Boston butt, or pork butt, is the American name for a cut of pork that comes from the upper part of the shoulder from the front leg and may contain the blade bone. Boston butt is the most common cut used for pulled pork, a staple of barbecue in the southern United States. In the United Kingdom, Boston butt is known as pork shoulder on the bone, since regular pork shoulder has the bone removed and rolled and tied back into a joint. In pre-revolutionary New England and into the American Revolutionary War, New England butchers tended to take less prized cuts of pork like hams and shoulders and pack them into barrels for storage and transport, known as a butt, which comes from the Latin word "Buttis" meaning cask or barrel; this particular shoulder cut became known around the country as a Boston specialty, hence it became the "Boston butt". In the UK it is known as "pork hand and spring", or "pork hand", or, as noted above, "pork shoulder on the bone". In Latin American Spanish the cut is known as paleta de puerco, is the main ingredient in the Mexican dish carnitas and in the Caribbean dishes lechon asado and pernil.
In Mexican Spanish, this cut is known as the espaldilla. In Argentina, this cut is popular and is known as bondiola. In Korea, the cut is known as moksal
A gunstock or simply stock, the back portion of which known as a shoulder stock, a buttstock or a butt, is a part of a long gun that provides structural support, to which the barrelled action and firing mechanism are attached. The stock provides a means for the shooter to brace the gun and aim with stability by being held against the user's shoulder when shooting the gun, helps to counter muzzle rise by transmitting recoil straight into the shooter's body; the tiller of a crossbow is functionally the equivalent of the stock on a gun. The term stock in reference to firearms dates to 1571 is derived from the Germanic word Stock, meaning tree trunk, referring to the wooden nature of the gunstock. Early hand cannons used a simple stick fitted into a socket in the breech end to provide a handle; the modern gunstock shape began to evolve with the introduction of the arquebus, a matchlock with a longer barrel and an actual lock mechanism, unlike the hand-applied match of the hand cannon. Firing a hand cannon requires careful application of the match while aiming.
With both hands available to aim, the arquebus could be braced with the shoulder, giving rise to the basic gunstock shape that has survived for over 500 years. This improved the accuracy of the arquebus, to a level that would not be surpassed until the advent of rifled barrels; the stocks of muskets introduced during the European colonization of the Americas were repurposed as hand-to-hand war clubs by Native Americans and First Nations when fragile accessories were damaged or scarce ammunition exhausted. Techniques for gunstock hand weapons are being revived by martial arts such as Okichitaw. A gunstock is broadly divided into two parts; the rear portion is the front portion is the fore-end. The fore-end supports and affixes the receiver, relays the recoil impulse from the barrel; the butt interacts with the shooter's trigger hand while being braced against the shoulder for stability, is further divided into the comb, heel and grip. The stock pictured has a thumbhole style grip, which allows a more ergonomic vertical hold for the user's hand.
In some modern firearm designs, the lower receiver and handguard replace the fore-end stock, leaving only the butt portion for the stock. The most basic breakdown of stock types is into two-piece stocks. A one-piece stock is a single unit from butt to fore-end, such as that found on conventional bolt-action rifles. Two-piece stocks use a separate piece for the butt and fore-end, such as that found on break-action shotguns, lever-action rifles and shotguns. Traditionally, two-piece stocks were easier to make, since finding a wood blank suitable for a long one-piece stock is harder than finding short blanks for a two-piece stock. In traditional one-piece rifle stocks, the butt varies in styles between the "European" type, which has a drop at the heel to favor quick shooting using iron sights. There are in-between designs with a "halfway" heel drop where the front half of the buttstock stays leveled. Sliding or folding stocks are seen on military-grade weapons and their civilian-derived arms. A collapsible stock makes the weapon more compact for storage or transport, but is deployed before shooting for better control.
