A pick stitch in sewing is a simple running stitch that catches only a few threads of the fabric, showing very little of the thread on the right side of the garment. It is known as stab stitch. A pick stitch can be made either the inside of the garment or the outside. A pick stitch is used for making hems, although it is used with contrasting thread to create a decorative finish on some garments. It has decorative uses in embroidery and it is exceedingly useful for inserting zips and is surprisingly strong for this purpose. Many home-sewers and new dressmakers find this easier than inserting zips by sewing machine. A pick stitch along the outside of a lapel is a hallmark of a high-end, a finely made pick stitch is difficult to accomplish but can be achieved with practice
Chain stitch is a sewing and embroidery technique in which a series of looped stitches form a chain-like pattern. Chain stitch is an ancient craft – examples of surviving Chinese chain stitch embroidery worked in silk thread have been dated to the Warring States period, handmade chain stitch embroidery does not require that the needle pass through more than one layer of fabric. For this reason the stitch is an effective surface embellishment near seams on finished fabric, because chain stitches can form flowing, curved lines, they are used in many surface embroidery styles that mimic drawing in thread. Chain stitches are used in making tambour lace, macramé. The earliest archaeological evidence of chain stitch embroidery dates from 1100 BC in China, excavated from royal tombs, the embroidery was made using threads of silk. Chain stitch embroidery has found dating to the Warring States period. Chain stitch designs spread to Iran through the Silk Road, chain stitch was the stitch used by early sewing machines, however, as it is easily unravelled from fabric, this was soon replaced with the more secure lockstitch.
Machine embroidery in chain stitch, often in traditional hand-worked crewel designs, is found on curtains, bed linens, then, as the needle rises upward, the friction of the thread against the fabric is sufficient to form a small loop on the underside of the material. That loop is caught by a needle which is beneath the work. The machine moves the material forward projecting the loop on the underside from the previous stitch, the next drop of the needle goes through the previous loop. The circular needle releases the first loop and picks up the new loop, the Double chain stitch uses two threads. It is rarely used in todays machines except for ornamental purposes because it uses a lot of thread and it is found in bulk material packaging, where it is used to close big bags. In this case it is useful to allow an easy opening of the bag. F. A, The Dictionary of Needlework,1885. March 1992, ISBN 0-89577-059-8 Kalotaszeg embroidery at MagyarMuseum. org
Sewing is the craft of fastening or attaching objects using stitches made with a needle and thread. Sewing is one of the oldest of the arts, arising in the Paleolithic era. For thousands of years, all sewing was done by hand, fine hand sewing is a characteristic of high-quality tailoring, haute couture fashion, and custom dressmaking, and is pursued by both textile artists and hobbyists as a means of creative expression. The first known use of the sewing was in the 14th century. Sewing has an ancient history estimated to begin during the Paleolithic Age, Sewing was used to stitch together animal hides for clothing and for shelter. The weaving of cloth from natural fibres originated in the Middle East around 4000 BCE, and perhaps earlier during the Neolithic Age, during the Middle Ages, Europeans who could afford it employed seamstresses and tailors. Sewing for the most part was an occupation, and most sewing before the 19th century was practical. Clothing was an investment for most people, and women had an important role in extending the longevity of items of clothing.
Clothing that was faded would be turned inside-out so that it could continue to be worn, once clothing became worn or torn, it would be taken apart and the reusable cloth sewn together into new items of clothing, made into quilts, or otherwise put to practical use. The many steps involved in making clothing from scratch meant that women often bartered their expertise in a skill with one another. Decorative needlework such as embroidery was a skill, and young women with the time. From the Middle Ages to the 17th century, sewing tools such as needles, decorative embroidery was valued in many cultures worldwide. Some examples are the Cretan Open Filling stitch, Romanian Couching or Oriental Couching, the stitches associated with embroidery spread by way of the trade routes that were active during the Middle Ages. European imperial settlements spread embroidery and sewing techniques worldwide, there are instances of sewing techniques indigenous to cultures in distant locations from one another, where cross-cultural communication would have been historically unlikely.
