Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in Asia and the smallest state located entirely within the Himalaya mountain range. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by China in the north, Bhutan lacks a border with nearby Nepal due to the Indian state of Sikkim and with Bangladesh due to the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the second least populous nation after the Maldives. Thimphu is its capital and largest city, while Phuntsholing is its financial center, the independence of Bhutan has endured for centuries and the territory was never colonized in its history. Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country, Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with the Peoples Republic of China.
The King of Bhutan is known as the Dragon King, Bhutan is notable for pioneering the concept of gross national happiness. The countrys landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north. The highest mountain in Bhutan is the Gangkhar Puensum, which is a candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. There is diverse wildlife in Bhutan, in South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in economic freedom, ease of doing business and peace, second in per capita income and is the least corrupt country, as of 2016. However, Bhutan continues to be a least developed country, hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports. The government is a parliamentary democracy, Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the United Nations, SAARC, BIMSTEC, the Royal Bhutan Army maintains extensive military relations with the Indian Armed Forces.
The precise etymology of Bhutan is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the Tibetan endonym Bod used for Tibet. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the Sanskrit Bhoṭa-anta end of Tibet, since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been Druk yul and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence. Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Bottanthis, jean-Baptiste Taverniers 1676 Six Voyages is the first to record the name Boutan. However, in case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending to the relevant chemical formula, for example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride, in water would be represented as Na+ + Cl−. The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, as water is an excellent solvent and is naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic often do not dissolve well in water, an example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions, the ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves. If the substance lacks the ability to dissolve in water the molecules form a precipitate, reactions in aqueous solutions are usually metathesis reactions. Metathesis reactions are another term for double-displacement, that is, when a cation displaces to form a bond with the other anion.
The cation bonded with the latter anion will dissociate and bond with the other anion, aqueous solutions that conduct electric current efficiently contain strong electrolytes, while ones that conduct poorly are considered to have weak electrolytes. Those strong electrolytes are substances that are ionized in water. Nonelectrolytes are substances that dissolve in water yet maintain their molecular integrity, examples include sugar, urea and methylsulfonylmethane. When writing the equations of reactions, it is essential to determine the precipitate. To determine the precipitate, one must consult a chart of solubility, soluble compounds are aqueous, while insoluble compounds are the precipitate. Remember that there may not always be a precipitate, when performing calculations regarding the reacting of one or more aqueous solutions, in general one must know the concentration, or molarity, of the aqueous solutions. Solution concentration is given in terms of the form of the prior to it dissolving.
Metal ions in aqueous solution Solubility Dissociation Acid-base reaction theories Properties of water Zumdahl S.1997, 4th ed. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8, a gas, at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, portable stoves. Propane is one of a group of liquefied petroleum gases, the others include butane, butadiene, butylene and mixtures thereof. Propane was first identified as a component in gasoline by Walter O. Snelling of the U. S. Bureau of Mines in 1910. The volatility of these lighter hydrocarbons caused them to be known as wild because of the vapor pressures of unrefined gasoline. On March 31, the New York Times reported on Snellings work with liquefied gas and that a steel bottle will carry enough gas to light an ordinary home for three weeks. It was during this time that Snelling, in cooperation with Frank P. Peterson, Chester Kerr, they established American Gasol Co. the first commercial marketer of propane. Snelling had produced relatively pure propane by 1911, and on March 25,1913, a separate method of producing LP gas through compression was created by Frank Peterson and its patent granted on July 2,1912.
The 1920s saw increased production of LP gas, with the first year of recorded production totaling 223,000 US gallons in 1922. In 1927, annual marketed LP gas production reached 1 million US gallons, and by 1935, major industry developments in the 1930s included the introduction of railroad tank car transport, gas odorization, and the construction of local bottle-filling plants. The year 1945 marked the first year that annual LP gas sales reached a billion gallons, by 1947, 62% of all U. S. homes had been equipped with either natural gas or propane for cooking. In 1950,1,000 propane-fueled buses were ordered by the Chicago Transit Authority, in 2004 it was reported to be a growing $8-billion to $10-billion industry with over 15 billion US gallons of propane being used annually in the U. S. The prop- root found in propane and names of compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from propionic acid. Propane is produced as a by-product of two processes, natural gas processing and petroleum refining.
