Eastern Point Light
Eastern Point Light is a historic lighthouse on Cape Ann, in northeastern Massachusetts. It is known as the oldest seaport in America; the harbor has supported fishermen and traders since 1616. The lighthouse was planned in 1829 and was erected by 1832 on the east side of the Gloucester Harbor entrance, it was first lit on January 1, 1832. The tower was rebuilt in 1848 and again in 1890; the third and current conical brick tower stands 36 feet tall. The lighthouse has an attached two-story keeper's quarters, built in 1879; the actual light is 57 feet above Mean High Water. Its white light is visible for 20 nautical miles. In 1880, the lighthouse was occupied by American landscape painter Winslow Homer, it was automated by September 1985 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987. The lighthouse is operated by the United States Coast Guard and is closed to the public. A distinctive rock formation known as Mother Ann is located along the shore near the lighthouse. National Register of Historic Places listings in Gloucester, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
Annisquam Harbor Light
Annisquam Harbor Light Station is a historic lighthouse on Wigwam Point in the Annisquam neighborhood of Gloucester, Massachusetts. It can be viewed from nearby Wingaersheek Gloucester, it lies on the Annisquam River and is one of the four oldest lighthouses to surround the Gloucester peninsula as well as. The first light station, a 40-foot wooden tower, was established in 1801, after Congress gathered $2000 in April for the completion; the original building was 32 feet tall, made of wood with a light resting 40 feet above the water. The building fell into disrepair and, in 1851, was replaced by an octagonal wooden tower of the same height; the original lighthouse keeper's house was repaired and, with alterations, has remained to this day. It is a gabled roofed, wood-framed building. In 1869, a covered walkway was built between the tower. In 1897, the current brick lighthouse was built on the same foundation as the previous two constructions; some time after 1900, the covered walkway, added in 1867, to the keeper's house was replaced by an uncovered wooden footbridge.
In 1931, a foghorn was installed, but until 1949, it was used only from October 15 to May 15 to spare summer residents the noise. But was activated in the summer of 1949 only during day hours; the lighthouse's fourth-order Fresnel lens and foghorn was automated in 1974, became occupied by the Coast Guard. The fog signal was first removed by the Coast Guard, but after complaints by fishermen and local boaters, it was re-activated and automated as well. In August 2000 Matty Nally and his crew completed the replacement of 3,000 bricks in efforts of restoration; the interior of the lighthouse is equipped with a circular cast-iron staircase that leads to the top. The lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1987, is one of the oldest lighthouses in Massachusetts; the original wooden keeper's house from 1801 is still used as a housing for United States Coast Guard personnel who manage the site. In 2000, a major restoration of the tower was conducted by the Coast Guard. In 2008, the building made an appearance as a lighthouse in Maine, in the film remake The Women.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Gloucester, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
United Kingdom Hydrographic Office
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office is the UK's agency for providing hydrographic and marine geospatial data to mariners and maritime organisations across the world. The UKHO is a trading fund of the Ministry of Defence and is located in Taunton, with a workforce of 900 staff; the UKHO is responsible for operational support to the Royal Navy and other defence customers. Supplying defence and the commercial shipping industry, they help ensure Safety of Life at Sea, protect the marine environment and support the efficiency of global trade. Together with other national hydrographic offices and the International Hydrographic Organization, the UKHO works to set and raise global standards of hydrography and navigation; the UKHO produces a commercial portfolio of ADMIRALTY Maritime Data Solutions, providing SOLAS-compliant charts and digital services for ships trading internationally. The Admiralty's first Hydrographer was Alexander Dalrymple, appointed in 1795 on the order of King George III and the existing charts were brought together and catalogued.
The first chart Dalrymple published as Hydrographer to the Admiralty did not appear until 1800. He issued Sailing Directions and Notices to Mariners. Dalrymple was succeeded on his death in 1808 by Captain Thomas Hurd, under whose stewardship the department was given permission to sell charts to the public in 1821. In 1819 Captain Hurd entered into a bi-lateral agreement with Denmark to exchange charts and publications covering areas of mutual interest; this is thought to be the earliest formal arrangement for the mutual supply of information between the British and any foreign Hydrographic Office. Hurd developed the specialism of Royal Navy hydrographic surveyors. Rear-Admiral Sir W. Edward Parry was appointed Hydrographer in 1823 after his second expedition to discover a Northwest Passage. In 1825 some 736 charts and coastal views were being offered for sale by the Hydrographic Office. In 1828 Captain Parry and the Royal Society organised a scientific voyage to the South Atlantic, in collaboration with the Hydrographers of France and Spain, using HMS Chanticleer.