A butt hook, an attachment to the butt of the gun, put under the shooter's arm to prevent the rifle from pivoting forward from the weight of the barrel is sometimes used in competitive rifle shooting. These stocks are used on combat shotguns like the Franchi SPAS-12 to allow the stock to collapse when not in use; the grip area is held by the shooter's trigger hand during firing, is the part of the butt that connects with the fore-end. The back part of the grip is called the tang. Many grips have roughened textures or finger grooves engraved into the sides to increase the firmness of the shooter's hold; some grips have a thumb rest carved near the tang to give a more ergonomic hold for the trigger finger. The grip varies in styles. A straight grip stock proceeds smoothly from toe to the trigger, giving a nearly horizontal holding angle for the trigger hand, while a full pistol grip stock contains a separate stand-out grip piece, providing a nearly vertical angle for the trigger hand for maximal ergonomics, is found on modern military rifles such as the ubiquitous AK-47 and M16 families of assault rifles.
In between the two extremes, the semi-grip stock is the most common sporting rifle stock, with a steeper angle cut into the stock to provide a more diagonal angle for the trigger hand. Modern target-style stocks have moved towards a fuller, more vertical grip, though built into the stock rather than made as a separate piece. Anschütz grip stocks, for example, use a nearly vertical grip, many thumbhole grip stocks are similar to pistol grips in shape; the comb is another area of wide variation. Since the comb must support the shooter's cheek at a height that aligns the aiming eye with the weapon's sights, higher sights such as telescopic sights require higher combs; the simplest form is a straight comb, the default form seen in all traditional rifles with iron sights. The Monte Carlo comb is found on stocks designed for use with scopes, features an elevated comb to lift the cheek higher, while keeping the heel of the stock low. If the el
An electrical crimp is a type of solderless electrical connection. Crimp connectors are used to terminate stranded wire; the benefits of crimping over soldering and wire-wrapping include: A well-engineered and well-executed crimp is designed to be gas-tight, which prevents oxygen and moisture from reaching the metals and causing corrosion. Because no alloy is used the joint is mechanically stronger. Crimped connections can be used for cables of both small and large cross-sections, whereas only small cross-section wires can be used with wire-wrap. Crimping is performed by first inserting the terminal into the crimp tool; the terminal must be placed into the appropriately sized crimp barrel. The wire is inserted into the terminal with the end of the wire flush with the exit of the terminal to maximize cross-sectional contact; the handles of the crimp tool are used to compress and reshape the terminal until it is cold-welded onto the wire. The resulting connection may appear loose at the edges of the terminal, but this is desirable so as to not have sharp edges that could cut the outer strands of the wire.
If executed properly, the middle of the crimp will be cold-formed. More specialized crimp connectors are used, for example as signal connectors on coaxial cables in applications at high radio frequencies. According to one of the crimp tool manufacturers, the development of standardized crimp tools and procedures occurred on this timeline. 1940's All terminations were soldered 1953 AMP introduced Crimp Barrel Terminals 1957 Cannon Brothers experimented with Machined Contacts with Crimp Barrels 1960 Buchanan introduced the MS3191-1 4 Indent Crimp Tool with a Ratchet 1963 MS3191-1 was published as the first Crimp Tool Standard 1965 MS3191-4 introduced by Daniels Manufacturing Corporation 1969 MIL-T-22520 published and dated to replace all previous specifications 1974 Changed to MIL-C-22520, many Slash Sheets added 1996 Changed to MIL-DTL-22520 2010 Changed to AS22520 Insulated vs. Non-Insulated terminals wire crimp vs. insulation crimp C crimp D crimp F crimp designed and named by AMP Incorporated, used only on non-insulated connectors, such as Packard 56, Weather Pack, Metri Pack O crimp W crimp Overlap/OVL crimp Oval crimp Four-Mandrel crimp Mandrel crimp Mandrel crimp-narrow Hexagonal crimp Mandrel crimp Square crimp Trapezoidal crimp Trapezoidal indent crimp Trapezoidal crimp front Tyco crimp Western crimp A crimped connection will only be reliable if a number of criteria are met: All strands have been deformed enough, into a trapezoidal shape, to cold-flow into the terminal body The compression force is not too light, nor too strong The connector body is not overly deformed Wires must be in solid working condition, cannot have scrapes, severing or other damages Insulation should not show any signs of pinching, fraying, discoloration, or charring Large voids are not left inside the crimp The wire should have as many strands as possible, so that a few damaged or uninserted wires will not adversely affect the crimp density, thus degrade the electrical and mechanical properties of the connection.
