Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste. The term referred to a drink brewed without hops; as with most beers, ale has a bittering agent to balance the malt and act as a preservative. Ale was bittered with gruit, a mixture of herbs or spices boiled in the wort before fermentation. Hops replaced gruit as the bittering agent. Ale was an important source of nutrition in the medieval world, it was one of three main sources of grains in the medieval diet, along with pottage and breads. Scholars believe grains accounted for around 80% of the calorie intake of agricultural workers and 75% for soldiers. Nobles received around 65% of their calories from grains. Small beer known as table beer or mild beer, nutritious, contained just enough alcohol to act as a preservative, provided hydration without intoxicating effects. Small beer would have been consumed daily by everyone, including children, in the medieval world, with higher-alcohol ales served for recreational purposes.
The lower cost for proprietors combined with the lower taxes levied on small beer led to the selling of beer labeled "strong beer", diluted with small beer. In medieval times, ale may have been safer to drink than most water; the alcohol and some ingredients in gruit used to preserve some ales may have contributed to their lower load of pathogens, when compared to water. However, ale was safer due to the hours of boiling required in production, not the alcoholic content of the finished beverage. Records from the Middle Ages show. In 1272 a husband and wife who retired at Selby Abbey were given 2 gallons of ale per day with two loaves of white bread and one loaf of brown bread. Monks at Westminster Abbey consumed 1 gallon of ale each day. In 1299, Henry de Lacy's household purchased an average of 85 gallons of ale daily and in 1385-6 Framlingham Castle consumed 78 gallons per day. Brewing ale in the Middle Ages was a local industry pursued by women. Brewsters, or alewives, would brew in the home for both domestic consumption and small scale commercial sale.
Brewsters provided a substantial supplemental income for families. The word ale is related to the Old English alu or ealu, it is believed to stem from Proto-Indo-European root *alu-, through Proto-Germanic *aluth-. This is a cognate of Old Saxon alo, Norwegian, Swedish and Old Norse öl/øl, Finnish olut, Estonian õlu, Old Bulgarian olu cider, Slovenian ol, Old Prussian alu, Lithuanian alus, Latvian alus. Ale is fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24 °C. At temperatures above 24 °C the yeast can produce significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, the result is a beer with "fruity" compounds resembling those found in fruits such as, but not limited to: apple, pineapple, plum, cherry, or prune. Brown ales tend to be hopped, mildly flavoured with a nutty taste. In the south of England they are dark brown, around quite sweet and palatable. English brown ales first appeared in the early 1901s, with Manns Brown Ale and Newcastle Brown Ale as the best-known examples.
The style became popular with homebrewers in North America in the early 1980s. Pale ale was a term used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke had been first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term pale ale was first used. By 1784 advertisements were appearing in the Calcutta Gazette for "excellent" pale ale. By 1830 onward the expressions bitter and pale ale were synonymous. Breweries would tend to designate beers as pale ale, though customers would refer to the same beers as bitter, it is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porter and mild. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labelling bottled beers as pale ale, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitter, except those from Burton on Trent, which are called pale ales regardless of the method of dispatch. In the nineteenth century, the Bow Brewery in England exported beer to India, including a pale ale that benefited from the duration of the voyage and was regarded among consumers in India.
