Amelanchier alnifolia, the saskatoon, Pacific serviceberry, western serviceberry, alder-leaf shadbush, dwarf shadbush, chuckley pear, or western juneberry, is a shrub with edible berry-like fruit, native to North America from Alaska across most of western Canada and in the western and north-central United States. It was called pigeon berry, it grows from sea level in the north of the range, up to 2,600 m elevation in California and 3,400 m in the Rocky Mountains, is a common shrub in the forest understory. The name saskatoon derives from the Cree inanimate noun misâskwatômina; the city of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, is named after this berry. The species name alnifolia is a feminine adjective, it is a compound of the Latin word for "alder", the word for "leaf", folium. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree that most grows to 1–8 m to 10 m or 33 ft, in height, its growth form spans from forming colonies to clumped. The leaves are oval to nearly circular, 2–5 cm long and 1–4.5 cm broad, on a 0.5–2 cm leaf stem, margins toothed above the middle.
As with all species in the genus Amelanchier, the flowers are white, with five quite separate petals. In A. alnifolia, they are about 2–3 cm across, appear on short racemes of three to 20 somewhat crowded together, in spring while the new leaves are still expanding. The fruit is a small purple pome 5–15 mm in diameter, ripening in early summer in the coastal areas and late summer further inland; the three varieties are: A. a. var. alnifolia. Northeastern part of the species' range. A. a. var. pumila A. Nelson. Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada. A. a. var. semiintegrifolia C. L. Hitchc. Pacific coastal regions, Alaska to northwestern California. Seedlings are planted with 13 -- 20 feet between 1.5 -- 3 feet between plants. An individual bush may bear fruit 30 or more years. Saskatoons are adaptable to most soil types with exception of poorly drained or heavy clay soils lacking organic matter. Shallow soils should be avoided if the water table is high or erratic. Winter hardiness is exceptional. Large amounts of sunshine are needed for fruit ripening.
With a sweet, nutty taste, the fruits have long been eaten by Canada's aboriginal people, fresh or dried. They are well known as an ingredient in pemmican, a preparation of dried meat to which saskatoon berries are added as flavour and preservative, they are used in saskatoon berry pie, wines, cider and sugar-infused berries similar to dried cranberries used for cereals, trail mix, snack foods. In 2004, the British Food Standards Agency suspended saskatoon berries from retail sales pending safety testing. A. alnifolia is susceptible to cedar-apple rust, entomosporium leaf spot, brown rot, cytospora canker, powdery mildew, blackleaf. Problem insects include aphids, mites, bud moths, Saskatoon sawflies, pear slug sawflies. Saskatoon berries contain significant amounts of total dietary fiber and biotin, the dietary minerals and manganese, a nutrient profile similar to the content of blueberries. Similar in composition to blueberries, saskatoons have total polyphenol content of 452 mg per 100 g, flavonols and anthocyanins, although others have found the phenolic values to be either lower in the'Smoky' cultivar or higher.
Quercetin, delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin were present in saskatoon berries. Media related to Amelanchier alnifolia at Wikimedia Commons
Buffalo burgers are hamburgers made with meat from the beefalo or American bison. Author Dan O'Brien has a unique taste, he said that it has to be prepared as as fresh fish. The magazine Women's Health said that the taste of beef burgers and buffalo burgers is indistinguishable, but that buffalo burgers are a bit sweeter and more tender, it costs more than beef. Buffalo burgers have less cholesterol, less fat, less food energy than burgers made from beef or chicken; the American Heart Association recommended buffalo burgers in 1997 as more heart-healthy than chicken or beef. The burger is high in nutrients such as protein and vitamin B12. Buffalo burgers are more healthy than beef. An 85-gram serving of buffalo meat has 390 kilojoules and 1.8 g of fat compared to 770 kJ and 8.7 g of fat in the same serving as beef. A recipe for simple buffalo burgers was listed in Men's Health Muscle Chow; the magazine EatingWell came up with a buffalo burger recipe, low in cholesterol and high in calcium. List of hamburgers
Maple syrup is a syrup made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can be made from other maple species. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their roots before winter. Maple trees are tapped by drilling holes into their trunks and collecting the exuded sap, processed by heating to evaporate much of the water, leaving the concentrated syrup. Maple syrup was first collected and used by the indigenous peoples of North America, the practice was adopted by European settlers, who refined production methods. Technological improvements in the 1970s further refined syrup processing; the Canadian province of Quebec is by far the largest producer, responsible for 70 percent of the world's output. Maple syrup is graded according to the Canada, United States, or Vermont scales based on its density and translucency. Sucrose is the most prevalent sugar in maple syrup. In Canada, syrups must be made from maple sap to qualify as maple syrup and must be at least 66 percent sugar.