Various examples of good and bad crimps exist. These provide a micrograph of the crimped connection, an assembled connection, cut in cross-section and polished. ETCO Crimp Gallery Cross Sectioning A wide variety of crimpers exist, they are designed for a specific type and size of terminal, they fulfill numerous uses, including allowing the wires to be terminated to screw terminals, fast-on / quick-disconnect / spade-foot type terminals, wire splices, or various combinations of these. A tube-shaped connector with two crimps for splicing wires in-line is called a butt splice connector. Crimp-on connectors are attached by inserting the stripped end of a stranded wire into a portion of the connector, mechanically deformed / compressed around the wire; the crimping is accomplished with special crimping pliers. A key idea behind crimped connectors is. Crimped connections fulfill similar roles, may be thought of to soldered connections. There are complex considerations for determining which type is appropriate - crimp connections are sometimes preferred for these reasons: Easier, cheaper, or faster to reproduce reliable connections in large-scale production.
Fewer dangerous, toxic or harmful processes involved in achieving the connection. Superior mechanical characteristics due to strain relief and lack of solder wicking. Two main classes of crimped terminals exist. Barrel connectors have a cylindrical opening for wire, the crimp tool deforms the circular shape into one of the above named styles. Open-barrel terminals have "ears" of metal that are shaped like a V or U, the crimp terminal bends and folds them over the wire prior to swaging the wire to the terminal. Open-barrel terminals are claimed to be easier to automate because of avoiding the need to funnel stranded wire into the narrow opening of a barrel terminal. Crimp connections are used to fix connectors, such as BNC connectors, to coaxial cables as an alternative to soldered connections; the male connector is crimp-fitted to a cable, the female attached using soldered connections, to a panel on equipment. A special power or manual tool is used to fit the connector. Wire strippers which strip outer jacket, shield braid, inner insulation to the correct len
A rainwater tank is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff from rooftops via pipes. Rainwater tanks are devices for maintaining harvested rain. A rainwater catchment or collection system can yield 2,358 litres of water from 2.54 cm of rain on a 92.9 m2 roof. Rainfall Catchment Equation: Catchment Area x Event Rainfall Depth x 0.623 Conversion Factor = Gallons of Potential Rainwater Collected*Note this equation is for U. S. imperial measurements. Rainwater tanks are installed to make use of rain water for use, reduce mains water use for economic or environmental reasons, aid self-sufficiency. Stored water may be used for watering gardens, flushing toilets, in washing machines, washing cars, for drinking when other water supplies are unavailable, expensive, or of poor quality, when adequate care is taken that the water is not contaminated and is adequately filtered. Underground rainwater tanks can be used for retention of stormwater for release at a time and offer a variety of benefits described in more detail below.
In arid climates, rain barrels are used to store water during the rainy season for use during dryer periods. Rainwater tanks may have a high initial cost. However, many homes use small scale rain barrels to harvest minute quantities of water for landscaping/gardening applications rather than as a potable water surrogate; these small rain barrels recycled from food storage and transport barrels or, in some cases and wine aging barrels, are inexpensive. There are many low cost designs that use locally available materials and village level technologies for applications in developing countries where there are limited alternatives for potable drinking water. While most are properly engineered to screen out mosquitoes, the lack of proper filtering or closed loop systems may create breeding grounds for larvae. With tanks used for drinking water, the user runs a health risk. If rainwater is used for drinking, it is filtered first. Filtration may remove pathogens. While rain water is pure it may become contaminated during collection or by collection of particulate matter in the air as it falls.