The processing of natural gas involves removal of butane, additionally, oil refineries produce some propane as a by-product of cracking petroleum into gasoline or heating oil. The supply of propane cannot easily be adjusted to meet increased demand, about 90% of U. S. propane is domestically produced. The United States imports about 10% of the propane consumed each year, with about 70% of that coming from Canada via pipeline, the remaining 30% of imported propane comes to the United States from other sources via ocean transport. After it is produced, North American propane is stored in salt caverns
International Chemical Identifier
Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit InChI Trust. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011, prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC-InChI Trust License. Not all layers have to be provided, for instance, the layer can be omitted if that type of information is not relevant to the particular application. InChIs can thus be seen as akin to a general and extremely formalized version of IUPAC names and they can express more information than the simpler SMILES notation and differ in that every structure has a unique InChI string, which is important in database applications. Information about the 3-dimensional coordinates of atoms is not represented in InChI, the InChI algorithm converts input structural information into a unique InChI identifier in a three-step process, normalization and serialization.
The InChIKey, sometimes referred to as a hashed InChI, is a fixed length condensed digital representation of the InChI that is not human-understandable. The InChIKey specification was released in September 2007 in order to facilitate web searches for chemical compounds and it should be noted that, unlike the InChI, the InChIKey is not unique, though collisions can be calculated to be very rare, they happen. In January 2009 the final 1.02 version of the InChI software was released and this provided a means to generate so called standard InChI, which does not allow for user selectable options in dealing with the stereochemistry and tautomeric layers of the InChI string. The standard InChIKey is the hashed version of the standard InChI string, the standard InChI will simplify comparison of InChI strings and keys generated by different groups, and subsequently accessed via diverse sources such as databases and web resources. Every InChI starts with the string InChI= followed by the version number and this is followed by the letter S for standard InChIs.
The remaining information is structured as a sequence of layers and sub-layers, the layers and sub-layers are separated by the delimiter / and start with a characteristic prefix letter. The six layers with important sublayers are, Main layer Chemical formula and this is the only sublayer that must occur in every InChI. The atoms in the formula are numbered in sequence, this sublayer describes which atoms are connected by bonds to which other ones. Describes how many hydrogen atoms are connected to each of the other atoms, the condensed,27 character standard InChIKey is a hashed version of the full standard InChI, designed to allow for easy web searches of chemical compounds. Most chemical structures on the Web up to 2007 have been represented as GIF files, the full InChI turned out to be too lengthy for easy searching, and therefore the InChIKey was developed. With all databases currently having below 50 million structures, such duplication appears unlikely at present, a recent study more extensively studies the collision rate finding that the experimental collision rate is in agreement with the theoretical expectations.
Example, Morphine has the structure shown on the right, as the InChI cannot be reconstructed from the InChIKey, an InChIKey always needs to be linked to the original InChI to get back to the original structure
ChEMBL or ChEMBLdb is a manually curated chemical database of bioactive molecules with drug-like properties. It is maintained by the European Bioinformatics Institute, of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, based at the Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, the database, originally known as StARlite, was developed by a biotechnology company called Inpharmatica Ltd. acquired by Galapagos NV. The data was acquired for EMBL in 2008 with an award from The Wellcome Trust, resulting in the creation of the ChEMBL chemogenomics group at EMBL-EBI, the ChEMBL database contains compound bioactivity data against drug targets. Bioactivity is reported in Ki, Kd, IC50, and EC50, data can be filtered and analyzed to develop compound screening libraries for lead identification during drug discovery. ChEMBL version 2 was launched in January 2010, including 2.4 million bioassay measurements covering 622,824 compounds and this was obtained from curating over 34,000 publications across twelve medicinal chemistry journals.
