Surface tension is the tendency of fluid surfaces to shrink into the minimum surface area possible. Surface tension allows insects denser than water, to float and slide on a water surface. At liquid–air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of liquid molecules to each other than to the molecules in the air; the net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes the liquid to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Thus, the surface comes under tension from the imbalanced forces, where the term "surface tension" came from; because of the high attraction of water molecules to each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension than most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity. Surface tension has of energy per unit area; the two are equivalent, but when referring to energy per unit of area, it is common to use the term surface energy, a more general term in the sense that it applies to solids.
In materials science, surface tension is used for either surface surface energy. Due to the cohesive forces a molecule is pulled in every direction by neighbouring liquid molecules, resulting in a net force of zero; the molecules at the surface do not have the same molecules on all sides of them and therefore are pulled inward. This forces liquid surfaces to contract to the minimum area; the forces of attraction acting between the molecules of same type are called cohesive forces while those acting between the molecules of different types are called adhesive forces. When cohesive forces are stronger than adhesives forces, the liquid acquires a convex meniscus. On the other hand, when adhesive forces are stronger, the surface of the liquid curves up. Surface tension is responsible for the shape of liquid droplets. Although deformed, droplets of water tend to be pulled into a spherical shape by the imbalance in cohesive forces of the surface layer. In the absence of other forces, including gravity, drops of all liquids would be spherical.
The spherical shape minimizes the necessary "wall tension" of the surface layer according to Laplace's law. Another way to view surface tension is in terms of energy. A molecule in contact with a neighbor is in a lower state of energy; the interior molecules have as many neighbors as they can have, but the boundary molecules are missing neighbors and therefore have a higher energy. For the liquid to minimize its energy state, the number of higher energy boundary molecules must be minimized; the minimized number of boundary molecules results in a minimal surface area. As a result of surface area minimization, a surface will assume the smoothest shape. Since any curvature in the surface shape results in greater area, a higher energy will result; the surface will push back against any curvature in much the same way as a ball pushed uphill will push back to minimize its gravitational potential energy. Several effects of surface tension can be seen with ordinary water: Surface tension is visible in other common phenomena when surfactants are used to decrease it: Soap bubbles have large surface areas with little mass.
Bubbles in pure water are unstable. The addition of surfactants, can have a stabilizing effect on the bubbles. Note that surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by a factor of three or more. Emulsions are a type of colloid. Tiny fragments of oil suspended in pure water will spontaneously assemble themselves into much larger masses, but the presence of a surfactant provides a decrease in surface tension, which permits stability of minute droplets of oil in the bulk of water. Surface tension, represented by the symbol γ, is measured in force per unit length, its SI unit is newton per meter but the cgs unit of dyne per centimeter is used. For example, γ = 1 d y n c m = 1 e r g c m 2 = 1 10 − 7 m ⋅ N 10 − 4 m 2 = 0.001 N m = 0.001 J m 2. Surface tension can be defined in terms of energy. In terms of force: surface tension γ of a liquid is the force per unit length. In the illustration on the right, the rectangular frame, composed of three unmovable sides that form a "U" shape, a fourth movable side that can slide to the right.
Surface tension will pull the blue bar to the left. Thus the ratio F/L depends only on the intrinsic properties of the liquid, not on its geom
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how fast light propagates through the material. It is defined as n = c v, where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times as fast in vacuum as in water. The refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material; this is described by Snell's law of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2. The refractive indices determine the amount of light, reflected when reaching the interface, as well as the critical angle for total internal reflection and Brewster's angle; the refractive index can be seen as the factor by which the speed and the wavelength of the radiation are reduced with respect to their vacuum values: the speed of light in a medium is v = c/n, the wavelength in that medium is λ = λ0/n, where λ0 is the wavelength of that light in vacuum.
This implies that vacuum has a refractive index of 1, that the frequency of the wave is not affected by the refractive index. As a result, the energy of the photon, therefore the perceived color of the refracted light to a human eye which depends on photon energy, is not affected by the refraction or the refractive index of the medium. While the refractive index affects wavelength, it depends on photon frequency and energy so the resulting difference in the bending angle causes white light to split into its constituent colors; this is called dispersion. It can be observed in prisms and rainbows, chromatic aberration in lenses. Light propagation in absorbing materials can be described using a complex-valued refractive index; the imaginary part handles the attenuation, while the real part accounts for refraction. The concept of refractive index applies within the full electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to radio waves, it can be applied to wave phenomena such as sound. In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light, a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen.