For example, a method of reverse appliqué known to areas of South America is known to Southeast Asia, the Industrial Revolution shifted the production of textiles from the household to the mills. In the early decades of the Industrial Revolution, the machinery produced whole cloth, the worlds first sewing machine was patented in 1790 by Thomas Saint. By the early 1840s, other early sewing machines began to appear, by the 1850s, Isaac Singer developed the first sewing machines that could operate quickly and accurately and surpass the productivity of a seamstress or tailor sewing by hand. While much clothing was produced at home by female members of the family
Hemstitch or hem-stitch is a decorative drawn thread work or openwork hand-sewing technique for embellishing the hem of clothing or household linens. Unlike an ordinary hem, hemstitching can employ embroidery thread in a color so as to be noticeable. Multiple rows of drawn thread work may be used, hand hemstitching can be imitated by a hemstitching machine which has a piercer that pierces holes into the fabric and two separate needles that sew the hole open. There are hemstitcher attachments for home sewing machines, and simple decorative stitches can be used over drawn threads to suggest hand-hemstitching
The hemline is the line formed by the lower edge of a garment, such as a skirt, dress or coat, measured from the floor. The hemline is perhaps the most variable style line in fashion, changing shape and it was not until the mid-1910s that hemlines began to rise significantly. Skirts rose all the way from floor-length to near knee-length in little more than fifteen years, between 1919 and 1923 they changed considerably, being almost to the floor in 1919, rising to the mid-calf in 1920, before dropping back to the ankles by 1923. 1927 saw flapper length skirts at the kneecap and higher, before shifting down again in the 1930s, another influence on the length of a womans skirt is the Hemline index, oversimplified, states that hemlines rise and fall in sync with the stock market
Darning is a sewing technique for repairing holes or worn areas in fabric or knitting using needle and thread alone. It is often done by hand, but it is possible to darn with a sewing machine. Net darning, called filet lace, is a 19th-century technique using stitching on a foundation fabric to imitate lace. Needle weaving is a drawn thread work embroidery technique that involves darning patterns into barelaid warp or weft thread, in its simplest form, darning consists of anchoring the thread in the fabric on the edge of the hole and carrying it across the gap. It is anchored on the side, usually with a running stitch or two. If enough threads are criss-crossed over the hole, the hole will eventually be covered with a mass of thread, fine darning, sometimes known as Belgian darning, attempts to make the repair as invisible and neat as possible. Often the hole is cut into a square or darn blends into the fabric, there are many varieties of fine darning. Simple over-and-under weaving of threads can be replaced by various fancy weaves, such as twills, invisible darning is the epitome of this attempt at restoring the fabric to its original integrity.
Threads from the original weaving are unraveled from a hem or seam, invisible darning is appropriate for extremely expensive fabrics and items of apparel. In machine darning, lines of machine running stitch are run back and forth across the hole, the fabric is rotated and this is a fast way to darn, but it cannot match the effects of fine darning. When the repairs are finished, the egg is removed. A shell of the tiger cowry Cypraea tigris, an ornament in Europe. A darning mushroom is a tool usually made of wood. The sock is stretched over the top of the mushroom. A darning gourd is a dried gourd with a pronounced neck. The sock can be stretched over the end of the gourd. A used incandescent light bulb can be used to hold a sock in place for darning, the length of the stitches may be varied to produce geometric designs. Traditional embroidery using pattern darning is found in Africa, Japan and Eastern Europe, pattern darning is used as a filling stitch in blackwork embroidery
The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of female primates. In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and secretes milk, both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause breast development, the breasts of females are typically far more prominent than those of males. Subcutaneous fat covers and envelops a network of ducts that converge on the nipple, at the ends of the ducts are lobules, or clusters of alveoli, where milk is produced and stored in response to hormonal signals. Upon childbirth, the alveoli are stimulated to produce and secrete milk for infants, along with their function in feeding infants, female breasts have social and sexual characteristics. Breasts have been featured in ancient and modern sculpture, art. Female breasts can figure prominently in a perception of her body image. A number of Western cultures associate breasts with sexuality and tend to regard bare breasts in public as immodest or indecent and especially the nipples are an erogenous zone on women.