In 1829, at the age of 55, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort became Hydrographer. During his time as Hydrographer, he developed the eponymous Scale, saw the introduction of official tide tables in 1833 and instigated various surveys and expeditions. Several of these were by HMS Beagle, including one to Tierra del Fuego and Patagonia in 1826. In 1831 Captain Beaufort informed Captain FitzRoy that he had found a savant for the latter's surveying voyage to South America, Charles Darwin. After completing extensive surveys in South America he returned to Falmouth, Cornwall via New Zealand and Australia in 1836. By the time of Beaufort's retirement in 1855, the Chart Catalogue listed 1,981 charts and 64,000 copies of them had been issued to the Royal Navy. In the 1870s, the Royal Naval Surveying Service supported the Challenger expedition, a scientific exercise that made many discoveries, laying the foundation of oceanography; the cruise was named after HMS Challenger. On her 68,890-nautical-mile circumnavigation of the globe, 492 deep sea soundings, 133 bottom dredges, 151 open water trawls and 263 serial water temperature observations were taken.
The Challenger crew used a method of observation developed in earlier small-scale expeditions. To measure depth, the crew would lower a line with a weight attached to it until it reached the sea floor; the line was marked in 25 fathom intervals with flags denoting depth. Because of this, the depth measurements from the Challenger were at best accurate to 25 fathoms, or about 46 metres; as the first true oceanographic cruise, the Challenger expedition established an entire academic and research discipline. During the late 19th century, the UKHO took part in several international conferences, including the International Meridian Conference to determine a prime meridian for international use and other conferences working towards the establishment of a permanent international commission concerning hydrographic matters. Hydrographers to the Admiralty Board during this period included: Rear-Admiral John Washington, Rear-Admiral George Henry Richards, Captain Sir Frederick J O Evans and Rear-Admiral Sir William J L Wharton.
During Rear-Admiral A Mostyn Field's term as Hydrographer to the Admiralty Board, the Hydrographic Office lent instruments to the Nimrod Expedition of the British Antarctic Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907. Following the RMS Titanic in 1912, the Safety of Life at Sea convention was established, as well as the introduction of ice reporting and forecasting. During World War I, while Rear-Admiral Sir John F Parry was Hydrographer of the Navy, the Hydrographic Office produced numerous new charts and products to support the Royal Navy. Following the war, the First International Hydrographic Conference was held in London, it led to the establishment in 1921 of the International Hydrographic Organization. In the 1930s, the systematic and regular collection of oceanographic and naval meteorological data started. In the Second World War, while led by Vice-Admiral Sir John A Edgell, chart printing moved to Creechbarrow House in Taunton in June 1941; this was the first purpose-built chart making factory, was designed by the Chief Draughtsman, Mr Jowsey.
In 1968, compilation staff were transferred from Cricklewood to Taunton, thus bringing together the main elements of the Hydrographic Office. A purpose-built office, named after Alexander Dalrymple, was opened. Metrication and computerisation of charts began in the 1960s and early 1970s under the leadership of Rear-Admiral Sir Edmund G Irving, Rear-Admiral George Stephen Ritchie
Cape Ann Light Station
The Cape Ann Light Station on Thacher Island, off Cape Ann in Rockport, Massachusetts, is nationally significant as the last light station to be established under colonial rule and the first station in the United States to mark a navigational hazard rather than a harbor entrance. The current pair of lighthouses were built in 1861, they were both equipped with first order Fresnel lenses, which stood 10 feet high and weighed several tons. After being decommissioned in the early 1980s, the lens from the south tower was moved to the U. S. Coast Guard Museum at the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London, Connecticut. In 2013 a joint effort by the Cape Ann Museum and the Thacher Island Association brought the lens back to Cape Ann; the first order lens is now on display at the Cape Ann Museum in Massachusetts. When these lights were built, there was no way to produce a flashing light and mariners would confuse one light for another with disastrous results; the only way to create a distinction was to build more than one light.
