okker turned professional in February 1969 when he signed a contract with the Lamar Hunts World Championship Tennis. He was the runner-up in 24 singles tournaments, Okker is among the most successful mens doubles players of all time. Okker won two Grand Slam doubles titles, the US Open in 1976 and the French Open in 1973, in total, Okker won 78 doubles events, a record that was finally broken by Todd Woodbridge in 2005. Okkers other doubles titles include the 1973 Italian Open,1973 London Grass Courts,1973 Spanish Open,1975 Opel International, and 1978 WCT World Doubles.
One of the first tennis professionals to win at least US $1 million in prize money. Between 1964 and 1981, Okker represented The Netherlands in the Davis Cup, playing in 13 ties, in 1965 Okker won both the singles and the mixed doubles titles at the Maccabiah Games in Israel. This event is open to all Israelis and to non-Israeli Jews and he was among the first players of his era to hit the ball with heavy topspin. Okker, who is Jewish on his fathers side, was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame in 2003. Since the mid-1980s Okker has been involved in art and was a partner in the Jaski art gallery in Amsterdam. In 2005 he founded art gallery Tom Okker Art bv in Hazerswoude-Dorp, Tom Okker at the Association of Tennis Professionals Tom Okker at the International Tennis Federation Tom Okker at the Davis Cup Jews in Sports bio List of select Jewish tennis players
John Enoch Powell, MBE was a British politician, classical scholar and poet. He served as a Conservative Member of Parliament, Ulster Unionist Party MP, before entering politics, Powell was a classical scholar, becoming a full professor of ancient Greek at the age of 25. During the Second World War, he served in staff and intelligence positions, reaching the rank of brigadier in his early thirties. He wrote poetry, his first works being published in 1937, Powell became a national figure following his 20 April 1968 address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the Rivers of Blood speech. It pointedly criticized immigration into Britain from the Commonwealth nations and opposed the legislation being mooted at the time. In response, Conservative party leader Edward Heath sacked Powell from his position as Shadow Defence Secretary in the Tory opposition. He returned to the House of Commons in October 1974 as the Ulster Unionist Party MP for the Northern Irish constituency of South Down until he was defeated in the 1987 general election, John Enoch Powell was born in Stechford, Birmingham, on 16 June 1912.
He lived there for the first six years of his life before his parents moved to Kings Norton in 1918 and he was the only child of Albert Enoch Powell, a primary school headmaster, and his wife, Ellen Mary. Ellen was the daughter of Henry Breese, a Liverpool policeman and his wife Eliza and his mother did not like his name, and as a child he was known as Jack. At the age of three, Powell was nicknamed the Professor because he used to stand on a chair and describe the birds his grandfather had shot. The Powells were of Welsh descent and from Radnorshire, having moved to the developing Black Country during the early 19th century and his great-grandfather was a coal miner, and his grandfather had been employed in the iron trade. Powell read avidly from an age, as early as three he could read reasonably well. Despite the Powell family having to budget their income, they always had money for books. Powell was heavily influenced by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, he initially adopted Nietzsches concept of God is dead but became religious again on in life.
He studied at Trinity College, from 1930 to 1933, during which time he fell under the influence of the poet A. E. Housman and he began to study German as many of the classic scholars were Germans. He took no part in politics at university, whilst studying at Cambridge, Powell became aware that there was another classicist who signed his name as John U. In deciding how to distinguish his work from his own, Powell decided to use his middle name, while at university, in one Greek prose examination lasting three hours, he was asked to translate a passage into Greek. Powell walked out one and a half hours, having produced translations in the styles of Plato
International Tennis Federation
The International Tennis Federation is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, the ITF partners with the Womens Tennis Association and the Association of Tennis Professionals to govern professional tennis. The ITF sanctions the Grand Slam tennis tournaments as well as circuits which span age ranges as well as disciplines, in addition to these circuits, the ITF maintains rankings for juniors, seniors and beach tennis. Duane Williams, an American who lived in Switzerland, is recognized as the initiator. Three other countries could not attend but had requested to become a member, voting rights were divided based on the perceived importance of the individual countries with Great Britains Lawn Tennis Association receiving the maximum six votes. France received permission to stage the World Hard Court Championships until 1916, the USLTA joined in 1923 on the basis of two compromises, the title World Championships would be abolished and wording would be for ever in the English language.