To avoid spoilage and other brewers added extra hops as a natural preservative. This beer was the first of a style of export ale that became known as India Pale Ale or IPA. Developed in hope of winning the younger people away from drinking lager in favour of cask ales, it is quite similar to pale ale yet there are some notable differences—it is paler, brewed with lager or low temperature ale malts and it is served at colder temperatures; the strength of golden ales varies from 3.5% to 5.3%. While the full range of ales are produced in Scotland, the term Scotch ale is used internationally to denote a malty, strong ale, amber-to-dark red in colour; the malt may be caramelised to impart toffee notes. The classic styles are Light and Export referred to as 60/-, 70/- and 80/- dating bac
A hogshead is a large cask of liquid. More it refers to a specified volume, measured in either imperial or US customary measures applied to alcoholic beverages, such as wine, ale, or cider. A tobacco hogshead was used in American colonial times to transport and store tobacco, it was a large wooden barrel. A standardized hogshead 30 inches in diameter at the head. Packed with tobacco, it weighed about 1,000 pounds. A dogshead contains about 300 L; the Oxford English Dictionary notes that the hogshead was first standardized by an act of Parliament in 1423, though the standards continued to vary by locality and content. For example, the OED cites an 1897 edition of Whitaker's Almanack, which specified the number of gallons of wine in a hogshead varying by type of wine: claret 46 imperial gallons, port 57 imperial gallons, sherry 54 imperial gallons; the American Heritage Dictionary claims that a hogshead can consist of anything from 62.5 to 140 US gallons. A hogshead of wine came to be 63 US gallons, while a hogshead of beer or ale is 64 gallons.
A hogshead was used as unit of measurement for sugar in Louisiana for most of the 19th century. Plantations were listed in sugar schedules as having produced x number of hogsheads of sugar or molasses. A hogshead was used for the measurement of herring fished for sardines in Blacks Harbour, New Brunswick; the etymology of hogshead is uncertain. According to English philologist Walter William Skeat, the origin is to be found in the name for a cask or liquid measure appearing in various forms in several Germanic languages, in Dutch oxhooft, Danish oxehoved, Old Swedish oxhufvod, etc; the word should therefore be "hogshead" being a mere corruption. It has been suggested that the name arose from the branding of such a measure with the head of an ox. A hogshead of Madeira wine was equal to 45–48 gallons m3. A hogshead of brandy was equal to 56–61 gallons m3. English units of wine casks
English wine cask units
Capacities of wine casks were measured and standardised according to a specific system of English units. The various units were defined in terms of the wine gallon so varied according to the definition of the gallon until the adoption of the Queen Anne wine gallon in 1707. In the United Kingdom and its colonies the units were redefined with the introduction of the imperial system whilst the Queen Anne wine gallon was adopted as the standard US liquid gallon; the major wine producing countries use barrels extensively and have developed standards at variance with the traditional English volumes are used in the wine and wine cooperage industries. Examples include a hogshead of 300 L, a barrique of 220 L, a barrel of 225 L, a barrel of 230 L and a puncheon of 465 L. TunThe tun is an English unit of liquid volume, used for measuring wine, oil or honey. A large vat or vessel, most holding 252 wine gallons, but other sizes were used. In one example from 1507, a tun is defined as 240 gallons. Early Modern English: "He that ys a gawner owght to understonde there ys in a tunne lx systerns and every systern ys iiii galons be yt wyne or oylle."Translation: "He, a gauger ought to understand that there is in a tunne 60 sesters, every sester is 4 gallons, be it wine or oil."
Pipe or buttThe butt or pipe was 1008 pints. Tradition has it that George, Duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV of England, was drowned in a butt of malmsey on 18 February 1478. In Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Cask of Amontillado", the narrator claims he has received "a pipe of what passes for Amontillado". In Edward Bulwer-Lytton's novel "Paul Clifford", Lord Mauleverer states to Lawyer William Brandon "Because he sent me, in the handsomest manner possible, a pipe of that wonderful Madeira, which you know I consider the chief grace of my cellars, he gave up a canal navigation bill, which would have enriched his whole county, when he knew that it would injure my property." Puncheon or tertianThe puncheon was a third of a tun. The term puncheon, shortened to pon in the United States, is thought to derive from the fact that it would have been marked by use of a punch to denote its contents; the unit was known as a tertian. Hogshead Of comparable size to the beer hogshead, the wine hogshead was equal to half a butt or a quarter of a tun.