There were three at Nauset Beach. As it became possible to create flashes with a revolving lens system, the multiple lights were discontinued, so that while the south light is an active, Coast Guard maintained light, the north tower was discontinued in 1932, it was relighted as a Private Aid to Navigation in 1989. Both lights are now managed by the Thacher Island Association; the station was added to the National Register of Historic Places as Twin Lights Historic District – Cape Ann Light Station on October 7, 1971, reference number 71000355. In 2001 they became the 9th light station to be recognized as a National Historic Landmark. Cape Ann Light is the southernmost of the two lighthouses. Thacher Island North Light is the northernmost of the two lighthouses; the south light's official name in the US Coast Guard Light List is Cape Ann Light, number 1-295. The north light's official name is Thacher Island North Light, number 1-305; the National Historic Landmark listing name is Twin Lights Historic District – Cape Ann Light Station.
The lights are known locally as the Twin Lights or Thacher Island Lights. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
A light characteristic is a graphic and text description of a navigational light sequence or colour displayed on a nautical chart or in a Light List with the chart symbol for a lighthouse, buoy or sea mark with a light on it. The graphic indicates how the real light may be identified when looking at its actual light output type or sequence. Different lights use different colours and light patterns, so mariners can identify which light they are seeing. While light characteristics can be described in prose, e.g. "Flashing white every three seconds", lists of lights and navigation chart annotations use abbreviations. The abbreviation notation is different from one light list to another, with dots added or removed, but it follows a pattern similar to the following. An abbreviation of the type of light, e.g. "Fl." for flashing, "F." for fixed. The color of the light, e.g. "W" for white, "G" for green, "R" for red, "Y" for yellow. If no color is given, a white light is implied; the cycle period, e.g. "10s" for ten seconds.
Additional parameters are sometimes added:The height of the light above the chart datum for height. E.g. 15m for 15 metres. The range in which the light is visible, e.g. "10M" for 10 nautical miles. An example of a complete light characteristic is "Gp Oc W 10s 15m 10M"; this indicates that the light is a group occulting light in which a group of three eclipses repeat every 10 seconds. A fixed light, abbreviated "F", is a steady light. A flashing light is a rhythmic light in which the total duration of the light in each period is shorter than the total duration of the darkness and in which the flashes of light are all of equal duration, it is most used for a single-flashing light which exhibits only single flashes which are repeated at regular intervals, in which case it is abbreviated as "Fl". It can be used with a group of flashes which are repeated, in which case the abbreviation is "Fl" or "Gr Fl", for a group of two flashes. Another possibility is a composite group, in which successive groups in the period have different numbers of flashes, e.g. "Fl." indicates a group of two flashes, followed by one flash.
A specific case sometimes used is. Such a light is sometimes denoted "long flashing" with the abbreviation "L. Fl". If the frequency of flashes is large the light is denoted as a "quick light", see below. An occulting light is a rhythmic light in which the duration of light in each period is longer than the total duration of darkness. In other words, it is the opposite to a flashing light where the total duration of darkness is longer than the duration of light, it has the appearance of flashing off, rather than flashing on. Like a flashing light, it can be used for a single occulting light that exhibits only a single period of darkness or the periods of darkness can be grouped and repeated at regular intervals, a group or a composite group; the term occulting is used because the effect was obtained by a mechanism periodically shading the light from view. An isophase light, abbreviated "Iso", is a light which has light periods of equal length; the prefix derives from the Greek iso- meaning "same".
A quick light, abbreviated "Q", is a special case of a flashing light with a large frequency. If the sequence of flashes is interrupted by repeated eclipses of constant and long duration, the light is denoted "interrupted quick", abbreviated "I. Q". Group notation similar to flashing and occulting lights is sometimes used, e.g. Q. Another distinction sometimes made is between quick quick and ultra quick; this can be combined with notations for interruptions, e.g. I. U. Q for interrupted ultra quick, or grouping, e.g. V. Q for a quick group of nine flashes. Quick characteristics can be followed by other characteristics, e.g. VQ LFl for a quick group of six flashes, followed by a long flash. A Morse code light is light in which appearances of light of two different durations are grouped to represent a character or characters in the Morse Code. For example, "Mo" is a light in which in each period light is shown for a short period followed by a long period, the Morse Code for "A". A fixed and flashing light, abbreviated "F. Fl", is a light in which a fixed low intensity light is combined with a flashing high intensity light.