In 1924, the ILTF became the officially recognised organisation with authority to control lawn tennis throughout the world, in 1939 the ILTF had 59 member nations. Its funds were moved to London, England during World War II and it was based at Wimbledon until 1987, when it moved to Barons Court, next door to Queens Club. It moved again in 1998 to the Bank of England Sports Ground, Roehampton, in 1977 the word Lawn was dropped from the name of the organization, in recognition of the fact that most tennis events were no longer played on grass. Its official annual is The ITF Year, describing the activities of the ITF over last 12 months and this replaced World of Tennis, which was the ITF official annual from 1981 through 2001. In addition it publishes an official magazine ITFWorld three times a year, as of 2016, there are 211 national associations affiliated with the ITF, of which 148 are voting members and 63 are associate members. For example, France garners 12 votes, Canada has 9, Egypt has 5, Pakistan has 3, regional associations were created in July 1975 as six supra-national associations with the aim to decrease the gap between the ILTF and the national associations.
Candidates are nominated by the associations, and may serve up to twelve years. The ITF is the governing body for the sport of tennis. By its own constitution, the ITF guarantees that the official Rules of Tennis shall be for ever in the English language, a committee within the ITF periodically makes rule amendment recommendations to the Board of Directors. The Rules of Tennis encompass the manner of play and scoring, in-game coaching, the Rules cover tennis, wheelchair tennis, and beach tennis. Through the Tennis Anti-Doping Program, the ITF implements the World Anti-Doping Code for tennis, National associations must implement the code within its national jurisdiction, report violations up to the ITF and WADA, and report annually about all testing conducted. The Tennis Anti-Doping Program began in 1993, and applies to all players who play in ITF-sanctioned competitions, as well as tournaments on the ATP Tour and WTA Tour
Henri Leconte is a former French professional tennis player. He reached the singles final at the French Open in 1988, won the French Open mens doubles title in 1984. Lecontes career-high singles ranking was world No.5, Leconte first came to the tennis worlds attention as an outstanding junior player who won the French Open junior title in 1981. He turned professional that year and won his first career title at Bologna. Leconte played in the Davis Cup final for the first time in 1982, Leconte teamed up with Yannick Noah to win the mens doubles title at the French Open in 1984. In 1985, Leconte and Noah reached a second Grand Slam doubles final at the US Open, Leconte reached his career-high doubles ranking of world No.6 in 1985. In singles in 1985, Leconte reached the quarter-finals of the French Open and Wimbledon,2, Ivan Lendl, in the fourth round of Wimbledon. 1986 saw Leconte reach two Grand Slam singles semi-finals at the French Open and Wimbledon, and attain his career-high singles ranking of world no.5, Leconte played on the French team that won the World Team Cup that year.