While rain water does not contain chlorine, contamination from airborne pollutants, which settles onto rooftops, may be a risk in urban or industrial areas. Many water suppliers and health authorities, such as the New South Wales Department of Health, do not advise using rainwater for drinking when there is an alternative mains water supply available. However, reports of illness associated with rainwater tanks are infrequent, public health studies in South Australia have not identified a correlation. Rainwater is considered fit to drink if it smells and looks fine. Australian standards may differ from other places in the world where rainwater is used for drinking water. In the United States, rainwater is being used throughout the country for various purposes. In the semi-arid western state of New Mexico, for instance, many residents in the Taos and Santa Fe areas in particular use rainwater either for landscaping purposes or all household uses; the "smells and looks fine" standard used in the above paragraph is not an absolute indicator of rainwater safety.
Most people who are rainwater users for potable purposes in the USA make certain that their water is safe through filtration, ultraviolet sterilization, testing. Certain paints and roofing materials may cause contamination. In particular, a Melbourne Water publication advises. Tar-based coatings are not recommended, as they affect the taste of the water. Zinc can be a source of contamination in some paints, as well as galvanized iron or zincalume roofs when new, should not collect water for potable use. Roofs painted with acrylic paints may have other chemicals dissolve in the runoff. Runoff from fibrous cement roofs should be discarded for an entire winter, due to leaching of lime. Chemically treated timbers and lead flashing should not be used in roof catchments. Rainwater should not be collected from parts of the roof incorporating flues from wood burners without a high degree of filtration. Overflows or discharge pipes from roof-mounted appliances such as air-conditioners or hot-water systems should not have their discharge feed into a rainwater tank.
"Copper Poisoning", a 2010 news article, linked copper poisoning to plastic tanks. The article indicated that rainwater was collected and stored in plastic tanks and that the tank did nothing to mitigate the low pH; the water was brought into homes by copper piping. The copper caused poisoning in humans, it is important to note that, while the plastic tank is an inert container, the collected acid rain could and should be analysed and pH adjusted before being brought into a domestic water supply system. The solution is to monitor stored rainwater with swimming pool strips and available at swimming pool supply outlets. If the water
A cigarette known colloquially as a fag in British English, is a narrow cylinder containing psychoactive material tobacco, rolled into thin paper for smoking. Most cigarettes contain a "reconstituted tobacco" product known as "sheet", which consists of "recycled stems, scraps, collected dust, floor sweepings", to which are added glue and fillers; the cigarette is ignited at one end, causing it to smolder and allowing smoke to be inhaled from the other end, held in or to the mouth. Most modern cigarettes are filtered. Cigarette manufacturers have described cigarettes as a drug administration system for the delivery of nicotine in acceptable and attractive form. Cigarettes are addictive and cause cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, other health problems; the term cigarette, as used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but is sometimes used to refer to other substances, such as a cannabis cigarette. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, paper wrapping, white.
Cigar wrappers are composed of tobacco leaf or paper dipped in tobacco extract. Smoking rates have declined in the developed world, but continue to rise in developing nations. Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive. About half of cigarette smokers lose on average 14 years of life. Cigarette use by pregnant women has been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes causes many of the same health problems as smoking, including cancer, which has led to legislation and policy that has prohibited smoking in many workplaces and public areas. Cigarette smoke contains over 7,000 chemical compounds, including arsenic, cyanide, nicotine, carbon monoxide and other poisonous substances. Over 70 of these are carcinogenic. Additionally, cigarettes are a frequent source of mortality-associated fires in private homes, which prompted both the European Union and the United States to ban cigarettes that are not fire-standard compliant from 2011 onwards.
The earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes; the Maya, the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean and Central and South America until recent times; the North American, Central American, South American cigarette used various plant wrappers. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goya's paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, El juego de la pelota a pala. By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France; the French word was adopted by English in the 1840s. Some American reformers promoted the spelling cigaret, but this was never widespread and is now abandoned; the first patented cigarette-making machine was invented by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847.