In the United States, a syrup must be made entirely from maple sap to be labelled as "maple", though states such as Vermont and New York have more restrictive definitions. Maple syrup is used as a condiment for pancakes, French toast, oatmeal or porridge, it is used as an ingredient in baking and as a sweetener or flavouring agent. Culinary experts have praised its unique flavour, although the chemistry responsible is not understood. Three species of maple trees are predominantly used to produce maple syrup: the sugar maple, the black maple, the red maple, because of the high sugar content in the sap of these species; the black maple is included as a subspecies or variety in a more broadly viewed concept of A. saccharum, the sugar maple, by some botanists. Of these, the red maple has a shorter season because it buds earlier than sugar and black maples, which alters the flavour of the sap. A few other species of maple are sometimes used as sources of sap for producing maple syrup, including the box elder or Manitoba maple, the silver maple, the bigleaf maple.
Similar syrups may be produced from walnut, birch or palm trees, among other sources. Indigenous peoples living in northeastern North America were the first groups known to have produced maple syrup and maple sugar. According to aboriginal oral traditions, as well as archaeological evidence, maple tree sap was being processed into syrup long before Europeans arrived in the region. There are no authenticated accounts of how maple syrup production and consumption began, but various legends exist. Other stories credit the development of maple syrup production to Nanabozho, Glooskap, or the squirrel. Aboriginal tribes developed rituals around sugar-making, celebrating the Sugar Moon with a Maple Dance. Many aboriginal dishes replaced the salt traditional in European cuisine with maple syrup; the Algonquians recognized maple sap as a source of nutrition. At the beginning of the spring thaw, they used stone tools to make V-shaped incisions in tree trunks; the maple sap was concentrated either by dropping hot cooking stones into the buckets or by leaving them exposed to the cold temperatures overnight and disposing of the layer of ice that formed on top.
In the early stages of European colonization in northeastern North America, local Indigenous peoples showed the arriving colonists how to tap the trunks of certain types of maples during the spring thaw to harvest the sap. André Thevet, the "Royal Cosmographer of France", wrote about Jacques Cartier drinking maple sap during his Canadian voyages. By 1680, European settlers and fur traders were involved in harvesting maple products. However, rather than making incisions in the bark, the Europeans used the method of drilling tapholes in the trunks with augers. During the 17th and 18th centuries, processed maple sap was used as a source of concentrated sugar, in both liquid and crystallized-solid form, as cane sugar had to be imported from the West Indies. Maple sugaring parties began to operate at the start of the spring thaw in regions of woodland with sufficiently large numbers of maples. Syrup makers first bored holes in the trunks more than one hole per large tree; the buckets were made by cutting cylindrical segments from a large tree trunk and hollowing out each segment's core from one end of the cylinder, creating a seamless, watertight container.
Sap filled the buckets, was either transferred to larger holding vessels mounted on sledges or wagons pulled by draft animals, or carried in buckets or other convenient containers. The sap-collection buckets were returned to the spouts mounted on the trees, the process was repeated for as long as the flow of sap remained "sweet"; the specific weather conditions of the thaw period were, still are, critical in determining the length of the sugaring season. As the weather continues to warm, a maple tree's normal early spring biological proce
Canadian cuisine varies depending on the regions of the nation. The three earliest cuisines of Canada have First Nations, English and French roots, with the traditional cuisine of English Canada related to British cuisine, while the traditional cuisine of French Canada has evolved from French cuisine and the winter provisions of fur traders. With subsequent waves of immigration in the 19th and 20th century from Central and Eastern Europe, South Asia, East Asia, the Caribbean, the regional cuisines were subsequently augmented. Although certain dishes may be identified as "Canadian" due to the ingredients used or the origin of its inception, an overarching style of Canadian cuisine is more difficult to define; some Canadians such as the former Canadian prime minister Joe Clark believe that Canadian cuisine is a collage of dishes from the cuisines of other cultures. Clark himself has been paraphrased to have noted: "Canada has a cuisine of cuisines. Not a stew pot, but a smorgasbord."Some define Canadian cuisine by the foods native to North America, now used worldwide, such as squash, peppers, wild rice and large claw lobster.