Tierce Closely related to the modern oil barrel, the tierce was half a puncheon, a third of a butt or a sixth of a tun. BarrelThe wine barrel was half a wine hogshead or an eighth of a tun. RundletThe rundlet was a fourteenth of a tun; the tun was defined as 256 wine gallons. At some time before the 15th century, it was reduced to 252 gallons, so as to be evenly divisible by other small integers, including seven. Note that a 252-gallon tun of wine has an approximate mass of one long ton. With the adoption of the Queen Anne wine gallon of 231 cubic inches the tun approximated the volume of a cylinder with both diameter and height of 42 inches; these were adopted as the standard US liquid gallon and tun. When the imperial system was introduced the tun was redefined in the UK and colonies as 210 imperial gallons; the imperial tun remained evenly divisible by small integers. There was little change in the actual value the tun
The gallon is a unit of measurement for volume and fluid capacity in both the US customary units and the British imperial systems of measurement. Three different sizes are in current use: the imperial gallon defined as 4.54609 litres, used in the United Kingdom and some Caribbean nations. The IEEE standard symbol for the gallon is gal; the gallon has one definition in the imperial system, two definitions in the US customary system. There were many definitions and redefinitions. There were more than a few systems of liquid measurements in the pre-1884 United Kingdom. Winchester or Corn Gallon was 272 in3 Henry VII corn gallon from 1497 onwards was 154.80 fl oz Elizabeth I corn gallon from 1601 onwards was 155.70 fl oz William III corn gallon from 1697 onwards was 156.90 fl oz Old English Ale Gallon was 282 in3 Old English Wine Gallon was standardized as 231 in3 in the 1706 Act 5 Anne c27, but it differed before that: London'Guildhall' gallon was 129.19 fl oz Jersey gallon was 139.20 fl oz Guernsey gallon was 150.14 fl oz Irish Gallon was 217 in3 The imperial gallon, now defined as 4.54609 litres, is used in some Commonwealth countries and was based on the volume of 10 pounds of water at 62 °F.
The imperial fluid ounce is defined as 1/160 of an imperial gallon. The US gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches, 3.785411784 litres. A US liquid gallon of water weighs about 8.34 pounds or 3.78 kilograms at 62 °F, making it about 16.6% lighter than the imperial gallon. There are four quarts in a gallon, two pints in a quart and 16 US fluid ounces in a US pint, which makes the US fluid ounce equal to 1/128 of a US gallon. In order to overcome the effects of expansion and contraction with temperature when using a gallon to specify a quantity of material for purposes of trade, it is common to define the temperature at which the material will occupy the specified volume. For example, the volume of petroleum products and alcoholic beverages are both referenced to 60 °F in government regulations; this dry measure is one-eighth of a US Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches. The US dry gallon is not used in commerce, is not listed in the relevant statute, which jumps from the dry quart to the peck.
Gallons used in fuel economy expression in Canada and the United Kingdom are imperial gallons. Despite its status as a U. S. territory, unlike American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands and the U. S. Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico ceased selling gasoline by the US gallon in 1980; the gallon was removed from the list of defined primary units of measure catalogued in the EU directive 80/181/EEC for trading and official purposes, with effect from 31 December 1994. Under the directive the gallon could still be used – but only as a supplementary or secondary unit. One of the effects of this directive was that the United Kingdom amended its own legislation to replace the gallon with the litre as a primary unit of measure in trade and in the conduct of public business, effective from 30 September 1995. Ireland passed legislation in response to the EU directive, with the effective date being 31 December 1993. Though the gallon has ceased to be the defined primary unit, it can still be used in both the UK and Ireland as a supplementary unit.