An alternating light, abbreviated "Al", is a light. For example, "Al WG" shows green lights alternately. Lighthouse Pilotage Signal lamp U. S. ATON light characteristic terms illustrated
New Bedford, Massachusetts
New Bedford is a city in Bristol County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 95,072, making it the sixth-largest city in Massachusetts. New Bedford is nicknamed "The Whaling City" because during the 19th century, the city was one of the most important whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New London, Connecticut; the city, along with Fall River and Taunton, make up the three largest cities in the South Coast region of Massachusetts and is known for its fishing fleet and accompanying seafood producing industries as well as having a high concentration of Luso Americans. Before the 17th century, the Wampanoag, who had settlements throughout southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, including Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, were the only inhabitants of the lands along the Acushnet River, their population is believed to have been about 12,000. While exploring New England, Bartholomew Gosnold landed on Cuttyhunk Island on May 15, 1602. From there, he explored Cape Cod and the neighboring areas, including the site of present-day New Bedford.
However, rather than settle the area, he returned to England at the request of his crew. Europeans first settled New Bedford in 1652. English Plymouth Colony settlers purchased the land from chief Massasoit of the Wampanoag tribe. Whether the transfer of the land was legitimately done has been the subject of intense controversy. Like other native tribes, the Wampanoags did not share the settlers' concepts of private property; the tribe may have believed they were granting usage rights to the land, not giving it up permanently. The settlers used the land to build the colonial town of Old Dartmouth. A section of Old Dartmouth near the west bank of the Acushnet River called Bedford Village, was incorporated as the town of New Bedford on February 23, 1787 after the American Revolutionary War; the name was suggested by the Russell family. The Dukes of Bedford, a leading English aristocratic house bore the surname Russell; the late-18th century was a time of growth for the town. New Bedford's first newspaper, The Medley, was founded in 1792.
On June 12, 1792, the town set up its first post office. William Tobey was its first postmaster; the construction of a bridge between New Bedford and present-day Fairhaven in 1796 spurred growth. On March 18, 1847 the town of New Bedford became a city. At the same time, New Bedford began to supplant Nantucket as the nation's preeminent whaling port, thanks to its deeper harbor and location on the mainland. Whaling dominated the economy of the city for much of the century. Many families of the city were involved with it as crew and officers of ships; until 1800, New Bedford and its surrounding communities were, by and large, populated by Protestants of English, Scottish and Dutch origin. During the first half of the 19th century many Irish people came to Massachusetts. In 1818, Irish immigrants established the Catholic mission. In that century, immigrants from Portugal and its dependent territories of the Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira began arriving in New Bedford and the surrounding area, attracted by jobs in the whaling industry.
As the Portuguese community began to increase, they established the first Portuguese parish in the city, St. John the Baptist. French Canadians secured a foothold in New Bedford at about the same time, they built the Church of the Sacred Heart in 1877. Polish immigrants began arriving in the late 19th century and established the parish of Our Lady of Perpetual Help in 1903. A number of Jewish families, arriving in the late 19th century, were active in the whaling industry, selling provisions and outfitting ships. During the years leading up to the First World War, a sizable eastern-European Jewish community joined them in New Bedford; some became prominent merchants and businessmen in textiles and manufacturing. In 1847, the New Bedford Horticultural Society was begun by James Arnold; the Ash Street Jail, which houses inmates from Bristol County, is located in New Bedford. It is the oldest continuously operating jail in the United States. Fort Taber and Fort Rodman are now in Fort Taber Park. Both forts are called Fort Taber, including in some references.
New Bedford is located at 41°39′06″N 70°56′01″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.1 square miles. Of the total area, 20.0 square miles is land, 4.1 square miles, or 17.13%, is water. New Bedford is a coastal city, a seaport, bordered on the west by Dartmouth, on the north by Freetown, on the east by Acushnet and Fairhaven, on the south by Buzzards Bay. From New Bedford's northern border with Freetown to the Buzzards Bay coast at Clark's Point the distance is 14 miles. Across New Bedford east to west is a distance of about 2 miles; the highest point in the city is an unnamed hill crossed by Interstate 195 and Hathaway Road west of downtown, with an elevation greater than 1
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat