Guernica and Basque name Gernika, is a town in the province of Biscay, in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain. The town of Guernica is united in one municipality with neighbouring Lumo, as Gernika-Lumo; the population of the municipality is 16,224 as of 2009. Gernika is best known to those residing outside the Basque region as the scene of the April 26, 1937, Bombing of Guernica, one of the first aerial bombings by Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe, it inspired the painting Guernica by Pablo Picasso. This village is situated at 10m altitude, in the region of Busturialdea, in the valley of the Oka river, its mouth is known as Urdaibai's estuary's heart. Gernika borders on the following townships: North: Forua and Arratzu. East: Ajangiz South: Muxika West: Errigoiti The town of Guernica was founded by Count Tello on April 28, 1366, at the intersection of the road from Bermeo to Durango with the road from Bilbao to Elantxobe and Lekeitio; the strategic importance of the site was increased by the fact that it lay on a major river estuary, where vessels could dock at the port of Suso.
In time, it took on the typical shape of a Basque town, comprising a series of parallel streets and a transverse street called Santa María, with a church at each end of the built-up area. Life in the town became rigidly structured, with the aim being to preserve the privileges of the dominant middle classes; this pattern continued unaltered until the late 17th century. On a small hillock in the town, stands the Meeting House and the famous Tree of Gernika. By ancient tradition and indeed other peoples in Medieval Europe, held assemblies under a tree an oak, to discuss matters affecting the community. In Biscay, each administrative district had its appointed tree, but over the centuries, the Tree of Guernica acquired particular importance, it stood on a site known as Gernikazarra, beside a small shrine. The laws of Biscay continued to be drawn up under this tree until 1876, with each town and village in the province sending two representatives to the sessions, known as General Assemblies; this early form of democracy was recorded by the philosopher Rousseau, by the poet Wordsworth, by the dramatist Tirso de Molina and by the composer Iparragirre, who wrote the piece called Gernikako Arbola.
When the Domain of Biscay was incorporated into the kingdom of Castile, the king of Castile visited Guernica and swore an oath under the Tree promising to uphold the fueros or local laws of Biscay. The oath of King Ferdinand, known as the "Catholic Monarch", on June 30, 1476, is depicted in a painting by Francisco de Mendieta popularly known as El besamanos. On July 3, 1875, during the Carlist Wars, the pretender to the throne Don Carlos of the house of Hapsburg visited Guernica and swore the oath. Throughout the 19th century, there were frequent meetings under the Tree, including both General Assemblies and other political events. By the 18th century, there was a square at the centre of the town, flanked by the town hall, a public gaol housing prisoners from all over the Lordship of Biscay, a hospital and a poor-house for local people. Day-to-day life comprised agriculture and trade; this was a time of continual conflicts with the neighbouring parish of Lumo over disputed land. These disputes were not settled until 1882, when the two parishes joined together to form Gernika-Lumo.
The first industrial concerns were set up in the early years of the 20th century. This encouraged population growth, the town grew from 4,500 inhabitants in 1920 to 6,000 in 1936. On April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, Guernica was the scene of the Bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of Nazi Germany's Luftwaffe and the Italian Aviazione Legionaria. According to official Basque figures, 1,654 civilians were killed, but German sources report a round figure of 300 civilians killed in the bombing, according to the German Bundeswehr Magazine; the raid was requested by Francisco Franco to aid in his overthrowing the Basque Government and the Spanish Republican government. The town was devastated, though the Oak of Guernica survived; the Bombing of Guernica is considered to be the beginning of the Luftwaffe doctrine of terror bombing, where civilian targets were selected to demoralize the enemy. Pablo Picasso painted his famous Guernica painting to commemorate the horrors of the bombing and René Iché made a violent sculpture the day after the bombing.
The bombing went on continuously for three hours. Celebrations were staged in 1966 to mark the 600th anniversary of the founding of the town; as part of these celebrations, a statue of Count Tello, made by local sculptor Agustín Herranz, was set up in the Fueros square. At present, Gernika-Lumo has 16,244 inhabitants, it is a town with a prosperous service sector, is home to industrial companies, as well as good cultural and educational amenities. Guernica is the seat of the parliament of the province of Biscay, whose executive branch is located in nearby Bilbao. In prior centuries, Lumo had been the meeting place of the traditional Biscayan assembly, Urduña and chartered towns like Guernica were under the direct authority of the Lord of Biscay, Enkarterri and the Durango area had separate assemblies. All would hold assemblies under local big trees; as time passed, the role of separate assemblies was superseded by the single assembly in Guernica, by 1512, its oak, known as the Gernikako Arbola
Busturialdea named Busturialde - Urdaibai is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. It is the heir of "Busturia", one of the original merindades that used to compose the province of Biscay, which should not be confused with Busturia, a municipality located in this region. Busturialdea has two capital cities, it is one of the seven comarcas. Busturia used to be one of the merindades of Biscay and included a larger territory than the current one of Busturialdea, as it reached the province of Gipuzkoa. Busturialdea was the core of Biscay: the capitals of the province and Gernika, were located in it. Busturialdea and its lush estuary was important in prehistory. Significative is its site of Santimamiñe cave, that yielded a full sequence of human habitation from Neanderthals to the Iron Age, beautiful Magdalenian cave paintings. Bermeo Gernika-Lumo Busturialdea is located at the north of the province of Biscay, limiting with the comarcas of Lea-Artibai on the east and Greater Bilbao on the west and Durangaldea on the south.