In 1988, Leconte reached the singles final at the French Open beating Simon Youl, Bruno Orešar, Horacio de la Peña, Boris Becker, Andrei Chesnokov. In the final, despite support from the French crowd, Leconte could not overcome two-time former champion Mats Wilander. In 1991, Leconte was involved in the Davis Cup final for a second time, in total, Leconte played for Frances Davis Cup team for a total of 13 consecutive years, compiling a 41–25 record. He compiled a record of 17–5 and was undefeated with Guy Forget. Leconte won his final singles title in 1993 in Halle. He won his doubles title that year at Indian Wells. Leconte, who sports a full beard, retired from the professional tour in 1996. Playing on the ATP Champions Tour for over-35s, he formed a partnership with the Iranian player Mansour Bahrami. He is now the manager of an event company based in Belgium and opened an academy in Fès, Morocco. Since 2010, Leconte has appeared on Australian television as a commentator on the Seven Networks coverage of the Australian Open, in 2014, Leconte appeared as a commentator for the 2014 Australian Open
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte /ˈʃɑːrlət/ is the largest city in the state of North Carolina. It is the county seat of Mecklenburg County and the second-largest city in the southeastern United States, just behind Jacksonville, Charlotte is the third-fastest growing major city in the United States. In 2014 the estimated population of Charlotte according to the U. S. Census Bureau was 809,958, the Charlotte metropolitan area ranks 22nd-largest in the U. S. and had a 2014 population of 2,380,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2014 U. S. Census population estimate of 2,537,990, residents of Charlotte are referred to as Charlotteans. It is listed as a global city by the Globalization. Charlotte Douglas International Airport is an international hub, and was ranked the 23rd-busiest airport in the world by passenger traffic in 2013. Charlotte has a subtropical climate. The city is located several miles east of the Catawba River and southeast of Lake Norman, Lake Wylie and Mountain Island Lake are two smaller man-made lakes located near the city.
The Catawba Native Americans were the first to settle Mecklenburg County and were first recorded in European records around 1567, by 1759 half the Catawba tribe had been killed by smallpox. At the time of their largest population, Catawba people numbered 10,000, Mecklenburg County was initially part of Bath County of New Hanover Precinct, which became New Hanover County in 1729. The western portion of New Hanover split into Bladen County in 1734, Mecklenburg County formed from Anson County in 1762. Further apportionment was made in 1792, with Cabarrus County formed from Mecklenburg and these areas were all part of one of the original six judicial/military districts of North Carolina known as the Salisbury District. The area that is now Charlotte was settled by people of European descent around 1755, Thomas Polk, who married Thomas Spratts daughter, built his house by the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One path ran north–south and was part of the Great Wagon Road, within decades of Polks settling, the area grew to become Charlotte Town, incorporating in 1768.
The crossroads, perched atop the Piedmont landscape, became the heart of Uptown Charlotte, in 1770, surveyors marked the streets in a grid pattern for future development. The east–west trading path became Trade Street, and the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, the intersection of Trade and Tryon—commonly known today as Trade & Tryon, or simply The Square—is more properly called Independence Square. While surveying the boundary between the Carolinas in 1772, William Moultrie stopped in Charlotte Town, whose five or six houses were very ordinary built of logs, local leaders came together in 1775 and signed the Mecklenburg Resolves, more popularly known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. While not a declaration of independence from British rule, it is among the first such declarations that eventually led to the American Revolution
Basel is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine. Basel is Switzerlands third-most-populous city with about 175,000 inhabitants, located where the Swiss and German borders meet, Basel has suburbs in France and Germany. In 2014, the Basel agglomeration was the third largest in Switzerland with a population of 537,100 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland, the official language of Basel is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Basel has been the seat of a Prince-Bishopric since the 11th century, the city has been a commercial hub and important cultural centre since the Renaissance, and has emerged as a centre for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in the 20th century. It hosts the oldest university of the Swiss Confederation, There are settlement traces on the Rhine knee from the early La Tène period. The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an Oppidum on the site of Basel Minster, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul.
In Roman Gaul, Augusta Raurica was established some 20 km from Basel as the administrative centre. The city of Basel eventually grew around the castle, the name of Basel is derived from the Roman-era toponym Basilia, first recorded in the 3rd century. It is presumably derived from the personal name Basilius, the Old French form Basle was adopted into English, and developed into the modern French Bâle. The Icelandic name Buslaraborg goes back to the 12th century Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan, Basel was incorporated into Germania Superior in AD83. Roman control over the area deteriorated in 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum formed by Diocletian, the Alamanni attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled. In a great invasion of AD406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time and settling what is today Alsace, from this time, Basel has been an Alemannic settlement. The Duchy of Alemannia fell under Frankish rule in the 6th century, and by the 7th century, based on the evidence of a third solidus with the inscription Basilia fit, Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century.