Some define Canadian cuisine by recipes altered due to lack of ingredients of the original dish found elsewhere, such as tourtière made with pork not pigeon, sushi made with salmon not tuna, candy made with maple syrup instead of molasses. Some have sought to define Canadian cuisine along the line of how Claus Meyer defined Nordic cuisine in his Manifesto for the New Nordic Kitchen. Others believe that Canadian cuisine is still in the process of being defined from the cuisines of the numerous cultures that have influenced it, that being a culture of many cultures and its cuisine is less about a particular dish but rather how the ingredients are combined. Aboriginal food in particular is considered Canadian. Métis food is so, since the Métis people had such an integrated role in how Canada, Canadian food, came to be. Foods such as bannock, deer, pemmican, maple taffy, Métis stews such as barley stew, all originated either in Canada or through aboriginal peoples, are eaten throughout the country.
Other foods that originated in Canada are thought of in the same overarching group of Canadian food as aboriginal foods, despite not being so, such as peameal bacon, cajun seasoning, Nanaimo bars. There are some foods of non-Canadian origin that are eaten frequently. Perogies are an example of this, due to the large number of early Ukrainian immigrants. There are, some regional foods that are not eaten as on one side of the country as on the other, such as dulse in the Maritimes, stews in the Territories, or poutine in the Francophone areas of Canada. In general, Canadian foods contain a lot of starch, game meats, involve a lot of stews and soups, most notably Métis-style and split-pea soup. Canadian food has been shaped and impacted by continual waves of immigration, with the types of foods and from different regions and periods of Canada reflecting this immigration; the traditional Indigenous cuisine of Canada was based on a mixture of wild game, foraged foods, farmed agricultural products.
Each region of Canada with its own First Nations and Inuit people used their local resources and own food preparation techniques for their cuisines. Maple syrup was first collected and used by aboriginal people of Eastern Canada and North Eastern US. Canada is the world's largest producer of maple syrup; the origins of maple syrup production are not clear though the first syrups were made by freezing the collected maple sap and removing the ice to concentrate the sugar in the remaining sap. Maple syrup is one of the most consumed Canadian foods of Aboriginal origins. Dried meat products such as pânsâwân and pemmican are consumed by the indigenous peoples of the plains. In particular, the former was a predecessor for North American style beef jerky, with the processing methods adapted for beef. In most of the Canadian West Coast and Pacific Northwest, Pacific salmon was an important food resource to the First Nations peoples, along with certain marine mammals. Salmon were consumed fresh when spawning or smoked dry to create a jerky-like food that could be stored year-round.
The latter food is known and sold as "salmon jerky". Whipped Soapberry, known as xoosum in the Interior Salish languages of British Columbia, is consumed to ice cream or as a cranberry-cocktail-like drink, it is known for being a kidney tonic. In the Arctic, Inuit traditionally survived on a diet consisting of land and marine mammals and foraged plant products. Meats were consumed fresh but often prepared and allowed to ferment into igunaq or kiviak; these fermented meats have the smell of certain soft aged cheeses. Snacks such as muktuk, which consist of whale skin and blubber is eaten plain, though sometimes dipped in soy sauce. Chunks of muktuk are sliced with an ulu prior to or during consumption. Fish are eaten boiled and prior to today's settlements in dried forms; the so-called "Eskimo potato" and other "mousefoods" are some of the plants consumed in the arctic. Foods such as "bannock", popular with First Nations and Inuit, reflect the historic exchange of these cultures with French fur traders, who brought with the
Doner kebab is a type of kebab, made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie. Seasoned meat stacked in the shape of an inverted cone is turned on the rotisserie, next to a vertical cooking element; the outer layer is sliced into thin shavings. The vertical rotisserie was invented in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire, doner kebab inspired similar dishes such as the Arab shawarma, Greek gyros, Mexican al pastor; the sliced meat of a doner kebab may be served on a plate with various accompaniments, stuffed into a pita or other type of bread as a sandwich, or wrapped in a thin flatbread such as lavash or yufka, known as a dürüm. Since the early 1970s, the sandwich or wrap form has become popular around the world as a fast food dish sold by kebab shops, is called a "kebab"; the sandwich contains salad or vegetables, which may include tomato, cabbage, onion with sumac, fresh or pickled cucumber, or chili, various types of sauces. In the Ottoman Empire at least as far back as the 17th century, stacks of seasoned sliced meat were cooked on a horizontal rotisserie, similar to the cağ kebab.