The refractive index n of an optical medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum, c = 299792458 m/s, the phase velocity v of light in the medium, n = c v. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests or the phase of the wave moves, which may be different from the group velocity, the speed at which the pulse of light or the envelope of the wave moves; the definition above is sometimes referred to as the absolute refractive index or the absolute index of refraction to distinguish it from definitions where the speed of light in other reference media than vacuum is used. Air at a standardized pressure and temperature has been common as a reference medium. Thomas Young was the person who first used, invented, the name "index of refraction", in 1807. At the same time he changed this value of refractive power into a single number, instead of the traditional ratio of two numbers; the ratio had the disadvantage of different appearances. Newton, who called it the "proportion of the sines of incidence and refraction", wrote it as a ratio of two numbers, like "529 to 396".
Hauksbee, who called it the "ratio of refraction", wrote it as a ratio with a fixed numerator, like "10000 to 7451.9". Hutton wrote it as a ratio with a fixed denominator, like 1.3358 to 1. Young did not use a symbol for the index of refraction, in 1807. In the next years, others started using different symbols: n, m, µ; the symbol n prevailed. For visible light most transparent media have refractive indices between 1 and 2. A few examples are given in the adjacent table; these values are measured at the yellow doublet D-line of sodium, with a wavelength of 589 nanometers, as is conventionally done. Gases at atmospheric pressure have refractive indices close to 1 because of their low density. All solids and liquids have refractive indices above 1.3, with aerogel as the clear exception. Aerogel is a low density solid that can be produced with refractive index in the range from 1.002 to 1.265. Moissanite lies at the other end of the range with a refractive index as high as 2.65. Most plastics have refractive indices in the range from 1.3 to 1.7, but some high-refractive-index polymers can have values as high as 1.76.
For infrared light refractive indices can be higher. Germanium is transparent in the wavelength region from 2 to 14 µm and has a refractive index of about 4. A type of new materials, called topological insulator, was found holding higher refractive index of up to 6 in near to mid infrared frequency range. Moreover, topological insulator material are transparent; these excellent properties make them a type of significant materials for infrared optics. According to the theory of relativity, no information can travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, but this does not mean that the refractive index cannot be lower than 1; the refractive index measures the phase velocity of light. The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests of the wave move and can be faster than the speed of light in vacuum, thereby give a refractive index below 1; this can occur close to resonance frequencies, for absorbing media, in plasmas, for X-rays. In the X-ray regime the refractive indices are
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in part of the ultraviolet and the full, adjacent visible spectral regions. This means it uses light in the adjacent ranges; the absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum and molecules undergo electronic transitions. Absorption spectroscopy is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state. Molecules containing bonding and non-bonding electrons can absorb energy in the form of ultraviolet or visible light to excite these electrons to higher anti-bonding molecular orbitals; the more excited the electrons, the longer the wavelength of light it can absorb. There are four possible types of transitions, they can be ordered as follows: σ–σ* > n–σ* > π–π* > n–π*.
UV/Vis spectroscopy is used in analytical chemistry for the quantitative determination of different analytes, such as transition metal ions conjugated organic compounds, biological macromolecules. Spectroscopic analysis is carried out in solutions but solids and gases may be studied. Solutions of transition metal ions can be colored because d electrons within the metal atoms can be excited from one electronic state to another; the colour of metal ion solutions is affected by the presence of other species, such as certain anions or ligands. For instance, the colour of a dilute solution of copper sulfate is a light blue. Organic compounds those with a high degree of conjugation absorb light in the UV or visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; the solvents for these determinations are water for water-soluble compounds, or ethanol for organic-soluble compounds. Solvent polarity and pH can affect the absorption spectrum of an organic compound. Tyrosine, for example, increases in absorption maxima and molar extinction coefficient when pH increases from 6 to 13 or when solvent polarity decreases.
While charge transfer complexes give rise to colours, the colours are too intense to be used for quantitative measurement. The Beer–Lambert law states that the absorbance of a solution is directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing species in the solution and the path length. Thus, for a fixed path length, UV/Vis spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of the absorber in a solution, it is necessary to know how the absorbance changes with concentration. This can be taken from references, or more determined from a calibration curve. A UV/Vis spectrophotometer may be used as a detector for HPLC; the presence of an analyte gives. For accurate results, the instrument's response to the analyte in the unknown should be compared with the response to a standard; the response for a particular concentration is known as the response factor. The wavelengths of absorption peaks can be correlated with the types of bonds in a given molecule and are valuable in determining the functional groups within a molecule.