However, production climbed markedly when another cigarette-making machine was developed in the 1880s by James Albert Bonsack, which vastly increased the productivity of cigarette companies, which went from making about 40,000 hand-rolled cigarettes daily to around 4 million. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became widespread during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish comrades and Russian enemies, who had begun rolling and smoking tobacco in strips of old newspaper for lack of proper cigar-rolling leaf; this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have been used in a manner similar to pipes and cigarillos and not inhaled; as cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have become perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco and Latakia from their pipes.
The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita annual consumption in the U. S. was 54 cigarettes, consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time, about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691; the adverse health effects of cigarettes were known by the mid-19th century when they became known as coffins nails
The Flounder is a 1977 novel by the German writer Günter Grass. It is loosely based on the fairy tale "The Fisherman and His Wife". Grass said, "The Flounder is about women and food, but it is about women and war, including what women have done against war – mostly silence." Regarding his view on the human sexes and its influence on the novel, Grass said, "Most women who read the book all the way through like it. Those in the women's liberation movement who say there is no difference between men and women don't like it. I like the difference – I hate those who don't like the difference between men and women."The key theme of the book is of woman's historical contributions in both fact and fiction, ranging from the early goddesses of the matriarchial Stone Age society by the Vistula River, to the Grimm Brothers' fairy tale, "The Fisherman and His Wife", to the novel’s contemporary "women’s' libbers". The Flounder plays a central role as agent and provocateur in the cause of one or the other sex throughout.
Grass came up with the idea for the book while campaigning in the late 1960s for the politician Willy Brandt. He said that during the campaign, he was "constantly being bombarded by second-hand language." He got an urge to write what would become The Flounder, took five years to complete the novel. He rewrote the more than 500-page novel three times. Grass has said his structure of nine chapters was deliberate, to "pay homage to the nine months of pregnancy." At the same time, he has acknowledged tweaking some aspects of radical feminism. The novel was published in August 1977 with a first edition of 100,000 copies. One of Luchterhand's ways to market the book was to send out 4000 preview copies to selected people. Grass toured extensively with public readings of the book during the eight weeks leading up to the release; the book dominated the German bestseller chart for several months. By October 1977, nearly 250,000 copies had been sold. An English translation by Ralph Manheim was published in the United Kingdom and United States in November 1978.
William Cloonan of Boston Review wrote that The Flounder marks a new direction in Grass' writing because it is not concerned with World War II like the author's previous books: But Grass's other concerns, his strengths, weaknesses, are much in evidence. Foremost among them is the tension between his artistic instincts; the Flounder is Grass's teacher par excellence and with him the question, hinted at in Local Anaesthetic,'can one trust one's teacher,' is explicit." Cloonan wrote: "With the Flounder, Gunter Grass creates a character whose combination of intelligence, self-irony, curiosity makes him the equal of Oskar. Indeed, there is much brilliant writing in The Flounder. For a writer justly famous for extended humorous and grotesque scenes, Grass has a flair for one-liners. Herbert Mitgang of the New York Times noted that the novel was about "women and the state of the world" and since all are controversial, so was the reaction to Grass' novel, it defies an easy summary, as the narrator tells of his many lives as a husband, including as a lover to 11 women cooks.
1977 in literature German literature Notes BibliographyMews, Siegfried. Günter Grass and his critics: from The tin drum to Crabwalk. Rochester, New York: Camden House Publishing. Pp. 137–143. ISBN 978-1-57113-062-4
A cigarette filter known as a filter tip, is a component of a cigarette, along with cigarette paper and adhesives. It does not make cigarettes less unhealthy; the filter may be made from paper or activated charcoal. Macroporous phenol-formaldehyde resins and asbestos have been used in cigarette filters; the acetate and paper modify the particulate smoke phase by particle retention, finely divided carbon modifies the gaseous phase. Filters can reduce "tar" and nicotine smoke yields up to 50%, with a greater removal rate for other classes of compounds, but are ineffective in filtering toxins such as carbon monoxide. Most of these measured reductions occur only. Most factory-made cigarettes are equipped with a filter; the near-universal adoption of filters on cigarettes has not reduced harms to smokers and lung cancer rates have not declined. Filling a given length of cigarette with filter is cheaper than filling it with tobacco. In 1925, Hungarian inventor Boris Aivaz patented the process of making a cigarette filter from crepe paper.