The United Arab Emirates started selling gasoline by the litre in 2010, along with Guyana, Panama in 2013. The two former had used the latter the US gallon until they switched. Myanmar switched from Imperial gallon to litre sales before 2014; the Imperial gallon continues to be used as a unit of measure in Anguilla and Barbuda, the Bahamas, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines. Other than the United States, the US gallon is used in Liberia, Colombia, The Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras and Peru, but only for the sale of gasoline. All other products are sold in its multiples and submultiples. Antigua and Barbuda planned to switch over to using litres by 2015, but as of 2018 the switch-over had not been effected. In the Turks & Caicos Islands, both the U. S. gallon and Imperial gallon are used, due to an increase in tax duties disguised by levying the same duty on the 3.79 L U. S. gallon as was levied on the 4.55 L Imperial gallon.
Both the US liquid and imperial gallon are divided into four quarts, which in turn are divided into two pints. These pints are divided into two cups, thus a gallon is equal to four quarts, sixteen cups or thirty-two gills. The imperial gill is further divided into five fluid ounces, whereas the US gill is divided into four fluid ounces, thus an imperial fluid ounce is 1/20 of an imperial pint or 1/160 of an im
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, safety, repeatability, or quality. It can facilitate commoditization of custom processes. In social sciences, including economics, the idea of standardization is close to the solution for a coordination problem, a situation in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions; this view includes the case of "spontaneous standardization processes", to produce de facto standards. Standard weights and measures were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization; the centralized weight and measure system served the commercial interest of Indus merchants as smaller weight measures were used to measure luxury goods while larger weights were employed for buying bulkier items, such as food grains etc.
Weights existed in categories. Technical standardisation enabled gauging devices to be used in angular measurement and measurement for construction. Uniform units of length were used in the planning of towns such as Lothal, Kalibangan, Dolavira and Mohenjo-daro; the weights and measures of the Indus civilization reached Persia and Central Asia, where they were further modified. Shigeo Iwata describes the excavated weights unearthed from the Indus civilization: A total of 558 weights were excavated from Mohenjodaro and Chanhu-daro, not including defective weights, they did not find statistically significant differences between weights that were excavated from five different layers, each measuring about 1.5 m in depth. This was evidence; the 13.7-g weight seems to be one of the units used in the Indus valley. The notation was based on decimal systems. 83% of the weights which were excavated from the above three cities were cubic, 68% were made of chert. The implementation of standards in industry and commerce became important with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the need for high-precision machine tools and interchangeable parts.
Henry Maudslay developed the first industrially practical screw-cutting lathe in 1800. This allowed for the standardisation of screw thread sizes for the first time and paved the way for the practical application of interchangeability to nuts and bolts. Before this, screw threads were made by chipping and filing. Nuts were rare. Metal bolts passing through wood framing to a metal fastening on the other side were fastened in non-threaded ways. Maudslay standardized the screw threads used in his workshop and produced sets of taps and dies that would make nuts and bolts to those standards, so that any bolt of the appropriate size would fit any nut of the same size; this was a major advance in workshop technology. Maudslay's work, as well as the contributions of other engineers, accomplished a modest amount of industry standardization. Joseph Whitworth's screw thread measurements were adopted as the first national standard by companies around the country in 1841, it came to be known as the British Standard Whitworth, was adopted in other countries.
This new standard specified a 55° thread angle and a thread depth of 0.640327p and a radius of 0.137329p, where p is the pitch. The thread pitch increased with diameter in steps specified on a chart. An example of the use of the Whitworth thread is the Royal Navy's Crimean War gunboats; these were the first instance of "mass-production" techniques being applied to marine engineering. With the adoption of BSW by British railway lines, many of which had used their own standard both for threads and for bolt head and nut profiles, improving manufacturing techniques, it came to dominate British manufacturing. American Unified Coarse was based on the same imperial fractions; the Unified thread angle has flattened crests. Thread pitch is the same in both systems except that the thread pitch for the 1⁄2 in bolt is 12 threads per inch in BSW versus 13 tpi in the UNC. By the end of the 19th century, differences in standards between companies, was making trade difficult and strained. For instance, an iron and steel dealer recorded his displeasure in The Times: "Architects and engineers specify such unnecessarily diverse types of sectional material or given work that anything like economical and continuous manufacture becomes impossible.