The Bay of Biscay limits at north. The comarca is located along the Urdaibai estuary, named Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1984
Abanto y Ciérbana-Abanto Zierbena
Not to be confused with Abanto in Aragón. Abanto y Ciérvana-Abanto Zierbena is a municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the north of Spain. Abanto was divided into concejos, Susoko Abanto or Abanto de Suso and Yusoko Abanto or Abanto de Yuso, nowadays administratively divided into neighborhoods or wards: Susoko Abanto Abanto Campillo Gallarta Balastera Florida Las Calizas Picón Santa Juliana Triano Yusoko Abanto Cotorrio Las Carreras Las Cortes El Once Olabarrieta Murrieta Putxeta San Pedro Abanto Sanfuentes January 1842 – January 1843 Andrés José de San Martín January 1843 - July 1843 Emeterio del Alisal July 1843 - March 1844 Benigno Ruiz de Murga March 1844 – 1846/01/01 José María de Arechabaleta 1846/01/01 – 1847/01/03 Juan Francisco del Merro 1847/01/03 – 1850/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1850/01/01 – 1854/01/01 Pablo de los Heros 1854/01/01 – 1854/10/02 Francisco de Robledo 1854/10/02 – 1857/03/12 José González y El Cerro 1857/03/12 – 1859/01/01 Cosme de Allende 1859/01/01 – 1861/01/01 Miguel de Escuza 1861/01/01 – 1865/01/01 José de Aranguren 1865/01/01 – 1867/01/01 Ruperto de Lejarza 1867/01/01 – 1869/01/01 Manuel de Garay y Laza 1869/01/01 - March 1872 Agapito de Sasia March 1872 – September 1873 Antonio Hurtado September 1873 – January 1874 Agustín Yarto January 1874 – 1875/01/01 Antonio de Escuza 1875/01/01 – 1876/01/01 Maximino de Uriarte 1876/01/01 – 1876/03/07 Manuel Chave 1876/03/07 – 1876/04/11 Juan Ángel de Allende 1876/04/11 – 1877/04/01 José Antonio Escuza 1877/04/01 – 1879/07/01 Mamerto Bermeosolo 1879/07/01 – 1881/07/01 Juan Ángel de Allende 1881/07/01 – 1885/07/01 Mariano de Olabarría 1885/07/01 – 1890/01/01 Calisto López Sáez 1890/01/01 – 1891/07/01 Eugenio Solano 1891/07/01 – 1894/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1894/01/01 - October 1900 Calisto López Sáez 1900/11/03 – 1904/01/01 Agustín Iza Rementería 1904/01/01 – 1906/01/01 Agustín Garmendia 1906/01/01 – 1910/01/01 Bernardo Ruiz Elizondo 1910/01/01 - January 1912 Alejo Egusquizaga Bilbao Urtarrila 1912 - January 1914 Manuel Asla January 1914 – 1916/01/01 José Salcedo Zubaran 1916/01/01 – 1918/01/01 Luis Sanjinés 1918/01/01 – 1920/01/01 Fabriciano Torróntegui 1920/01/01 – 1923/10/01 Antonio Pujana Meave 1923/10/01 – 1924/03/26 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1924/03/26 – 1930/03/12 Tomás Quintana Martín 1930/03/12 – 1931/01/31 Dionisio Ureta Balparda 1931/01/31 – 1931/04/15 Francisco de Uribe Urioste 1931/04/15 – 1931/04/28 Nemesio Merodio Ramos 1931/04/28 – 1934/11/14 Antonio Pujana Meave 1934/11/14 – 1936/02/23 José Colón Laza 1936/02/23 – 1937/07/02 Antonio Pujana Meave 1937/07/02 – 1938/02/09 Luis Sanjinés Renovales 1938/02/09 – 1952/05/03 José Colón Laza 1952/05/03 – 1955/08/29 Eugenio Mendicote Mardones 1955/08/29 – 1959/12/05 Juan Ramón Sánchez-Serrano Múgica 1959/12/05 – 1964/08/26 Francisco Garaygordobil Barrutia 1964/08/26 – 1969/12/14 Tomás Alonso García 1969/12/14 – 1974/09/10 José Antonio Romero Onaindia 1974/09/10 – 1979/04/19 Luis Andrés Merodio García 1979/04/19 – 1983/05/23 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1983/05/23 - Uztaila 1987 Luis María Vallejo López Uztaila 1987 – 1991/06/15 Francisco Puerto Balmisa 1991/06/15 - 1995 Luis María Vallejo López 1995 - 2003 Juan José Mezcorta Puertollano 2003 - 2013 Manuel Tejada Lanbarri 2013 - in charge Maite Etxebarria Azpiolea Zierbena
