Permanente Creek is a 13. 3-mile-long stream originating on Black Mountain in Santa Clara County, United States. It is the namesake for the Kaiser Permanente health maintenance organization, the Ohlone Indians lived in the area for over 3,000 years prior to the arrival of the Europeans. A large village, known as Partacsi, was located in general area. An expedition led by Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza passed through this area in March 1776 as he forged the first overland route from Monterey to San Francisco Bay. Mission Santa Clara de Asis was founded in October of the same year, governor Alvarado granted Rancho San Antonio de Padua to Juan Prado Mesa in 1839. This 440-acre rancho was bounded by Adobe Creek to the north and Stevens Creek to the south, on a diseño of Rancho San Antonio in 1839 Permanente Creek is shown as Arroyo Permanente. Mesa had been a soldier at the Presidio of San Francisco since 1828, served as a corporal in the Santa Clara Guard, Permanente Creek is the namesake for Kaiser Permanente.
Bess Kaiser and her spouse, industrialist Henry J and that medical program became Kaiser Permanente. Permanente Creek consists of approximately 13.3 miles of channel draining an area of 17.5 square miles. It has two tributaries, the West Fork Permanente Creek and Hale Creek. West Fork Permanente Creek and its Wildcat Canyon tributary were formerly known as Ohlone Creek, the perennial reaches of these creeks share the same perennial nature as a similar reach on nearby Adobe Creek. Here the creek enters a concrete trapezoidal channel constructed by the Santa Clara Valley Water District, only during high floods can a portion of the creeks waters surmount the floodgate and return to the original channel. Therefore, the Diversion Channel effectively reconnects Permanente Creek to the Stevens Creek watershed and this recapitulates the 1862 Allardt Map of the San Francisco & San Jose Railroad which shows Permanente Creek as a tributary of Stevens Creek. This is significant ecologically, because Stevens Creek still hosts an anadromous steelhead trout run.
The Diversion Channel essentially changes the length of Permanente Creek from 13.3 miles to San Francisco Bay to 9.3 miles ending at its junction with Stevens Creek just past Highway 85. However, Hale Creek still flows to the lower reaches of Permanente Creek. This lowest part of the creek historically disappeared into the marshland before reaching the Bay, the creek must have been hydrologically connected to the Bay at times of high winter flows since Steelhead trout were able to access Permanente Creek historically. Saltwater is pumped from Charleston Slough into Shoreline Lake and from there it flows to Permanente Creek, the Mountain View Slough carries flows to the Bay between former salt ponds A1 and A2W
California Department of Parks and Recreation
The California Department of Parks and Recreation, known as California State Parks, manages the California state parks system. Headquartered in Sacramento, park administration is divided into 25 districts, the California State Parks system is the largest state park system in the United States. Californias first state park was the Yosemite Grant, which constitutes part of Yosemite National Park. In 1864, the government set aside Yosemite Valley for preservation and ceded the land to the state. Californias oldest state park, Big Basin Redwoods State Park, was founded in 1902, until 1921, each park was managed by an independent commission or agency. In 1927, the California Legislature, with the support of Governor C. C. Young, established the State Park Commission, and its membership included, Major Frederick R. Burnham, W. F. Chandler, William E. Colby, Henry W. OMelveny. The following year, a newly established State Park Commission began gathering support for the first state park bond issue and its efforts were rewarded in 1928 when Californians voted nearly three-to-one in favor of a $6 million park bond act.
With Newton B. Drury serving as officer, the new system of state parks rapidly began to grow. William Penn Mott, Jr. served as director of the agency under Governor Ronald Reagan, responsible for almost one-third of Californias scenic coastline, California State Parks manages the states finest coastal wetlands, estuaries and dune systems. California State Parks contains the largest and most diverse natural and cultural heritage holdings of any agency in the nation. The Department employs State Park Peace Officers Law Enforcement to protect and preserve the State Parks, Parks are patrolled by sworn State Park Peace Officers, of which there are two classifications, State Park Ranger and State Park Lifeguards. In May 2008 The National Trust for Historic Preservation listed the system as a whole on their list of Americas Most Endangered Places. The Parks Forward commission issued a report in 2015 that noted the lack of maintenance for many parks along with visitors who do not reflect the diversity of Californias population.
