National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
The Duquesne Club is a private social club in Pittsburgh, founded in 1873. The Duquesne Club was founded in 1873, its first president was John H. Ricketson; the club's present home, a Romanesque structure designed by Longfellow, Alden & Harlow on Sixth Avenue in downtown Pittsburgh, was opened in 1890. The building achieved landmark status from the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation in 1976, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1995; the Club voted to admit women for the first time in its history in 1980. A health-and-fitness center was added in 1994, the Club was ranked as #1 City Club in America in 1997, an honor that would be repeated in 2001, 2003, 2006. In 2009, the Duquesne Club was ranked as the second best city club in the nation, behind the Union League Club of Philadelphia. Among notable guest to the club are U. S. Presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Herbert Hoover, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton as well as Colin Powell, Polish leader Edward Gierek, Jungle James, Tars Cornish, Prince of Wales and Former Pakistan Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.
As of 2007, membership at the Duquesne Club consisted of women. Though the Club does not discriminate in its selection of members, membership is by invitation from an existing member only. List of American gentlemen's clubs Economic Club of Pittsburgh Allegheny HYP Club Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce The Duquesne Club WTAE-TV feature on the Club kitchen on YouTube 1981 news feature
Media in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh is home to the first commercial radio station in the United States, KDKA 1020AM. Until 2016 Pittsburgh was one of the few mid-sized metropolitan areas in the U. S. with two major daily papers. In 2016, the Tribune-Review moved to an all-digital format. In 2018, the Post-Gazette moved to publishing five print editions a week; the alternative papers in the region include the Pittsburgh City Paper. The Pitt News, a financially independent student-written and -managed newspaper of the University of Pittsburgh, is closing in on its 100th year of publication; the University of Pittsburgh School of Law hosts JURIST, the world's only university-based legal news service. Outdoor advertising in the area is handled by Lamar Outdoor, who controls a majority of large posters and billboards and bus shelters and shopping centers in the area. Major newspapers: Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Pittsburgh Tribune-Review Alternative newspapers: Pittsburgh City Paper Pittsburgh Current Speciality newspapers: The Bulletin The Front Weekly The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh Northside Chronicle Pittsburgh Business Times Pittsburgh Catholic Pittsburgh Courier South Pittsburgh Reporter Zajedničar Academic newspapers: The Duquesne Duke The Pitt News The Tartan University Times Online newspapers: The Incline Jekko NEXTPittsburgh North Pittsburgh Daily News Pittsburgh Tribune-Review Pittsburgh Press Variety: Equal Magazine Jenesis Magazine Pittsburgh Magazine Pittsburgh Quarterly WHIRL Magazine Academic: Hot Metal Bridge Journal of Law and Commerce Pittsburgh Journal of Environmental and Public Health Law Pittsburgh Journal of Technology Law & Policy Pittsburgh Tax Review Three Rivers Review University of Pittsburgh Law Review The Pittsburgh TV market is ranked as the 23rd largest in the United States by Nielsen.
It has gained distinction as one of the most competitive. The market is served by: Pittsburgh radio has long been dominated by KDKA 1020 AM. However, as of early 2006 the station is no longer No. 1 in the ratings. KQV 1410 AM, now an all-news outlet, was Pittsburgh's dominant Top 40 station throughout the 1960s. On the FM dial, album-rock WDVE, modern rock WXDX, adult contemporary WBZZ, pop and hip-hop WKST-FM and Pittsburgh Sports Talk on KDKA-FM FM talk radio is available in the Pittsburgh market at WPGB. Pittsburgh is home to three public radio stations: WESA, the local NPR station; the Radio Information Service, broadcasting on a subcarrier of WESA provides special programming for the blind and print impaired. Additionally, Pittsburgh hosts the non-commercial radio stations WRCT and WPTS. In 2010, Nielsen will continue to rank Pittsburgh as the 23rd largest television Designated Market Area in the country, with 1,154,950 households; that is a drop from Nielsen's 2009 estimate of 1,156,460. Despite the decline in households, Pittsburgh still has 22,090 more households than the next closest television DMA, Charlotte, NC.