Under bishop Haito, the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle, at the partition of the Carolingian Empire, Basel was first given to West Francia, but passed to East Francia with the treaty of Meerssen of 870. The city was plundered and destroyed by a Magyar invasion of 917, the rebuilt city became part of Upper Burgundy, and as such was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire in 1032. Since the donation by Rudolph III of Burgundy of the Moutier-Grandval Abbey and all its possessions to Bishop Adalbero II in 999 till the Reformation, in 1019, the construction of the cathedral of Basel began under German Emperor Heinrich II. In 1225–1226, the Bridge over the Rhine was constructed by Bishop Heinrich von Thun, the bridge was largely funded by Basels Jewish community which had settled there a century earlier. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river between Lake Constance and the sea, the Bishop allowed the furriers to found a guild in 1226
National Front (UK)
The National Front is a far-right political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Kingston upon Hull and is led by David MacDonald. It has no elected representatives at any level of UK government, during its heyday in the 1970s, it had a small number of local councillors, although has never secured a seat in the British Parliament. The NF was founded by A. K. Chesterton in 1967 as a merger between his League of Empire Loyalists and the British National Party and it was soon joined by the Greater Britain Movement, whose leader John Tyndall became the Fronts chairman in 1972. Under Tyndalls leadership, it capitalised on growing concern regarding Asian migration to Britain, rapidly increasing its membership and vote share in areas of East London. Its public profile was raised through street marches and rallies, which resulted in clashes with anti-fascist protesters. In 1982 Tyndall left the party to form his own British National Party, many NF members defected to the BNP, while the Fronts electoral support deteriorated heavily.
During the 1980s, the NF split in two, the Flag NF retained the older ideology while the Official NF adopted a radical Third Positionist stance before disbanding in 1990. In 1995, the Flag NFs leadership transformed the party into the National Democrats, although a small splinter group retained the NF name, they continue to contest elections, albeit without success. Ideologically positioned on the extreme or far-right of British politics, the NF has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists. Various different factions have dominated the party at different points in its history, each with their own ideological bent, including Neo-Nazis, the party is ethnic nationalist, and espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and it promotes biological racism, calling for global racial separatism and condemning mixed race relationships and miscegenation. It espouses anti-semitic conspiracy theories, endorsing Holocaust denial and claiming that Jews seek to dominate the world through both communism and international capitalism.
It promotes economic protectionism, and an away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights. Along with the BNP, the NF has been described as the most successful group in British politics since the Second World War. During its history, it has established sub-groups like a trade association, a youth group. Only whites are permitted membership of the party, with most of the support coming from White British working and lower middle-class communities in Northern England. The NF has generated much opposition from leftist and anti-fascist groups, the British police and prison services forbid their employees to be members of the party
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames, known as Kingston, is the principal settlement of the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames in southwest London. It was the ancient market town where Saxon kings were crowned, Kingston is situated 10 miles southwest of Charing Cross and is one of the major metropolitan centres identified in the London Plan. Kingston lies approximately 33 feet above sea level, Kingston was part of a large ancient parish in the county of Surrey and the town was an ancient borough, reformed in 1835. It has been the location of Surrey County Hall from 1893, most of the town centre is part of the KT1 postcode area, but some areas north of Kingston railway station have the postcode KT2 instead. The population of the town itself, comprising the four wards of Canbury, Norbiton, Kingston was called Cyninges tun in 838, Chingestune in 1086, Kingeston in 1164, Kyngeston super Tamisiam in 1321 and Kingestowne upon Thames in 1589. The name means the manor or estate from the Old English words cyning.