Sestao is a town and municipality of 28,288 inhabitants located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. It is in the left bank of part of Bilbao's metropolitan area. Sestao was the place of the most important steel industry of Altos Hornos de Vizcaya. Sestao is administratively divided into 13 neighbourhoods or wards: Kasko Kueto Galindo Albiz Urbinaga Rebonza Azeta Simondrogas Txabarri Markonzaga Aizpuru Los Baños Las Llanas Sestao, an industrial area in disuse placed in the province of the Basque Country, is located in the estuary of Bilbao, it appeared due to diverse economic and political forces, but it was the economic strength of the iron industry the most important one. Over the last 20 years the city of Bilbao has transformed its riverbanks, pursuing its urban and economic improvement; the recovery of these old industrial spaces and the relocation of port activities to the outer bay will allow the city to face its river front and start a general process of urban transformation.
The spaces occupied by the shipyards, containers or blast furnaces, will become promenades, art galleries, new neighborhoods and areas of business of high environmental quality. The industrial crisis of the 80 affected Bilbao; the closure and modernization of major industries was a major impact on the whole environment of the river and, at the same time, an opportunity to recover valuable land for urban development of the city. The transformation of the city is creating an economic structure focused on services and new industries; the river banks are now serving an urban strategy for economic improvement. The estuary is therefore the backbone of the area, but it is a strong barrier that separates both margins of the river: one with a much more industrial character and another one much more residential. Sestao is the area that links all this area that will propose a real integral operation of all this area. Although the area seems isolated, thanks to the station Urbinaga, is integrated in the network of Metro Bilbao, connecting Bilbao with the Right Bank and Left, offering an essential service to the future citizens of "La Punta".
La Punta is an abandoned edge of the town. Sestao has the highest unemployment rate in the Basque Country, due to the closure of large companies because of their restructuring. Comparing the residential areas of Sestao and Barakaldo with "La Punta", it seems necessary to densify this area and thus strengthen the bond between Barakaldo and Sestao, the relationship with the right bank of the river; the growth of the town of Sestao is limited by the lack of developable land and limited by natural and artificial barriers. For this reason, it has reached a densified town with a network of small open spaces; the grew of the population was a consequence of the development of the industry, not the industry a consequence of the human presence in the area. This defines the DNA of Sestao, it is a settlement, born by the implantation of the heavy industry. Consumption and land distribution is based on the industry and these industrial areas are located in the best situations the city; the margin facing the estuary is colonized for industry, the least quality areas is intended to construction of workers' housing.
It is proposed that over time the vegetation in the low-lying industrial areas of the Galindo River estuary is restored to a healthy state by cultivating the growth of plants that are resistant to local soil contamination, that improve soil and water quality through bio-remediation. Rather than a tabula rasa to be integrated into the city with a false topography, the industrial areas of Bilbao are in a new natural equilibrium condition. Working with these new natural conditions offers the possibility of an urbanism that combines urban and natural and responds to the fluctuations of the natural ecosystem of the river. Since the appearance of the industry in 1875, the whole estuary became involved in the configuration of an industrial point of reference in the Spanish national scene of heavy industries. Meanwhile, the municipality of Sestao created the largest industrial base of the country. Http://visibleearth.nasa.gov The city will develop a system of small public spaces that provide residents moments of pause, rest and connections between the different urban levels.