From 1935, a British company began to develop a machine that made cigarettes incorporating the tipped filter. It was considered a specialty item until 1954, when manufacturers introduced the machine more broadly, following a spate of speculative announcements from doctors and researchers concerning a possible link between lung diseases and smoking. Since filtered cigarettes were considered "safer", by the 1960s, they dominated the market. Production of filter cigarettes rose from 0.5 percent in 1950 to 87.7 percent by 1975. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, most cigarettes were 70 mm long; the modern cigarette market includes filter cigarettes that are 80 mm, 85 mm, 100 mm, or 120 mm long. Cigarettes filters were made of cork and used to prevent tobacco flakes from getting on the smokers' tongue. Many are still patterned to look like cork. Cellulose acetate is made by esterifying bleached wood pulp with acetic acid. Of the three cellulose hydroxy groups available for esterification, between two and three are esterified by controlling the amount of acid.
The ester is spun into fibers and formed into bundles called filter tow. Flavors, softeners, flame retardants, breakable capsules releasing flavors on demand, additives colouring the tobacco smoke may be added to cigarette filters; the five largest manufactures of filter tow are Hoechst-Celanese and Eastman Chemicals in the United States, Rhodia Acetow in Germany and Mitsubishi Rayon in Japan. Starch glues or emulsion-based adhesives are used for gluing cigarette seams. Hot-melt and emulsion-based adhesives are used for filter seams. Emulsion-based adhesives are used for bonding the filters to the cigarettes; the tip paper may be coated with polyvinyl alcohol. In the 1970s epidemiologic evidence relative to tobacco-related cancers and data for coronary heart disease indicated a reduced risk among filter smokers for these diseases. Between 1970 and 1980 some studies showed a 20-50% reduction in risk of lung cancer for long-term smokers of filtered cigarettes as compared to smokers of non-filtered cigarettes but studies indicated a similar risk for lung cancer in smokers of filtered and non-filtered cigarettes.
Various add-on cigarette filters are sold as tar-reduction devices. The idea is that filters reduce tar-nicotine levels permitting the smoker to be weaned away from cigarettes; the tobacco industry has reduced nicotine yields in cigarette smoke since the 1960s. This has been achieved in a variety of ways including use of selected strains of tobacco plant, changes in agricultural and curing procedures, use of reconstituted sheets, incorporation of tobacco stalks, reduction of the amount of tobacco needed to fill a cigarette by expanding it to increase its "filling power", by the use of filters and high-porosity wrapping papers. However, just as a drinker tends to drink a larger volume of beer than of wine or spirits, so many smokers tend to modify their smoking pattern inversely according to the strength of the cigarette being smoked. In contrast to the standardized puffing of the smoking machines on which the tar and nicotine yields are based, when a smoker switches to a low-tar, low nicotine cigarette, they smoke more cigarettes, take more puffs and inhale more deeply.
Conversely, when smoking a high-tar, high-nicotine cigarette there is a tendency to smoke and inhale less. In spite of the changes in cigarette design and manufacturing over the last 50 years, the use of filters and "light" cigarettes neither decreased the nicotine intake per cigarette, nor lowered the incidence of lung cancers; the shift over the years from higher- to lower-yield cigarettes may explain the change in the pathology of lung cancer. That is, the percentage of lung cancers that are adenocarcinomas has increased, while the percentage of squamous cell cancers has decreased; the change in tumor type is believed to reflect the higher nitrosamine delivery of lower-yield cigarettes and the increased depth or volume of inhalation of lower-yield cigarettes to compensate for lower level concentrations of nicotine in the smoke. Cellulose acetate is non-toxic, odorless and weakly fla