The Woodward–Fieser rules, for instance, are a set of empirical observations used to predict λmax, the wavelength of the most intense UV/Vis absorption, for conjugated organic compounds such as dienes and ketones. The spectrum alone is not, however, a specific test for any given sample; the nature of the solvent, the pH of the solution, high electrolyte concentrations, the presence of interfering substances can influence the absorption spectrum. Experimental variations such as the slit width of the spectrophotometer will alter the spectrum. To apply UV/Vis spectroscopy to analysis, these variables must be controlled or accounted for in order to identify the substances present; the method is most used in a quantitative way to determine concentrations of an absorbing species in solution, using the Beer–Lambert law: A = log 10 = ε c L,where A is the measured absorbance, I 0 is the intensity of the incident light at a given wavelength, I is the transmitted intensity, L the path length through the sample, c the concentration of the absorbing species.
For each species and wavelength, ε is a constant known as the molar absorptivity or extinction coefficient. This constant is a fundamental molecular property in a given solvent, at a particular temperature and pressure, has units of 1 / M ∗ c m; the absorbance and extinction ε are sometimes defined in terms of the natural logarithm instead of the base-10 logarithm. The Beer–Lambert Law is useful for characterizing many compounds but does not hold as a universal relationship for the concentration and absorption of all s
Enthalpy of vaporization
The enthalpy of vaporization known as the heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the amount of energy that must be added to a liquid substance, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas. The enthalpy of vaporization is a function of the pressure; the enthalpy of vaporization is quoted for the normal boiling temperature of the substance. The heat of vaporization is temperature-dependent, though a constant heat of vaporization can be assumed for small temperature ranges and for reduced temperature T r ≪ 1; the heat of vaporization diminishes with increasing temperature and it vanishes at a certain point called the critical temperature. Above the critical temperature, the liquid and vapor phases are indistinguishable, the substance is called a supercritical fluid. Values are quoted in J/mol or kJ/mol, although kJ/kg or J/g, older units like kcal/mol, cal/g and Btu/lb are sometimes still used, among others; the enthalpy of condensation is by definition equal to the enthalpy of vaporization with the opposite sign: enthalpy changes of vaporization are always positive, whereas enthalpy changes of condensation are always negative.
The enthalpy of vaporization can be written as Δ H v a p = Δ U v a p + p Δ V It is equal to the increased internal energy of the vapor phase compared with the liquid phase, plus the work done against ambient pressure. The increase in the internal energy can be viewed as the energy required to overcome the intermolecular interactions in the liquid. Hence helium has a low enthalpy of vaporization, 0.0845 kJ/mol, as the van der Waals forces between helium atoms are weak. On the other hand, the molecules in liquid water are held together by strong hydrogen bonds, its enthalpy of vaporization, 40.65 kJ/mol, is more than five times the energy required to heat the same quantity of water from 0 °C to 100 °C. Care must be taken, when using enthalpies of vaporization to measure the strength of intermolecular forces, as these forces may persist to an extent in the gas phase, so the calculated value of the bond strength will be too low; this is true of metals, which form covalently bonded molecules in the gas phase: in these cases, the enthalpy of atomization must be used to obtain a true value of the bond energy.
An alternative description is to view the enthalpy of condensation as the heat which must be released to the surroundings to compensate for the drop in entropy when a gas condenses to a liquid. As the liquid and gas are in equilibrium at the boiling point, ΔvG = 0, which leads to: Δ v S = S g a s − S l i q u i d = Δ v H / T b As neither entropy nor enthalpy vary with temperature, it is normal to use the tabulated standard values without any correction for the difference in temperature from 298 K. A correction must be made if the pressure is different from 100 kPa, as the entropy of a gas is proportional to its pressure: the entropies of liquids vary little with pressure, as the compressibility of a liquid is small; these two definitions are equivalent: the boiling point is the temperature at which the increased entropy of the gas phase overcomes the intermolecular forces. As a given quantity of matter always has a higher entropy in the gas phase than in a condensed phase, from Δ G = Δ H − T Δ S,the Gibbs free energy change falls with increasing temperature: gases are favored at higher temperatures, as is observed in practice.
Estimation of the enthalpy of vaporization of electrolyte solutions can be carried out using equations based on the chemical thermodynamic models, such as Pitzer model or TCPC model. The vaporization of metals is a key step in metal vapor synthesis, which exploits the increased reactivity of metal atoms or small particles relative to the bulk elements. Enthalpies of vaporization of common substances, measured at their respective standard boiling points: Enthalpy of fusion Enthalpy of sublimation Joback method CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics Gmelin, Leopold. Gmelin-Handbuch der anorganischen Chemie / 08 a. Berlin: Springer. Pp. 116–117. ISBN 978-3-540-93516-2. NIST Chemistry WebBook Young, Francis W. Sears, Mark W. Zemansky, Hugh D.. University physics. Read
Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique that ionizes chemical species and sorts the ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio. In simpler terms, a mass spectrum measures the masses within a sample. Mass spectrometry is used in many different fields and is applied to pure samples as well as complex mixtures. A mass spectrum is a plot of the ion signal as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio; these spectra are used to determine the elemental or isotopic signature of a sample, the masses of particles and of molecules, to elucidate the chemical structures of molecules and other chemical compounds. In a typical MS procedure, a sample, which may be solid, liquid, or gas, is ionized, for example by bombarding it with electrons; this may cause some of the sample's molecules to break into charged fragments. These ions are separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio by accelerating them and subjecting them to an electric or magnetic field: ions of the same mass-to-charge ratio will undergo the same amount of deflection.
The ions are detected by a mechanism capable of detecting charged particles, such as an electron multiplier. Results are displayed as spectra of the relative abundance of detected ions as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio; the atoms or molecules in the sample can be identified by correlating known masses to the identified masses or through a characteristic fragmentation pattern. In 1886, Eugen Goldstein observed rays in gas discharges under low pressure that traveled away from the anode and through channels in a perforated cathode, opposite to the direction of negatively charged cathode rays. Goldstein called these positively charged anode rays "Kanalstrahlen". Wilhelm Wien found that strong electric or magnetic fields deflected the canal rays and, in 1899, constructed a device with perpendicular electric and magnetic fields that separated the positive rays according to their charge-to-mass ratio. Wien found. English scientist J. J. Thomson improved on the work of Wien by reducing the pressure to create the mass spectrograph.
The word spectrograph had become part of the international scientific vocabulary by 1884. Early spectrometry devices that measured the mass-to-charge ratio of ions were called mass spectrographs which consisted of instruments that recorded a spectrum of mass values on a photographic plate. A mass spectroscope is similar to a mass spectrograph except that the beam of ions is directed onto a phosphor screen. A mass spectroscope configuration was used in early instruments when it was desired that the effects of adjustments be observed. Once the instrument was properly adjusted, a photographic plate was exposed; the term mass spectroscope continued to be used though the direct illumination of a phosphor screen was replaced by indirect measurements with an oscilloscope. The use of the term mass spectroscopy is now discouraged due to the possibility of confusion with light spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry is abbreviated as mass-spec or as MS. Modern techniques of mass spectrometry were devised by Arthur Jeffrey Dempster and F.
W. Aston in 1918 and 1919 respectively. Sector mass spectrometers known as calutrons were developed by Ernest O. Lawrence and used for separating the isotopes of uranium during the Manhattan Project. Calutron mass spectrometers were used for uranium enrichment at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee Y-12 plant established during World War II. In 1989, half of the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Hans Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul for the development of the ion trap technique in the 1950s and 1960s. In 2002, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to John Bennett Fenn for the development of electrospray ionization and Koichi Tanaka for the development of soft laser desorption and their application to the ionization of biological macromolecules proteins. A mass spectrometer consists of three components: an ion source, a mass analyzer, a detector; the ionizer converts a portion of the sample into ions. There is a wide variety of ionization techniques, depending on the phase of the sample and the efficiency of various ionization mechanisms for the unknown species.
An extraction system removes ions from the sample, which are targeted through the mass analyzer and into the detector. The differences in masses of the fragments allows the mass analyzer to sort the ions by their mass-to-charge ratio; the detector measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. Some detectors give spatial information, e.g. a multichannel plate. The following example describes the operation of a spectrometer mass analyzer, of the sector type. Consider a sample of sodium chloride. In the ion source, the sample is ionized into sodium and chloride ions. Sodium atoms and ions are monoisotopic, with a mass of about 23 u. Chloride atoms and ions come in two isotopes with masses of 35 u and 37 u; the analyzer part of the spectrometer contains electric and magnetic fields, which exert forces on ions traveling through these fields. The speed of a charged particle may be increased or decreased while passing through the electric field, its direction may be altered by the magnetic field.