The English word breast derives from the Old English word brēost from Proto-Germanic breustam, the breast spelling conforms to the Scottish and North English dialectal pronunciations. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary states that Middle English brest, from Old English brēost, Old Irish brú, Russian bryukho, the first known usage of the term was before the 12th century. A large number of terms for breasts are used in English. Some vulgar slang expressions may be considered to be derogatory or sexist to women, at the front of the chest, the breast tissue can extend from the clavicle to the middle of the sternum. At the sides of the chest, the breast tissue can extend into the axilla, as a mammary gland, the breast is composed of differing layers of tissue, predominantly two types, adipose tissue, and glandular tissue, which affects the lactation functions of the breasts. Morphologically the breast is a cone, with the base at the chest wall and the apex at the nipple, the superﬁcial tissue layer is separated from the skin by 0. 5–2.5 cm of subcutaneous fat.
The suspensory Coopers ligaments are fibrous-tissue prolongations that radiate from the superficial fascia to the skin envelope, the female adult breast contains 14–18 irregular lactiferous lobes that converge at the nipple. Milk exits the breast through the nipple, which is surrounded by an area of skin called the areola. The size of the areola can vary widely among women, the areola contains modified sweat glands known as Montgomerys glands. These glands secrete oily fluid that lubricate and protect the nipple during breastfeeding, volatile compounds in these secretions may serve as an olfactory stimulus for the newborns appetite
Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on type, social. Some clothing types can be gender-specific, clothing serves many purposes, it can serve as protection from the elements, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, thorns, Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a barrier, keeping infectious. Clothing provides protection from ultraviolet radiation, there is no easy way to determine when clothing was first developed, but some information has been inferred by studying lice. The body louse specifically lives in clothing, and diverge from head lice about 170 millennia ago, another theory is that modern humans are the only survivors of several species of primates who may have worn clothes and that clothing may have been used as long ago as 650 millennia.
Other louse-based estimates put the introduction of clothing at around 42, the most obvious function of clothing is to improve the comfort of the wearer, by protecting the wearer from the elements. In hot climates, clothing provides protection from sunburn or wind damage, shelter usually reduces the functional need for clothing. For example, hats and other layers are normally removed when entering a warm home. Similarly, clothing has seasonal and regional aspects, so that thinner materials, Clothing performs a range of social and cultural functions, such as individual and gender differentiation, and social status. In many societies, norms about clothing reflect standards of modesty, gender, Clothing may function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style. Clothing can and has in history been made from a wide variety of materials. Materials have ranged from leather and furs, to materials, to elaborate and exotic natural. Not all body coverings are regarded as clothing, Clothing protects against many things that might injure the uncovered human body.
Clothes protect people from the elements, including rain, wind, clothing that is too sheer, small, etc. offers less protection. Clothes reduce risk during activities such as work or sport, some clothing protects from specific environmental hazards, such as insects, noxious chemicals, weather and contact with abrasive substances
A zigzag stitch is variant geometry of the lockstitch. When creating a zigzag stitch, the motion of the sewing machines needle is controlled by a cam. As the cam rotates, a follower, connected to the needle bar, rides along the cam. As the follower moves in and out, the bar is moved from side to side. Sewing machines made before the mid 1960s mostly lack this hardware and so cannot natively produce a zigzag stitch, some notable exceptions are the Necchi, the first dedicated zigzag machine for the consumer market, introduced in 1947, and the Elna Supermatic introduced in 1952. The Supermatic was the first example of a machine with interchangeable cams, enabling a vast range of other stitches rather than just zigzag. Older sewing machines which only sew a straight stitch can be adapted to sew a zigzag by means of an attachment, the attachment replaces the machines presser foot with its own, and draws mechanical power from the machines needle clamp. It creates a zigzag by mechanically moving the side to side as the machine runs.