In 2004 Pittsburgh was the 24th largest DMA in the U. S. as ranked by population, with a population of 2,881,200. Pittsburgh's DMA covers a land area of 10,083 square miles in three states. Other definitions of the "Pittsburgh region" extend into Ohio border counties with some sources including several Ohio counties and as far south & west as the Kentucky border and north into the extreme southwest of New York State; the Pittsburgh DMA includes the following counties: Pennsylvania counties: West Virginia counties: Monongalia PrestonMaryland counties: Garrett Pittsburgh, PA on American Radio Map
Pittsburgh City-County Building
The Pittsburgh City-County Building is the seat of government for the City of Pittsburgh, houses both Pittsburgh and Allegheny County offices. It is located in Downtown Pittsburgh at 414 Grant Street, Pennsylvania. Built from 1915-17 it is the third seat of government of Pittsburgh. Today the building is occupied by Pittsburgh offices with Allegheny County located in adjacent county facilities. At the start of the 20th century, City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County officials began to realize that the current structure which housed the city and county government offices was insufficient for the city's rapid growth; the offices at that time were located in the Smithfield Street City Hall building, built in 1868-1872. The demand for new offices grew exponentially with the incorporation of Allegheny City into the City of Pittsburgh in 1907, which added 130,000 new residents to the city. In 1909 plans for a new City Hall began. Mayor William A. McGee proposed selling the current offices in the Smithfield Street City Hall and the Public Safety building, using these funds to buy the Allegheny County Courthouse and use it as the space for construction of a new City Hall.
By 1912 the plans moved forward with both the City of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County approving a joint venture to purchase the land and both occupy the new building. The architect for the new building was to be chosen through a competition, only accepting architects residing and doing business within Allegheny County. Regional favoritism was used in the building's construction as well, as in 1914 Mayor Joseph Armstrong claimed that all material for the building should come from manufactures who produce and are located in Pittsburgh, that all labor employed should be obtained or taken from Allegheny County; the plans for the development of the new building extended to some of the prominent organization within Pittsburgh such as the Carnegie Library, the Civic Club of Allegheny County who both had plans for space in the new building. Construction was postponed for more than a year though as the general contracting firm of W. F. Trimble & Sons filed an injunction claiming that the selection of James L. Stuart as consulting and supervising engineer was done through an improper bidding process.
The case was decided by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court and resolved by a legislative act, development on the building was allowed to continue. The groundbreaking on the building occurred with a ceremony on July 6, 1915 with County Commissioner I. K. Campbell striking the first blow with a pick and Joseph G. Armstrong Jr. lifting the first shovel of dirt. Both the pick and the shovel were silver plated and preserved as mementos in the office of the Mayor. Following significant progress in construction a cornerstone laying ceremony was planned to coincide with the celebration of Pittsburgh's Centennial. On March 26, 1916 the celebration of the 100th anniversary of incorporation was held in Pittsburgh and a parade wound through downtown Pittsburgh ending at a steel-framework of what would become the new City-Council Building. Three cornerstones were laid during the celebration, including one for the City, one for the County, one for the workers, each of which contained time capsules; the construction on the new building finished in 1917, was completed under budget.
In April 1917, the City Law Department was the first to switch into the new building, with the rest of the remaining offices allocated by June. The building was nominated in January 2016 to become a City Historic Site by Preservation Pittsburgh. In 1914, a competition was held for a new Pittsburgh City Hall; the 16-entry competition led to the commissioning of Edward B. Lee, a respected Pittsburgh architect, with Palmer, Hornbostel, & Jones as associated architects; the completed design was done by Henry Hornbostel. The building was designed with elements of the City Beautiful Movement; the City-County building is a representation of a distinctly American extrapolation of the Beaux Arts mode. Hornbostel was known for this architectural style, architectural historian James Van Trump has stated that Hornbostel kept the principles of the Beaux Arts central with his designs, but frequently departed from the precepts, integrated elements of other styles akin to industrially-inspired brutalism; the design of the building was influenced by the City Beautiful Movement.
This movement featured urban planning with soaring Neoclassical buildings and orderly designs, included the concept of the “White City”. The City-County Building was one of Pittsburgh's first attempts at incorporating the City Beautiful Movement into its urban design; some of the most significant design elements of the building include the Grand Lobby, a lit atrium with a 47-foot high barrel-vaulted ceiling. The ceiling is held up by bronze columns crafted by Louis Tiffany Studios, they feature at their bases, the Seals of Pittsburgh and Allegheny County, frontiersman Guyasuta, Pittsburgh's oldest surviving building, the Fort Pitt Blockhouse. The rooms ornate elevator doors feature a series of reliefs detailing the previous homes of municipal government; the reliefs age with the building's they clutch, reaching adulthood with the present City-County Building and Allegheny County Courthouse. The building is unique in that most of the furniture was designed by the building's architect, Hornbostel.