In this country no two professional men are agreed upon the size and weight of a girder to employ for given work." The Engineering Standards Committee was established in London in 1901 as the world's first national standards body. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929; the national standards were adopted universally throughout the country, enabled the markets to act more rationally and efficiently, with an increased level of cooperation. After the First World War, similar national bodies were established in other countries; the Deutsches Institut für Normung was set up in Germany in 1917, followed by its counterparts, the American National Standard Institute and the French Commissi
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. The scope and application of measurement are dependent on the discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal and ratio scales. Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science and quantitative research in many disciplines. Many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields; these were achieved by local agreements between trading partners or collaborators. Since the 18th century, developments progressed towards unifying accepted standards that resulted in the modern International System of Units.
This system reduces all physical measurements to a mathematical combination of seven base units. The science of measurement is pursued in the field of metrology; the measurement of a property may be categorized by the following criteria: type, magnitude and uncertainty. They enable unambiguous comparisons between measurements; the level of measurement is a taxonomy for the methodological character of a comparison. For example, two states of a property may be compared by difference, or ordinal preference; the type is not explicitly expressed, but implicit in the definition of a measurement procedure. The magnitude is the numerical value of the characterization obtained with a suitably chosen measuring instrument. A unit assigns a mathematical weighting factor to the magnitude, derived as a ratio to the property of an artifact used as standard or a natural physical quantity. An uncertainty represents the systemic errors of the measurement procedure. Errors are evaluated by methodically repeating measurements and considering the accuracy and precision of the measuring instrument.
Measurements most use the International System of Units as a comparison framework. The system defines seven fundamental units: kilogram, candela, ampere and mole. Six of these units are defined without reference to a particular physical object which serves as a standard, while the kilogram is still embodied in an artifact which rests at the headquarters of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres near Paris. Artifact-free definitions fix measurements at an exact value related to a physical constant or other invariable phenomena in nature, in contrast to standard artifacts which are subject to deterioration or destruction. Instead, the measurement unit can only change through increased accuracy in determining the value of the constant it is tied to; the first proposal to tie an SI base unit to an experimental standard independent of fiat was by Charles Sanders Peirce, who proposed to define the metre in terms of the wavelength of a spectral line. This directly influenced the Michelson–Morley experiment.
With the exception of a few fundamental quantum constants, units of measurement are derived from historical agreements. Nothing inherent in nature dictates that an inch has to be a certain length, nor that a mile is a better measure of distance than a kilometre. Over the course of human history, first for convenience and for necessity, standards of measurement evolved so that communities would have certain common benchmarks. Laws regulating measurement were developed to prevent fraud in commerce. Units of measurement are defined on a scientific basis, overseen by governmental or independent agencies, established in international treaties, pre-eminent of, the General Conference on Weights and Measures, established in 1875 by the Metre Convention, overseeing the International System of Units and having custody of the International Prototype Kilogram; the metre, for example, was redefined in 1983 by the CGPM in terms of light speed, while in 1960 the international yard was defined by the governments of the United States, United Kingdom and South Africa as being 0.9144 metres.
In the United States, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a division of the United States Department of Commerce, regulates commercial measurements. In the United Kingdom, the role is performed by the National Physical Laboratory, in Australia by the National Measurement Institute, in South Africa by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research and in India the National Physical Laboratory of India. Before SI units were adopted around the world, the British systems of English units and imperial units were used in Britain, the Commonwealth and the United States; the system came to be known as U. S. is still in use there and in a few Caribbean countries. These various systems of measurement have at times been called foot-pound-second systems after the Imperial units for length and time though the tons, hundredweights and nautical miles, for example, are different for the U. S. units. Many Imperial units remain in use in Britain, which has switched to the SI system—with a few exceptions such as road signs, which are still in miles.
Draught beer and cider must be sold by the imperial pint, milk in returnable bottles can be sold by the imperial pint. Many people meas