The zigzaggers foot has longitudinal grooves on its underside, facing the material and this allows the zigzagger to move the material side to side while the machines feed dogs are simultaneously moving the material forward or backward in the usual manner. Singer produced variety of Singer Automatic Zigzagger attachments over the years and these zigzaggers are equipped with pop-in cams for making four different zigzag stitches, as well as a bight control for choosing the zigzag width. There are sets of additional different cams, four cams per set, all cam sets are Singer part number 161008, and contain the following cams, * The #2 red set is included with the 160985 and 161102 zigzaggers. ** Older #2 white sets have red-colored cams, YS Star is a brand of Japanese sewing accessories that once included a zigzagger, model YS-7. Like the Singer zigzagger, it fits almost any low-shank sewing machine and its stitch pattern is controlled by small flat rectangular metal templates, seven of which are included.
Two versions were made, The White Sewing Machine Company produced a zigzag attachment like the others and it was called the White Zigzag Attachment, part number 1640. Rather than using cams or templates, it is much simpler, a blind stitch is a variant geometry of the zigzag stitch. It is called a blind hem and it is composed the same way as a zigzag, except that the individual zig-zag pairs are each separated by several straight stitches. Its purpose is to create a nearly invisible hem, because only the zigzags penetrate to the side of the material
In sewing, a gusset is a triangular or rhomboidal piece of fabric inserted into a seam to add breadth or reduce stress from tight-fitting clothing. Gussets were used at the shoulders and hems of traditional shirts, gussets are used in manufacturing of modern tights and pantyhose to add breadth at the crotch seam. As with other underwear, these gussets are often made of moisture-wicking breathable fabrics such as cotton, to keep the genital area dry. The phrase dont bust a gusset is an admonition to calm down, becoming so enraged and inflated that one busted a gusset would imply extreme rage and expansion beyond ones clothing capacity. Gussets are used when making three-piece bags, for example in a pattern for a bag as a long, wide piece which connects the front piece and back piece. By becoming the sides and bottom of the bag, the opens the bag up beyond what simply attaching the front to the back would do. With reference to the dimension of the gusset, the measurements of a flat bottom bag may be quoted as LxWxG, pillows too, are often gusseted, generally an inch or two.
The side panels thicken the pillow, allowing more stuffing without bulging, gussets are used in other areas of manufacturing, e. g. bicycle frames employ gussets to add strength and rigidity. Gusset plates, usually triangular, are used to join metal plates. Special envelopes will employ a gusset to allow for expansion when containing more than just a few sheets of paper for example
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, fibre glass and it is a common measuring tool. Its design allows for a measure of length to be easily carried in pocket or toolkit. Today it is ubiquitous, even appearing in miniature form as a keychain fob, Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m. Tape measures that were intended for use in tailoring or dressmaking were made from cloth or plastic. These types of tape measures were mainly used for the measuring of the humans waist line. Today, measuring tapes made for sewing are made of fiberglass, measuring tapes designed for carpentry or construction often use a stiff, curved metallic ribbon that can remain stiff and straight when extended, but retracts into a coil for convenient storage. This type of measure will have a floating tang or hook on the end to aid measuring. The tang is connected to the tape with loose rivets through oval holes, a tape measure of 25 or even 100 feet can wind into a relatively small container.
The self-marking tape measure allows the user an accurate one hand measure, the first record of a people using a measuring device was by the Romans using marked strips of leather, but this was more like a regular ruler than a tape measure. On July 14,1868, a patent was filed by one Alvin J. Fellows of New Haven, Fellows rule, although crude and flimsy, was the first attempt to make a spring tape measure. On 3 January 1922, Hiram A. Farrand received the patent he filed in 1919 for his tape measure. Sometime between 1922 and December 1926, Farrand experimented with the help of The Brown Company in Berlin and it is there Hiram and William Wentworth Brown began mass-producing the tape measure. Their product was sold to Stanley Works. The basic design on all modern spring tape measures are built can trace its origins back to an 1868 patent by a New Haven. According to the text of his patent, Fellows tape measure was an improvement on other versions previously designed, the spring tape measure has existed since Fellows patent in 1868, but its usage did not become very popular due to the difficulty in communication from one town to another.
In the early 1900s, carpenters began slowly adopting H. A. Farrands design as the one commonly used. With the mass production of the circuit the tape measure has entered into the digital age with the digital tape measure. Some incorporate a digital screen to give measurement readouts in multiple formats, an early patent for this type of measure was published in 1977