The Office of the Mayor, Council Chamber, Supreme Court Room all feature 1917 furniture still in use today. On the seventh floor of the building is a massive mural completed in 1940 entitled "Justice" by award-winning artist Harry Scheuch. 1922's In the Name of the Law starred Pittsburgh Pirates great and future Hall of Famer Honus Wagner as the hero, as a Pit
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Sports in Pittsburgh
Sports in Pittsburgh have been played dating back to the American Civil War. Baseball and the first professional American football game had been played in the city by 1892. Pittsburgh was first known as the "City of Champions" when the Pittsburgh Pirates, Pittsburgh Panthers, Pittsburgh Steelers won multiple championships in the 1970s. Today, the city has three major professional sports franchises, the Pirates and Penguins. Local universities Duquesne and Robert Morris field Division I teams in men's and women's basketball and Division I FCS teams in football. Robert Morris fields Division I men's and women's ice hockey teams. Pittsburgh is once again being called the "City of Champions" as its Steelers and Penguins are recent champions of the NFL and NHL in 2009; these accomplishments and others helped Pittsburgh earn the title of "Best Sports City" in 2009 from the Sporting News. Including the 2008–09 seasons, the Steelers have reached the NFL playoffs in six of the last eight seasons—winning two Super Bowl titles—and the Penguins have reached the NHL playoffs the last four years with back-to-back finals appearances, an Atlantic Division Crown, a Stanley Cup championship, none of which won at home.
The flag of Pittsburgh is colored with black and gold, based on the colors of William Pitt's coat of arms. The city's first National Hockey League franchise, the Pittsburgh Pirates were the first to wear black and gold as their colors; the colors were adopted by founder of the Pittsburgh Steelers, Art Rooney, in 1933. In 1948, the Pittsburgh baseball Pirates switched their colors from blue to black and gold. Pittsburgh's second NHL franchise, the Pittsburgh Penguins, wore blue and white, due to then-general manager Jack Riley's upbringing in Ontario. In 1979, after the Steelers and Pirates had each won their respective league championships, the Penguins altered their color scheme to match, despite objections from the Boston Bruins, who has used the black and gold combination since the 1934-35 NHL season. In 1975, late Steelers radio broadcaster Myron Cope invented the Terrible Towel, which has become "arguably the best-known fan symbol of any major pro sports team." Cope was one of multiple sports figures born in its surrounding area.
Pittsburgh is sometimes called the "Cradle of Quarterbacks" due to the number of prominent players of that position who hail from the area, including NFL greats Jim Kelly, George Blanda, Johnny Unitas, Joe Namath, Dan Marino, Joe Montana. The City of Pittsburgh has had various professional sports franchises throughout its history and today is home to three teams competing at the highest professional level in their respective sports: the Pittsburgh Steelers of the NFL, the Pittsburgh Penguins of the NHL, the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball. Prior to 1876, three amateur Pittsburgh baseball teams—the Enterprise, the Xanthas, the Olympics—competed, most at Recreation Park. On April 15, 1876, Recreation Park was the site of a game between the Xanthas and the Pittsburgh Alleghenies, an unrelated forerunner to the "Alleghenys" team which would be renamed the Pirates; the Alleghenies won the game 7–3. The 1877 squad was the most successful yet, finishing within 1 game of the pennant in the International Association.
1882 marked the first "major league" and professional season for the Pittsburgh Alleghenies and in 1887, the Alleghenies moved from American Association to the National League after owner William Nimick became frustrated over a contract dispute. The Pirates were purchased in 1900 by Barney Dreyfuss, who would go down in history as the "Father of the modern World Series" and its precursor, the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, both of which saw the Pirates participate in the inaugural series, he recruited Hall of Famers Fred Clarke and Pittsburgh native Honus Wagner and built the first concrete and steel baseball stadium, Forbes Field. Under Dreyfuss, the Pirates won pre-World Series world titles in 1901 and 1902, National League pennants from 1901–1903, 1909, 1925 and 1927 and World Series in 1909 and 1925; the 1902 squad set major league records for winning percentage and today is the second most winning team fielded in the sport. The franchise won the World Series three more times—in 1960, 1971, 1979.