The report said the agency is using outdated technology for managing the parks, at least $1 million of more than $14 million in total proposed cuts resulting from park closures would take place during the current budget year. The deficit reducing measure would reduce or eliminate over 100 staff positions in addition to seasonal lifeguards at many state beaches. On May 29,2009, the State of California announced that it planned to close 220 parks, examples of service reductions included some parks only being open on weekends and holidays, or closing accessibility to portions of an otherwise open park. On May 11,2011, state officials announced that seventy parks would be closed due to department budget cuts in response to Californias continuing budget crises
San Lorenzo River
The San Lorenzo River is a 29. Not far from the sea indicates that the party crossed the river at one of what became the commonly used fords. The fords, in turn, became the locations for the first two bridges across the river - at todays Water Street and Soquel Avenue, in 1863, the California Powder Works was built adjacent to the river three miles upstream from Santa Cruz. The powder works made gunpowder for California mining after normal supplies had been interrupted by the American Civil War, during dry summer weather when the river was low, the total river flow might be diverted into the flume from below the dam. The powder mill was closed in 1914 and the dam demolished, the San Lorenzo River was once one of the most popular steelhead trout and coho salmon rivers on the Central Coast of California. Approximately 26 miles of the San Lorenzo River, and at least nine of its major tributaries, the San Lorenzo River supported the largest coho salmon and steelhead fishery south of San Francisco Bay, and the fourth largest steelhead fishery in the State of California.
In 1960, it was estimated there were more than 30,000 fish living in this river. Fishing regulations were changed in 1998 in order to protect wild stocks vs. hatchery stocks, the changes in the regulations have been minimally effective and additional conservation/preservation efforts are still needed. Coho salmon and steelhead of the San Lorenzo River are listed as endangered and threatened, coho have returned as a result of stocking efforts at the Kingfisher Flat Hatchery on Scott Creeks Big Creek tributary. In 2014, coho captured from the river were transferred to the Big Creek hatchery to enable local genetics to be used for stocking. Reliable historic records from 1915 describe that in addition to quinnat and silver that occasional humpback, the San Lorenzo River watershed drains 138 square miles. The Branciforte Creek watershed is a major sub-basin of the San Lorenzo catchment-basin, the Newell Creek tributary was dammed to create Loch Lomond, a reservoir which supplies drinking water to Santa Cruz, California.
Following devastating floods in December 1955, the Army Corps of Engineers built flood control measures along the San Lorenzo River and that was because a large amount of sediment had re-deposited in the channel after it was built. The original project design required periodic dredging of the bed sediment, the flood control channel was not maintained regularly, presumably for those reasons. The levees and floodwalls were rebuilt in 2004, but the design for those changes still assumed that the bed would be maintained by dredging. The current and likely future levels of protection provided by the project. A habitat restoration project has been underway since 1985, recent counts of fish show the population is slowly rising to approximately 3000. Tidal influence wanes between the Broadway and Soquel Avenue bridges in the city of Santa Cruz, where some sand bars are visible
San Bruno Mountain
San Bruno Mountain is located in northern San Mateo County, with some slopes of the mountain crossing over into southern San Francisco. Most of the lies within the 2, 326-acre San Bruno Mountain State Park. Next to the park is the 83-acre state San Bruno Mountain Ecological Reserve on the north slope. It is near the boundary of San Francisco, surrounded by the cities of South San Francisco, Daly City, Colma. San Bruno Mountain is topped by a four mile long ridge, trails to the summit afford expansive views of the San Francisco Bay Area. The mountain provides habitat for species of rare and endangered plants. The endangered San Bruno elfin butterfly inhabits this mountain and a few other locations, the distinct Franciscan fog zone plants of San Bruno Mountain set it apart from other California coastal areas. The Portola expedition visited San Francisco Bay in 1769, the expedition is usually considered the first European presence in the area. Five years Fernando Rivera and four soldiers climbed the mountain, the mountain was named by Bruno de Heceta for his patron saint.