Connection of both margins of the river. Program associated with the existing water activity. Recovery of the convent as a viewpoint; the view shows the contrast between the industrial landscape lined by shipyard cranes and the historic mansions of the Basque bourgeoisie. Integration of the tram connected to the right bank of the river. Rehabilitation of ships in better condition to include public program to allow the language of industrial structures: from jetties, cranes and temporary stairs to pylons. Housing and facilities of social nature. Soriano, Federico, FISURAS 14 VV. AA. Diccionario Metapolis de Arquitectura Avanzada, ACTAR, 2002 Rehabilitación de la Ría de Bilbao. PFC, VVAA. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 2014 VV. AA. PGOU Plan General de Organización Urbana de Sestao, 2010 VVAA, Slow Urbanism, Sestao. Europan 11, 2011 https://www.google.com/maps?q=SESTAO+BILBAO&gws_rd=ssl&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi80qv7wPXPAhVLFT4KHdGcAfYQ_AUICCgB
Bilbao is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole. It is the largest city proper in northern Spain. Bilbao is the tenth largest city in Spain, with a population of 345,141 as of 2015; the Bilbao metropolitan area has 1 million inhabitants, making it one of the most populous metropolitan areas in northern Spain. Bilbao is the main urban area in what is defined as the Greater Basque region. Bilbao is situated in the north-central part of Spain, some 16 kilometres south of the Bay of Biscay, where the economic social development is located, where the estuary of Bilbao is formed, its main urban core is surrounded by two small mountain ranges with an average elevation of 400 metres. Its climate is shaped by the Bay of Biscay low-pressure systems and mild air, moderating summer temperatures by Iberian standards, with low sunshine and high rainfall; the annual temperature range is low for its latitude. After its foundation in the early 14th century by Diego López V de Haro, head of the powerful Haro family, Bilbao was a commercial hub of the Basque Country that enjoyed significant importance in Green Spain.
This was due to its port activity based on the export of iron extracted from the Biscayan quarries. Throughout the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth, Bilbao experienced heavy industrialisation, making it the centre of the second-most industrialised region of Spain, behind Barcelona. At the same time an extraordinary population explosion prompted the annexation of several adjacent municipalities. Nowadays, Bilbao is a vigorous service city, experiencing an ongoing social and aesthetic revitalisation process, started by the iconic Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, continued by infrastructure investments, such as the airport terminal, the rapid transit system, the tram line, the Azkuna Zentroa, the under development Abandoibarra and Zorrozaurre renewal projects. Bilbao is home to football club Athletic Club de Bilbao, a significant symbol for Basque nationalism due to its promotion of only Basque players and one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football history. On 19 May 2010, the city of Bilbao was recognised with the Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize, awarded by the city state of Singapore, in collaboration with the Swedish Nobel Academy.
Considered the Nobel Prize for urbanism, it was handed out on 29 June 2010. On 7 January 2013, its mayor, Iñaki Azkuna, received the 2012 World Mayor Prize awarded every two years by the British foundation The City Mayors Foundation, in recognition of the urban transformation experienced by the Biscayan capital since the 1990s. On 8 November 2017, Bilbao was chosen the Best European City 2018 at The Urbanism Awards 2018, awarded by the international organisation The Academy of Urbanism; the official name of the town is Bilbao, as known in most languages of the world. Euskaltzaindia, the official regulatory institution of the Basque language, has agreed that between the two possible names existing in Basque and Bilbo, the historical name is Bilbo, while Bilbao is the official name. Although the term Bilbo does not appear in old documents, in the play The Merry Wives of Windsor by William Shakespeare, there is a reference to swords made of Biscayan iron which he calls "bilboes", suggesting that it is a word used since at least the sixteenth century.
There is no consensus among historians about the origin of the name. Accepted accounts state that prior to the 12th century the independent rulers of the territory, named Senores de Zubialdea, were known as Senores de Bilbao la Vieja; the symbols of their patrimony are the church used in the shield of Bilbao to this day. One possible origin was suggested by the engineer Evaristo de Churruca, he said. For Bilbao this would be the result of the union of the Basque words for river and cove: Bil-Ibaia-Bao; the historian José Tussel Gómez argues that it is just a natural evolution of the Spanish words bello vado, beautiful river crossing. On the other hand, according to the writer Esteban Calle Iturrino, the name derives from the two settlements that existed on both banks of the estuary, rather than from the estuary itself; the first, where the present Casco Viejo is located, would be called billa, which means stacking in Basque, after the configuration of the buildings. The second, on the left bank, where now Bilbao La Vieja is located, would be called vaho, Spanish for mist or steam.