It belonged to the king in Saxon times and was the earliest royal borough and it was first mentioned in 838 as the site of a meeting between King Egbert of Wessex and Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury. Kingston lay on the boundary between the ancient kingdoms of Wessex and Mercia, until in the tenth century when King Athelstan united both to create the kingdom of England. Probably because of the symbolic location, several tenth-century kings were crowned in Kingston, Æthelstan in 925, Eadred in 946. Other kings who may have been crowned there are Edward the Elder in 902, Edmund in 939, Eadwig in 956, Edgar in about 960 and Edward the Martyr in 975. It was initially used as a block, but in 1850 it was moved to a more dignified place in the market before finally being moved to its current location in the grounds of the guildhall. Well known aviation personalities Sydney Camm, Harry Hawker and Tommy Sopwith were responsible for much of Kingstons achievements in aviation. British Aerospace finally closed its Lower Ham Road factory in 1992, part of the site was redeveloped for housing but the riverside part houses a community centre.
The growth and development of Kingston Polytechnic and its transformation into Kingston University has made Kingston a university town, Kingston upon Thames formed an ancient parish in the Kingston hundred of Surrey. The parish of Kingston upon Thames covered an area including Hook, New Malden, Richmond, Thames Ditton. The town of Kingston was granted a charter by King John in 1200, but the oldest one to survive is from 1208, other charters were issued by kings, including Edward IVs charter that gave the town the status of a borough in 1481. The borough covered a smaller area than the ancient parish, although as new parishes were split off the borough. The borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, becoming the Municipal Borough of Kingston-upon-Thames and it had been known as a Royal borough through custom and the right to the title was confirmed by George V in 1927
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
UK Independence Party
The UK Independence Party is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Newton Abbot and currently led by Paul Nuttall, at Westminster, UKIP has no Members of Parliament in the House of Commons and three representatives in the House of Lords. It has 20 Members of the European Parliament, making it jointly the largest UK party in that Parliament and it has five Assembly Members in the National Assembly for Wales and has 438 councillors in UK local government. Ideologically positioned on the wing of British politics, UKIP has been characterised as part of a broader European radical right by political scientists. It promotes a British unionist and British nationalist agenda, although its claim that the latter is a form of civic nationalism has been disputed. UKIPs primary emphasis has been on Euroscepticism, calling for the UKs exit from the European Union and it has placed strong emphasis on lowering immigration, opposing multiculturalism, and encouraging a unitary British identity.
On social issues like LGBT rights and education policy it favours traditional values, influenced by Thatcherism and classical liberalism, it describes itself as economically libertarian and promotes liberal economic policies. Having an ideological heritage stemming from the wing of the Conservative Party. UKIP originated as the Anti-Federalist League, a single-issue Eurosceptic party established by the historian Alan Sked in 1991 and it was renamed UKIP in 1993 but its growth remained slow, it was largely eclipsed by the Eurosceptic Referendum Party until the latters 1997 dissolution. Sked was ousted by a led by Nigel Farage. Under Farages leadership, from 2009 the party adopted a policy platform and capitalised on concerns about rising immigration. This resulted in significant breakthroughs at the 2013 local elections,2014 European elections, the pressure UKIP exerted on the government is widely regarded as the main reason for the 2016 referendum which led to the decision to withdraw from the European Union.
Governed by its leader and National Executive Committee, UKIP is divided into regional groups. UKIP began as the Anti-Federalist League, a Eurosceptic political party established in 1991 by the historian Alan Sked, the League opposed the recently signed Maastricht Treaty and sought to sway the governing Conservative Party toward removing the United Kingdom from the European Union. A former Liberal Party candidate, member of the Bruges Group, under the Anti-Federalist Leagues banner, Sked stood as a prospective Member of Parliament in Bath at the 1992 general election, gaining 0. 2% of the vote. UKIP contested the 1994 European Parliament election with little financing and much infighting, securing itself as the fifth largest party in that election with 1% of the vote. During this period, UKIP was viewed as a typical single-issue party by commentators, following the election, UKIP lost much support to the Referendum Party, founded by the multi-millionaire James Goldsmith in 1994, it shared UKIPs Eurosceptic approach but was far better funded.
UKIP was beaten by the Referendum Party in 163 of the 165 seats in which stood against each other