The magnitude of the deflection of the moving ion's trajectory depends on its mass-to-charge ratio. L
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most known as NMR spectroscopy or magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is a spectroscopic technique to observe local magnetic fields around atomic nuclei. The sample is placed in a magnetic field and the NMR signal is produced by excitation of the nuclei sample with radio waves into nuclear magnetic resonance, detected with sensitive radio receivers; the intramolecular magnetic field around an atom in a molecule changes the resonance frequency, thus giving access to details of the electronic structure of a molecule and its individual functional groups. As the fields are unique or characteristic to individual compounds, in modern organic chemistry practice, NMR spectroscopy is the definitive method to identify monomolecular organic compounds. Biochemists use NMR to identify proteins and other complex molecules. Besides identification, NMR spectroscopy provides detailed information about the structure, reaction state, chemical environment of molecules; the most common types of NMR are proton and carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy, but it is applicable to any kind of sample that contains nuclei possessing spin.
NMR spectra are unique, well-resolved, analytically tractable and highly predictable for small molecules. Different functional groups are distinguishable, identical functional groups with differing neighboring substituents still give distinguishable signals. NMR has replaced traditional wet chemistry tests such as color reagents or typical chromatography for identification. A disadvantage is that a large amount, 2–50 mg, of a purified substance is required, although it may be recovered through a workup. Preferably, the sample should be dissolved in a solvent, because NMR analysis of solids requires a dedicated magic angle spinning machine and may not give well-resolved spectra; the timescale of NMR is long, thus it is not suitable for observing fast phenomena, producing only an averaged spectrum. Although large amounts of impurities do show on an NMR spectrum, better methods exist for detecting impurities, as NMR is inherently not sensitive - though at higher frequencies, sensitivity is higher.
Correlation spectroscopy is a development of ordinary NMR. In two-dimensional NMR, the emission is centered around a single frequency, correlated resonances are observed; this allows identifying the neighboring substituents of the observed functional group, allowing unambiguous identification of the resonances. There are more complex 3D and 4D methods and a variety of methods designed to suppress or amplify particular types of resonances. In nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy, the relaxation of the resonances is observed; as NOE depends on the proximity of the nuclei, quantifying the NOE for each nucleus allows for construction of a three-dimensional model of the molecule. NMR spectrometers are expensive. Modern NMR spectrometers have a strong and expensive liquid helium-cooled superconducting magnet, because resolution directly depends on magnetic field strength. Less expensive machines using permanent magnets and lower resolution are available, which still give sufficient performance for certain application such as reaction monitoring and quick checking of samples.
There are benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers. NMR can be observed than a millitesla. Low-resolution NMR produces broader peaks which can overlap one another causing issues in resolving complex structures; the use of higher strength magnetic fields result in clear resolution of the peaks and is the standard in industry. The Purcell group at Harvard University and the Bloch group at Stanford University independently developed NMR spectroscopy in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Edward Mills Purcell and Felix Bloch shared the 1952 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries; when placed in a magnetic field, NMR active nuclei absorb electromagnetic radiation at a frequency characteristic of the isotope. The resonant frequency, energy of the radiation absorbed, the intensity of the signal are proportional to the strength of the magnetic field. For example, in a 21 Tesla magnetic field, hydrogen atoms resonate at 900 MHz, it is common to refer to a 21 T magnet as a 900 MHz magnet since hydrogen is the most common nucleus detected, however different nuclei will resonate at different frequencies at this field strength in proportion to their nuclear magnetic moments.
An NMR spectrometer consists of a spinning sample-holder inside a strong magnet, a radio-frequency emitter and a receiver with a probe that goes inside the magnet to surround the sample, optionally gradient coils for diffusion measurements, electronics to control the system. Spinning the sample is necessary to average out diffusional motion, however some experiments call for a stationary sample when solution movement is an important variable. For instance, measurements of diffusion constants are done using a stationary sample with spinning off, flow cells can be used for online analysis of process flows; the vast majority of molecules in a solution are solvent molecules, most regular solvents are hydrocarbons and so contain NMR-active protons. In order to avoid detecting only signals from solvent hydrogen atoms, deuterated solvents are used where 99+% of the protons are replaced with deuterium; the most used deuterated solvent is deuterochloroform, although other solvents may be used depending on the solubility of a sample.
Deuterium oxide and deuterated DMSO (DMSO-d
Safety data sheet
A safety data sheet, material safety data sheet, or product safety data sheet is a document that lists information relating to occupational safety and health for the use of various substances and products. SDSs are a used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product, along with spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. A SDS for a substance is not intended for use by the general consumer, focusing instead on the hazards of working with the material in an occupational setting. There is a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk. Labels can include hazard symbols such as the European Union standard symbols; the same product can have different formulations in different countries. The formulation and hazard of a product using a generic name may vary between manufacturers in the same country.
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals contains a standard specification for safety data sheets. The SDS follows a 16 section format, internationally agreed and for substances the SDS should be followed with an Annex which contains the exposure scenarios of this particular substance; the 16 sections are: SECTION 1: Identification of the substance/mixture and of the company/undertaking 1.1. Product identifier 1.2. Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against 1.3. Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet 1.4. Emergency telephone number SECTION 2: Hazards identification 2.1. Classification of the substance or mixture 2.2. Label elements 2.3. Other hazards SECTION 3: Composition/information on ingredients 3.1. Substances 3.2. Mixtures SECTION 4: First aid measures 4.1. Description of first aid measures 4.2. Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed 4.3. Indication of any immediate medical attention and special treatment needed SECTION 5: Firefighting measures 5.1.
Extinguishing media 5.2. Special hazards arising from the substance or mixture 5.3. Advice for firefighters SECTION 6: Accidental release measure 6.1. Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures 6.2. Environmental precautions 6.3. Methods and material for containment and cleaning up 6.4. Reference to other sections SECTION 7: Handling and storage 7.1. Precautions for safe handling 7.2. Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities 7.3. Specific end use SECTION 8: Exposure controls/personal protection 8.1. Control parameters 8.2. Exposure controls SECTION 9: Physical and chemical properties 9.1. Information on basic physical and chemical properties 9.2. Other information SECTION 10: Stability and reactivity 10.1. Reactivity 10.2. Chemical stability 10.3. Possibility of hazardous reactions 10.4. Conditions to avoid 10.5. Incompatible materials 10.6. Hazardous decomposition products SECTION 11: Toxicological information 11.1. Information on toxicological effects SECTION 12: Ecological information 12.1.
Toxicity 12.2. Persistence and degradability 12.3. Bioaccumulative potential 12.4. Mobility in soil 12.5. Results of PBT and vPvB assessment 12.6. Other adverse effects SECTION 13: Disposal considerations 13.1. Waste treatment methods SECTION 14: Transport information 14.1. UN number 14.2. UN proper shipping name 14.3. Transport hazard class 14.4. Packing group 14.5. Environmental hazards 14.6. Special precautions for user 14.7. Transport in bulk according to Annex II of MARPOL73/78 and the IBC Code SECTION 15: Regulatory information 15.1. Safety and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture 15.2. Chemical safety assessment SECTION 16: Other information 16.2. Date of the latest revision of the SDS In Canada, the program known as the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System establishes the requirements for SDSs in workplaces and is administered federally by Health Canada under the Hazardous Products Act, Part II, the Controlled Products Regulations. Safety data sheets have been made an integral part of the system of Regulation No 1907/2006.
The original requirements of REACH for SDSs have been further adapted to take into account the rules for safety data sheets of the Global Harmonised System and the implementation of other elements of the GHS into EU legislation that were introduced by Regulation No 1272/2008 via an update to Annex II of REACH. The SDS must be supplied in an official language of the Member State where the substance or mixture is placed on the market, unless the Member State concerned provide otherwise; the European Chemicals Agency has published a guidance document on the compilation of safety data sheets. The German Federal Water Management Act requires that substances be evaluated for negative influence on the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water; these are classified into numeric water hazard classes. WGK nwg: Non-water polluting substance WGK 1: Slightly water polluting substance WGK 2: Water polluting substance WGK 3: Highly water polluting substance This section contributes to a better understanding of the regulations governing SDS within the South African framework.
As regulations may change, it is the responsibility of the reader to verify the validity of the regulations mentioned in text. As globalisation increased and countries engaged in cross-border trade, the quantity of hazardous material crossing international borders a