ChEMBLs coverage of available bioactivity data has grown to become the most comprehensive ever seen in a public database, in October 2010 ChEMBL version 8 was launched, with over 2.97 million bioassay measurements covering 636,269 compounds. ChEMBL_10 saw the addition of the PubChem confirmatory assays, in order to integrate data that is comparable to the type, ChEMBLdb can be accessed via a web interface or downloaded by File Transfer Protocol. It is formatted in a manner amenable to computerized data mining, ChEMBL is integrated into other large-scale chemistry resources, including PubChem and the ChemSpider system of the Royal Society of Chemistry. In addition to the database, the ChEMBL group have developed tools and these include Kinase SARfari, an integrated chemogenomics workbench focussed on kinases. The system incorporates and links sequence, structure and screening data, the primary purpose of ChEMBL-NTD is to provide a freely accessible and permanent archive and distribution centre for deposited data.
July 2012 saw the release of a new data service, sponsored by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. The data in this service includes compounds from the Malaria Box screening set, myChEMBL, the ChEMBL virtual machine, was released in October 2013 to allow users to access a complete and free, easy-to-install cheminformatics infrastructure. In December 2013, the operations of the SureChem patent informatics database were transferred to EMBL-EBI, in a portmanteau, SureChem was renamed SureChEMBL. 2014 saw the introduction of the new resource ADME SARfari - a tool for predicting and comparing cross-species ADME targets
While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS9. Jmol requires Java installation and operates on a variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is fully functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D
Immediately dangerous to life or health
Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations. It is calculated using the LD50 or LC50, IDLH values are often used to guide the selection of breathing apparatus that are made available to workers or firefighters in specific situations. The NIOSH definition does not include oxygen deficiency although atmosphere-supplying breathing apparatus is required, examples include high altitudes and unventilated, confined spaces. It uses the broader term impair, rather than prevent, for example, blinding but non-toxic smoke could be considered IDLH under the OSHA definition if it would impair the ability to escape a dangerous but not life-threatening atmosphere. The OSHA definition is part of a standard, which is the minimum legal requirement. If the concentration of substances is IDLH, the worker must use the most reliable respirators. Such respirators should not use cartridges or canister with the sorbent, in addition, the respirator must maintain positive pressure under the mask during inspiration, as this will prevent the leakage of unfiltered air through the gaps.
The following examples are listed in reference to IDLH values, NIOSH IDLH site 1910.134 Respiratory protection definitions
Butene, known as butylene, is a series of alkenes with the general formula C4H8. The word butene may refer to any of the individual compounds and they are colourless gases that are present in crude oil as a minor constituent in quantities that are too small for viable extraction. Butene is therefore obtained by cracking of long-chain hydrocarbons left during refining of crude oil. Cracking produces a mixture of products, and the butene is extracted from this by fractional distillation, butene can be used as the monomer for polybutene but this polymer is more expensive than alternatives with shorter carbon chains such as polypropylene. Polybutene is therefore used as a co-polymer, such as in hot-melt adhesives. Among the molecules which have the chemical formula C4H8 four isomers are alkenes, all four of these hydrocarbons have four carbon atoms and one double bond in their molecules, but have different chemical structures. Other organic compounds have the formula C4H8, namely cyclobutane and methylcyclopropane, there are cyclic alkenes with four carbon atoms overall such as cyclobutene and two isomers of methylcyclopropene, but they do not have the formula C4H8 and are not discussed here.
All four of these isomers are gases at room temperature and pressure and these gases are colourless, but do have distinct odours, and are highly flammable. Although not naturally present in petroleum in high percentages, they can be produced from petrochemicals or by catalytic cracking of petroleum, although they are stable compounds, the carbon-carbon double bonds make them more reactive than similar alkanes, which are more inert compounds in various ways. Because of the bonds, these 4-carbon alkenes can act as monomers in the formation of polymers. They are used in the production of synthetic rubber, but-1-ene is a linear or normal alpha-olefin and isobutylene is a branched alpha-olefin. In a rather low percentage, but-1-ene is used as one of the comonomers, along with other alpha-olefins, in the production of high-density polyethylene, butyl rubber is made by cationic polymerisation of isobutylene with about 2 - 7% isoprene. Isobutylene is used for the production of methyl tert-butyl ether and isooctane, both of which improve the combustion of gasoline
European Chemicals Agency
ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EUs chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and it is located in Helsinki, Finland. The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet, started working on 1 June 2007, the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most commonly used substances have been registered, the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment. This gives European consumers the right to ask whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU.
This worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals, companies need to notify ECHA of the classification and labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100000 substances, the information is freely available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products they use, Biocidal products include, for example, insect repellents and disinfectants used in hospitals. The Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation, the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the export and import of hazardous chemicals. Through this mechanism, countries due to hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1.
These are mainly substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment, other substances considered as SVHCs include, for example, endocrine disrupting chemicals. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0 and they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy, once a substance has been officially identified in the EU as being of very high concern, it will be added to a list. This list is available on ECHA’s website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs, Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list
These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a name, and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula. Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances, the simplest types of chemical formulas are called empirical formulas, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical proportions of atoms of each type. Molecular formulas indicate the numbers of each type of atom in a molecule. For example, the formula for glucose is CH2O, while its molecular formula is C6H12O6. This is possible if the relevant bonding is easy to show in one dimension, an example is the condensed molecular/chemical formula for ethanol, which is CH3-CH2-OH or CH3CH2OH. For reasons of structural complexity, there is no condensed chemical formula that specifies glucose, chemical formulas may be used in chemical equations to describe chemical reactions and other chemical transformations, such as the dissolving of ionic compounds into solution. A chemical formula identifies each constituent element by its chemical symbol, in empirical formulas, these proportions begin with a key element and assign numbers of atoms of the other elements in the compound, as ratios to the key element.
For molecular compounds, these numbers can all be expressed as whole numbers. For example, the formula of ethanol may be written C2H6O because the molecules of ethanol all contain two carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and one oxygen atom. Some types of compounds, cannot be written with entirely whole-number empirical formulas. An example is boron carbide, whose formula of CBn is a variable non-whole number ratio with n ranging from over 4 to more than 6.5. When the chemical compound of the consists of simple molecules. These types of formulas are known as molecular formulas and condensed formulas. A molecular formula enumerates the number of atoms to reflect those in the molecule, so that the formula for glucose is C6H12O6 rather than the glucose empirical formula. However, except for very simple substances, molecular chemical formulas lack needed structural information, for simple molecules, a condensed formula is a type of chemical formula that may fully imply a correct structural formula.
For example, ethanol may be represented by the chemical formula CH3CH2OH
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to an object to the resulting temperature change. The unit of capacity is joule per kelvin J K. Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one kilogram of mass by 1 kelvin, Heat capacity is an extensive property of matter, meaning it is proportional to the size of the system. The molar heat capacity is the capacity per unit amount of a pure substance. In some engineering contexts, the heat capacity is used. Other contributions can come from magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom in solids, for quantum mechanical reasons, at any given temperature, some of these degrees of freedom may be unavailable, or only partially available, to store thermal energy. In such cases, the capacity is a fraction of the maximum. As the temperature approaches zero, the heat capacity of a system approaches zero. Quantum theory can be used to predict the heat capacity of simple systems.
In a previous theory of common in the early modern period, heat was thought to be a measurement of an invisible fluid. Bodies were capable of holding an amount of this fluid, hence the term heat capacity, named. Heat is no longer considered a fluid, but rather a transfer of disordered energy, nevertheless, at least in English, the term heat capacity survives. In some other languages, the thermal capacity is preferred. In the International System of Units, heat capacity has the unit joules per kelvin, if the temperature change is sufficiently small the heat capacity may be assumed to be constant, C = Q Δ T. Heat capacity is a property, meaning it depends on the extent or size of the physical system studied. A sample containing twice the amount of substance as another sample requires the transfer of twice the amount of heat to achieve the change in temperature. For many purposes it is convenient to report heat capacity as an intensive property. In practice, this is most often an expression of the property in relation to a unit of mass, in science and engineering, International standards now recommend that specific heat capacity always refer to division by mass