From the union of these two derives the name Bilbao, written as Bilvao and Biluao, as documented in its municipal charter. An -ao ending is present in nearby Sestao and Ugao, that could be explained from Basque aho, "mouth"; the demonym is "bilbaíno, -a", although the popular pronunciation bilbaino/a is frequent. In euskera it is bilbotar, sometimes used in Spanish within the Basque Country; the village is affectionately known by its inhabitants as «the botxo», that is, «the hole», since it is surrounded by mountains. The nickname "botxero" is derived from this nickname. Another nickname that Bilbao receives is that of "chimbos", which comes from birds that were hunted in large numbers in these places during the XIX century; the titles, the flag and the coat of arms are Bilbao's traditional symbols and belong to its historic patrimony, being used in formal acts, for the identification and decoration of specific places or for the validation of documents. TitlesBilbao holds the historic category of borough, with the titles of "Very noble and loyal and unbeaten" ("Mu
Mungia is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country of northern Spain. The town has 17,000 inhabitants. Mungia lies 20 metres above sea level in an area full of open spaces, with a landscape of rolling hills; the more important mountains nearby are Jata. There are many small streams and underground springs, such as the Atxuri, Lauromendi, Atebarri, or Mantzorriko Erreka, which are all tributaries of the Butroi river and provide water to the numerous fountains built in the town. In the past those waters helped to run more than 20 mills. Although there are still traces which show that the area where Mungia stands today was inhabited in prehistoric times the first documented reference we have dates back to the year 1051, when an abbot from Mungia confirmed a gift from the Lord of Biscay to the Monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla. At the beginning, whose name comes from the Basque Mune - Ganean, was not much more than a tiny village with a dispersed population.
At that time the church was the only focus of the community, but the settlement began to acquire its own significance as a result of the presence of an abbot and of its location in a strategic pass between the interior of the feudal holding and the coast at Bermeo, which had begun to stand out as an export harbour. Under these conditions, important families belonging to the nobility settled in the surrounding areas of the village and built there their tower houses; the economic power of these noblemen was based on landholdings. However, as a consequence of a stockbreeding and agricultural crisis at the end of the 13th century, these families began to suffer. To face this situation they sought hard to improve their income streams, the easiest recourse they could have was to violence. On the pretext of "being more worthy" they fought with each other, their peasants were decimated and deprived of their scarce belongings, or involved in faction fights themselves. In the area of Mungia, we find representatives of two factions: the Billela family, part of the Ganboar faction. and the Butroi family which led the faction of Oinaz.
As the tower houses of both families were next to each other their fights were a common event. The borough of Mungia came to be as a consequence of this situation; some of the inhabitants in the area, witnessing the outrages of the nobility, requested the Lord of Biscay, the Infante Juan, to grant the title of borough to their town, in order to enable the fortification of the town and thus effective defence against attacks. By this means on 1 August 1376, under the Fueros of Logroño, the borough of Mungia was created in the centre of an anteiglesia similar in extent to the Parish) of the same name. Both belonged to the merindad of Uribe, each had an autonomous municipality. In the same way, they each had their own representation in the Juntas of Gernika, numbering 69 for the anteiglesia and 15 for the borough, but the fact of designating a borough did not avoid a great number of fights in the area. Thus, there were various episodes of different nature, arising from the wars between the factions.
Just to name a few of the most important of those small skirmishes, we mention the battle of Berteiz or the battle of Mungia, which took place on 27 April 1479 and in which the factions of Oinaz and Ganboa, enemies up to that moment, formed an alliance to fight against the Earl of Haro. Leaving these episodes aside, life in Mungia is thought to have been calm. Economic activity was based on farming, with a few mills located on the banks of the many streams which washed the area, as well as small craft workshops settled down in the borough; the daily round was disturbed. In 1602 there was a fire, a larger fire 1778 on 9 November with fourteen of the main buildings in the village burned down. From this time, to prevent accidents happening, all inflammable products such as straw and coal were stored in a place outside the enceinte; this site was known as Atzekaldeta, a basque name which refers to the location of the place in the rear part of the town. Thus time passed for both the borough of Mungia and the anteiglesia of the same name.
They were independent entities, although they joined together for the sake of some services and improvements. Thus, the school was common to both, when the time arrived to canalise the water from the Gondramendi mountain to the village both shared the expenditure. Little by little, more tasks were performed together and as a result of this co-operation bigger problems arose leading to the idea of joining both bodies and becoming one unique entity; this happened on 6 October 1900. The fountain which today lies in Beko Kale, in front of Arnaga, is the symbol of this unity under the motto "Biak bat eta biena". Up to 1936 life for the inhabitants passed by without major events, based on fundamental rural and agricultural activities, but with an i
Muskiz is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, northern Spain. Muskiz is administratively divided into six neighborhoods or wards: In the 1970s the petrochemical company Petronor built a refinery with a 222 metres tall chimney called La Catalítica. Nicolás de la Quadra MUSKIZ in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Official website