In 1960, the team became the first to win a World Series on a home run, remain the only team to win on a homer in the decisive seventh game. In 1979, the Pirates repeated the accomplishment their own 1925 World Series team, coming back from a 1-game to 3 deficit, winning three games in a row when facing elimination, for the title, thus the Pirates became the only franchise in the history of all sports to win world titles more than once when coming back from a 1–3 deficit. The 1979 Pirates are unique in that they are the only team in all sports to have players who captured all four MVP awards: Seasonal, All Star Game, NLCS, World Series within a single season. Since 1970 the team has won their division and qualified for the playoffs nine times
Name of Pittsburgh
The name of the city of Pittsburgh, has a complicated history. Pittsburgh is one of the few U. S. cities or towns to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. Pittsburgh was named in honor of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham referred to as William Pitt the Elder to distinguish him from his son William Pitt the Younger; the suffix burgh is the Scots language and Scottish English cognate of the English language borough, which has other cognates in words and place names in several Indo-European languages. This morpheme was used in place names to describe a location as being defensible, such as a hill, a fort, or a fortified settlement. Pittsburgh was captured by British forces during the French and Indian War; the earliest known reference to the new name of the settlement is in a letter sent from General John Forbes to William Pitt the Elder, dated 27 November 1758, notifying Pitt that his name had been given to the place. In that letter, the spelling is given as "Pittsbourgh." As a Scotsman, General Forbes pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə, similar to the pronunciation of "Edinburgh" as a Scotsman would say it: ED-in-bər-ə.
The first recorded reference using the current spelling is found on a survey map made for the Penn family in 1769. In the city charter, granted on March 18, 1816, the Pittsburgh spelling is used on the original document, but due to an apparent printing error, the final'h' is omitted on official copies of the document printed at the time. Before the federal government endorsed the Pittsburg spelling in 1891, that orthographic variant was well-attested, its use by The Pittsburg Dispatch newspaper, for example, dates back at least to 1847. The city's name is misspelled as Pittsburg because innumerable cities and towns in America make use of the German -burg suffix, while few make use of the Scottish -burgh suffix; this problem is compounded by the fact that from 1891 to 1911, the spelling of the city's name was federally recognized as Pittsburg. In 1890, the United States Board on Geographic Names was created to establish uniform place name usage throughout the various departments and agencies of the federal government.
To guide its standardization efforts, the Board adopted thirteen general principles, one of, that place names ending in -burgh should drop the final -h. The Board compiled a report of place name "decisions" in 1891 in which the city's name was rendered Pittsburg. In support of its decision favoring the Pittsburg spelling, the Board referenced the printed copies of the 1816 city charter which featured that same spelling. Based on those copies of the city charter, the Board claimed that the official name of the city had always been Pittsburg. However, the members of the board seem to have been unaware that the original copy of the 1816 charter specified the name of the city to be Pittsburgh, that only the printed copies of the charter featured the erroneous spelling Pittsburg; the full decision and rationale from the Board follows: Pittsburg. Pennsylvania; the city was chartered in 1816, its name being spelled without the h, its official form is still Pittsburg. The h appears to have been added by the Post-Office Department, through that action local usage appears to have become divided.
While the majority of local newspapers print it without the h, certain others use the final h. The Board's decisions had effective power; the decisions were not, binding outside the federal government. Official city and state documents continued to use the old spelling, as did the Pittsburgh Gazette, the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange and the University of Pittsburgh. Responding to mounting pressure and, in the end, political pressure from senator George T. Oliver, the Board adopted the Pittsburgh spelling on July 19, 1911, reversing its previous decision on the matter; the letter sent to senator Oliver to announce this decision, dated July 20, stated: Hon. George T. Oliver, United States Senate: Sir: At a special meeting of the United States Geographic Board held on July 19, 1911, the previous decision with regard to the spelling of Pittsburgh without a final H was reconsidered and the form given below was adopted: Pittsburgh, a city in Pennsylvania. Respectfully, C. S. SLOAN, Secretary. Notwithstanding the Board's reversal, the'h'-less spelling variant remained in use for years.
Some local daily newspapers carried it in their titles until the early 1920s, when The Pittsburg Dispatch and The Pittsburg Leader ceased publication and The Pittsburg Press became The Pittsburgh Press. The confusion and controversy surrounding the alternative spellings means that both the Pittsburgh and the Pittsburg spelling were encountered around the turn of the 20th century, continued uses of Pittsburg still occur to this day. Many cities across the United States named after the city of Pittsburgh, such as Pittsburg, Pittsburg and West Pittsburg, continue to use the Pittsburg spelling in their names. Other independent municipalities, such as the borough of East Pittsburgh, reflect the modern spelling; the most familiar reference to the Pittsburg spelling is on the renowned 1909 T-206 baseball card of Pittsburgh Pirates legend Honus Wagner. Its scarcity at the time, combined with Wagner's reputation as one of the greatest players in baseball history, made it the most valuable sports card of all time, with one pristine specimen yielding $2.8 million at auction.
It has been characterized as the "Holy Grail" of baseball cards. The city name displayed across Wagner's jersey on the card was an artistic addition that did not appear on the Pirates' unifo