San Bruno Mountain consists of portions of five Mexican land grants, jose Antonio Sanchez, who rode by mule as a child from Sonora, Mexico was given Rancho Buri Buri in 1827, with confirmation in 1835. Rancho Buri Buri extended from the bay salt flats to San Andreas Valley, in 1835 this rancho was granted to Jacob P. Leese. Three other ranchos held minor portions of the flank of San Bruno Mountain. The cities that have grown up around the mountain are San Francisco to the north, Brisbane to the east, thornton pioneered the Habitat Conservation Plan concept creating the first such plan for the area around San Bruno Mountain. KRON was the first television station to place a transmitter tower on Radio Peak, in 1949, followed by KQED and KTVU, though these tenants moved their transmitters to Sutro Tower in the 1970s. A number of FM stations built transmitter towers on the mountain, KTSF occupies the former KRON site. In 1965, Westbay Community Associates announced a plan to level a portion of the mountain to fill 27 square miles of San Francisco Bay north of Sierra Point with landfill.
The proposal intended to create housing developments in the Saddle just north of Guadalupe Canyon Road, the Terra Bay project was approved in the mid-1980s for development at the south and southeast base of San Bruno Mountain. Dean & Associates, was unable to complete the project, and SunChase Holdings acquired the project in 1992, SunChase agreed to fund ecological restoration to mitigate the impact of Terra Bay during the development of Phase I under the terms of the San Bruno HCP
Adobe Creek (Santa Clara County, California)
Adobe Creek is a 14. 2-mile-long northward-flowing stream originating on Black Mountain in Santa Clara County, United States. It courses through the cities of Los Altos Hills, Los Altos, Adobe Creek was perennial and hosted runs of steelhead trout entering from southwestern San Francisco Bay. The Ohlone people were the inhabitants of Adobe Creek. A large shell mound which once had a group of Indian huts was found near Adobe Creek in Palo Alto, the site had other artifacts, and an archeological dig was mounted by Foothill College. Around this same time, an Ohlone basket was discovered buried in the Creek bank further north, the OKeefe site has a historical plaque marking the historic site. On the 1862 Allardt Map the upper creek is called Arroyo San Antonio, Yeguas is Spanish for mare, and the Mission Santa Clara named it that because they built a corral for mares along the creeks banks near the Bay. Juan Prado Mesa renamed it San Antonio Creek when he was granted Rancho San Antonio in 1839 by Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado, the Adobe Creek name appears as early as 1855 on an official surveyor’s map, which lists both the Adobe and San Antonio names for the creek.
During the secularization of the missions in the 1830s, Alvarado parceled out much of their land to prominent Californios via land grants, Mesa was a soldier stationed at the Presidio of San Francisco who had become alfarez in 1837. He built a large adobe, which lasted well into the twentieth century as a crumbling ruin long thought of as a fortification. The site today is on a hill on the southeast side of El Monte Avenue near Summerhill Avenue in Los Altos, most of which is located on the territory of the Rancho. The upper creek originates in the historic Rancho La Purisima Concepcion, which was granted by Governor Alvarado in 1840 to Jose Gorgonio, Gorgonio moved to the west bank of Adobe Creek near Fremont Avenue in Los Altos Hills. Much of the town of Los Altos Hills, California was located on this Rancho, in 1844 Rancho La Purisima Concepcion was sold to Juana Briones de Miranda, whose family members had accompanied both the Gaspar de Portolà and the Juan Bautista de Anza Expeditions.
Designated a California State Historical Landmark in 1954, the 160-year-old Juana Briones home was scheduled for demolition in 2007 because of damage to it by the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, in 2009, it still stands and has been recently documented with a Historic American Buildings Survey. After 1831, Mexican rancho owners would logically erect their dwellings on or very near creeks, Juan Prado’s adobe was near Adobe Creek & Juanita Briones’ adobe was near Barron Creek. Because they were permanent features of the landscape, creeks were often used as Rancho boundaries and this was true locally, where the Mexican diseño show Adobe Creek as the boundary between Rancho San Antonio and Rancho La Purisima Concepcion. When Americans took over in 1850, speculators bought much of this land, much of it initially became large self-contained ranches---typically running cattle & growing crops like wheat, barley & oats that required little or no irrigation. That changed in a few decades when it was discovered that orchards and vineyards could thrive here, such agriculture of course used more water.
Local land was cut progressively into smaller holdings, until most of it was subdivided as the population increased and this meant more and more wells, including large ones dug along Adobe Creek by early water companies to serve the little town of Los Altos
Castle Rock State Park (California)
Castle Rock State Park is a state park of California, USA, located along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains. It embraces coast redwood, Douglas fir, and madrone forest, most of which has left in its wild. Steep canyons are sprinkled with rock formations that are a popular rock climbing area. The forest here is lush and mossy, crisscrossed by 32 miles of hiking trails. These trails are part of a more extensive trail system that links the Santa Clara and San Lorenzo valleys with Castle Rock State Park, Big Basin Redwoods State Park. There are two campgrounds within the park for overnight backpacking. The 5, 242-acre park was established in 1968, the park is located on California State Route 35 just 2.5 miles southeast of the junction with State Route 9. It is located almost entirely in Santa Cruz County, Castle Rock State Park is suitable for many activities. There are two campgrounds for overnight hikers, many trails for day-hikes, rock climbing routes. Dogs are not allowed on the trails or in the campgrounds, under Governor Browns current budget proposal this park was going to close.
This would mean that visitors couldnt enter the park, and rangers would no longer staff the park, California Assembly Bill 42 was signed into law on October 5,2011. This bill allows state parks to enter into operating agreements with non-profit organizations, the Portola and Castle Rock Foundation has been formed to help support Portola and Castle Rock State Parks. On March 14,2012 the park was removed from the park closure list for a one-year reprieve based on a $250,000 donation by the Sempervirens Fund. List of California state parks Castle Rock State Park
Twin Peaks (Santa Clara County, California)
Twin Peaks are two prominent peaks along the foothills east of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California. The peaks are nestled between Uvas Reservoir to the west, and Paradise Valley in Morgan Hill to the east, the headwaters for Sycamore Creek rise from the eastern hillsides near these peaks. Although part of the Uvas Reservoir County Park, no trails lead to the peaks from the park side. List of summits of the San Francisco Bay Area Twin Peaks
Santa Cruz Mountains
The Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the Pacific Coast Ranges, are a mountain range in central and northern California, United States. The range passes through San Mateo, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, the highest point in the range is Loma Prieta Peak 3,786 feet, near which is the epicenter of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Other major peaks include Mount Umunhum 3,486 feet, Mount Bielawski 3,231 feet, El Sombroso 2,999 feet, Eagle Rock 2,488 feet, Black Mountain 2,800 feet, and Sierra Morena 2,417 feet. The San Andreas Fault runs along or near the line throughout the range. The east side of the mountains drops abruptly towards this fault line especially near Woodside, for much of the length of the range on the San Francisco Peninsula, State Route 35 runs along its ridge, and is known as Skyline Boulevard. The Santa Cruz Mountains have been a legally defined American Viticultural Area since 1981, wine has been produced here since at least the 1840s. The Santa Cruz Mountain AVA has emerged as premier producer of top wines, there are over 30 wineries located in this area.
The Santa Cruz Mountains are largely the result of uplift caused by a leftward bend of the San Andreas Fault. The Salinian Block basement rocks are overlain by Miocene rock strata of the Lompico Sandstone, the Vaqueros Sandstone, the Santa Cruz Mountains are a region of large biological diversity, encompassing cool, moist coastal ecosystems as well as warm, dry chaparral. Much of the area in the Santa Cruz mountains is considered temperate rainforest, there do exist several small and isolated stands of old-growth forest, most notably at Henry Cowell Redwoods and Portola Redwoods State Parks and one sizeable old-growth redwood forest at Big Basin. At higher elevations and on sunny south slopes a more drought-resistant chaparral vegetation dominates, California scrub oak, spring wildflowers are widespread throughout the range. The area welcomes a number of species of birds. Black-tailed deer, a subspecies of deer are common, as are western gray squirrels, chipmunks. Periodic sightings of black bears indicate they frequent the mountains or wander north from Big Sur, coyotes, bobcats and human-introduced Virginia opossums inhabit the region but are rarely seen.
Rattlesnakes are inhabitants, mostly in the high, dry chaparral, the Santa Cruz Mountains have a Mediterranean type climate typical of most of California, with the majority of the annual precipitation falling between November and April. According to the National Weather Service, this more than 50 inches annually. Due to a shadow effect, precipitation on the eastern side of the range is significantly less. Snow falls a few times a year on the highest ridges, no temperature records were kept at these stations
Pescadero Creek is a major stream in Santa Cruz and San Mateo counties in California. At 26.6 miles, it is the longest stream in San Mateo County, Pescadero is Spanish for fishing place. In early Mexican land grants or disueños, John Gilroy stated The Castros, I, arroyo del Pescadero appears on the disueños of the 1830s. The 1860s Coast Survey called it the Pescador River, spanish-speaking people founded the town of Pescadero, California in 1856. The pre-European Pescadero watershed was occupied by the Ohlone, the Quirostes controlled the area from Bean Hollow Creek southward to Año Nuevo Creek and inland to Butano Ridge. The Oljon controlled from the lower San Gregorio Creek drainage southward to Bean Hollow Creek, including the lower Pescadero, the Cotogen held the land in and around Purisima Creek. The Ohlone managed the land with the most effective tool they had, farmers began building levees and drained small areas of the marsh by the late 1920s. Substantial levee building and conversion of marshlands to agriculture occurred during the 1930s, the State began acquiring land in the 1960s.
In the early 1960s local farmers used a dragline to remove sediment from Butano Creek channel below Pescadero Bridge for several feet down stream. The sediment removed was used to build a 6,000 foot levee on the west side of Butano Creek, other levees were built to keep salt water out of agricultural fields. California Department of Fish and Game required the dragline practice to stop following the introduction of new fish protection laws in 1963. The Highway One bridge was rebuilt with fewer supports and closer to the ocean to minimize effects on the stream and lagoon, intensive logging and watershed development, beginning in the late 1920s or early 1930s, has dramatically increased sedimentation in Butano and Pescadero creeks. Both streams are listed under the federal Clean Water Act as impaired water bodies for sediment, concerns about agricultural pesticide runoff into the marsh prompted a report prepared by DFG. Jong confirmed eutrophic conditions in the marsh and found that algae blooms raise dissolve oxygen levels to saturation during the day, jong speculated that the low night DO could result in fish kills.
The DFG study found levels of potentially toxic to fish in the sediment. In the mid-1980s the west bank levee of Butano Creek was breached about 50 feet downstream of Pescadero Road Bridge in order to reduce flood flows down the Butano Creek channel in the marsh, breaches in other levees of the North Butano Marsh were made to improve circulation. Historically, both Pescadero Creek and Butano Creek, as well as several streams, supported runs of steelhead trout. Steelhead are still present, but there have only sparse reports of coho in the watershed in recent years
State parks are parks or other protected areas managed at the sub-national level within those nations which use state as a political subdivision. State parks are established by a state to preserve a location on account of its natural beauty, historic interest. There are state parks under the administration of the government of each U. S. state, some of the Mexican states, the term is used in the Australian state of Victoria. The equivalent term used in Canada, South Africa, similar systems of local government maintained parks exist in other countries, but the terminology varies. State parks are thus similar to parks, but under state rather than federal administration. Similarly, local government entities below state level may maintain parks, in general, state parks are smaller than national parks, with a few exceptions such as the Adirondack Park in New York and Anza-Borrego Desert State Park in California. As of 2014, there were 10,234 state park units in the United States, there are some 739 million annual visits to the countrys state parks.
The NASPD further counts over 43,000 miles of trail,217,367 campsites, many states include designations beyond state park in their state parks systems. Other designations might be state recreation areas, state beaches, some state park systems include long-distance trails and historic sites. The title of oldest state park in the United States is claimed by Niagara Falls State Park in New York, however several public parks previously or currently maintained at the state level pre-date it. Indian Springs State Park has been operated continuously by the state of Georgia as a park since 1825. In 1864 Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Grove were ceded by the government to California until Yosemite National Park was proclaimed in 1890. In 1878 Wisconsin set aside a vast swath of its forests as The State Park but, needing money. The first state park with the designation of state park was Mackinac Island State Park in 1895, list of U. S. state parks National Association of State Park Directors Wilderness preservation systems in the United States Ahlgren, Carol.
The Civilian Conservation Corps and Wisconsin State Park Development, the State Park Movement in America, A Critical Review excerpt and text search Larson, Zeb. Silver Falls State Park and the Early Environmental Movement, oregon Historical Quarterly 112#1 pp, 34-57 in JSTOR Newton, Norman T. When Forests Trumped Parks, The Maryland Experience, 1906-1950, Maryland Historical Magazine 101#2 pp, 203-224
This grove is notable because it allows for the use of self-guided tours of the flat,0. 8-mile loop trail which is easily accessible. Dozens of large, old Redwood trees are located within a few feet of the walking trail, coast Redwoods, are a native tree in the deep valleys and low to middle elevations of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Free-flowing, year-round stream help to enhance environment and the cool moisture-laden air often produces visible fog. The bark of these giants is heavily-laden with tannin which helps to offer protection from damage by fires or insects. This grove has some of the tallest and oldest trees in the Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park, undergrowth is never cleared, there is no logging allowed and deadfalls and lightning-struck trees are allowed to proceed naturally with their processes, unless they impair access to the grove. This rich, biotic environment is filled with natural nutrients which make up for the amounts of waterfall which might otherwise deplete the soil. Old growth groves such as this show the birth and death of ancient redwoods.
Of course, all the flora and fauna which have existed in these mountains for centuries are allowed to remain—even to the extent of the highly-irritating poison oak plants. This part of the California coastline was once an area for the Awaswas division of Ohlone Indian people. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà camped on the banks of the San Lorenzo River and this exploration offered the peoples of this richly, resourced area, known as Alta California, to be brought under Catholicism by the Friars Minor. Little more than twenty years later, in 1791, a Catholic mission, Mission Santa Cruz was consecrated nearby and this mission, served as a site for ecclesiastical conversion of natives. From 1805-1812, the mission was run by Father Andrés Quintana who was one of only two Spanish missionaries martyred in Alta California, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1821, the newly independent Mexico assumed control of this area until the transfer to the United States in 1846. During Mexican ownership, it was common for land grants to be sold to those who were in favor with the government, large portions of this virgin-forested area were given out as Rancho Carbonera, Rancho Zayante and Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo.
These gifted land grants were the start of European settlement in the area that is now known as Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. In 1843, the Mexican Government granted a parcel of 8,800 acres under the name of Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo de Santa Cruz to a French immigrant named Pedro Sansevain. This grant essentially encompassed what is known as the Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. After a few transfers of land over about twenty years, the granted Rancho Cañada del Rincon ended up in the hands of Henry Cowell, Coastal Zone Environment The Coastal Redwoods grow exceptionally well in this temperate, foggy environment. This is the environment for the trees, since it is moist, dim