The vertical rotisserie was introduced no than the mid-19th century. The town of Bursa, in modern-day Turkey, is considered the birthplace of the vertically-roasted döner kebab. According to Yavuz İskenderoğlu, his grandfather İskender Efendi as a child in 1850s Bursa had the idea of roasting the lamb at his father's restaurant vertically rather than horizontally. However, he may have been preceded by Hamdi Usta from Kastamonu around 1830, it was not until a century that döner kebab was introduced and popularized in Istanbul, most famously by Beyti Güler. His restaurant, first opened in 1945, was soon discovered by journalists and began serving döner and other kebab dishes to kings, prime ministers, film stars and celebrities, it has been sold in sandwich form in Istanbul since at least the mid-1960s. The döner kebab, its derivatives shawarma and gyros, served in a sandwich, came to worldwide prominence in the mid to late 20th century; the first doner kebab shop in London opened in 1966, while Greek-style doner kebab known as gyros, was popular in Greece and New York City in 1971.
In Germany, the döner kebab was popularized by Turkish guest workers in Berlin in the early 1970s. The dish developed there from its original form into a distinctive style of sandwich with abundant salad and sauces, sold in large portions at affordable prices, that would soon become one of the top-selling fast food and street food dishes in Germany and much of Europe, popular around the world. In the English name "doner kebab", the word doner is borrowed from the Turkish döner kebap, with the Turkish letter ö anglicized as "o", though "döner kebab" is an alternate spelling in English; the word "kebab" is used, which comes to English from the Arabic: كَبَاب through Urdu and Turkish. While kebab has been used in English since the late 17th century, doner/döner kebab is known only from the mid-20th or later; the Turkish word döner comes from dönmek, so the Turkish name döner kebap means "rotating roast". In German, it is spelled Döner Kebab, which can be spelled Doener Kebab if the ö character is not available.
In British English, a döner kebab sandwich may be referred to as "a kebab". A Canadian variation is "donair". In Greek, it was called döner but came to be known as gyros, from γύρος, a calque of the Turkish name; the Arabic name شاورما derives from another Turkish word, çevirme meaning "turning". Persians refer to it as "kebab torki". There are many variations of döner in Turkey: Porsiyon Pilavüstü İskender "Kebapçı İskender" is trademarked by Yavuz İskenderoğlu, whose family still runs the restaurant in Bursa. Dürüm, wrapped in a thin lavaş, sometimes grilled after being rolled, to make it crispier, it has two main variants in mainland Turkey: Soslu dürüm or SSK Kaşarlı dürüm döner Tombik or gobit Ekmekarası In Azerbaijan, döner kebab, served to the European style of sandwich wrapped in lavaş or in çörәk, is one of the most widespread fast foods. It is made with әt, but sometimes toyuq. In Japan, döner kebabs are now common in Tokyo, they are predominantly made of chicken but beef, called "kebab".
The toppings include shredded lettuce or cabbage, sliced tomato, a choice of sauces such as Thousand Islands and garlic. Döner kebab is becoming popular
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. The various types of sugar are derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose and galactose. "Table sugar" or "granulated sugar" refers to a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into glucose. Sugars are found in the tissues of most plants, but sucrose is concentrated in sugarcane and sugar beet, making them ideal for efficient commercial extraction to make refined sugar. Sugarcane originated in tropical Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, is known of from before 6,000 BP, sugar beet was first described in writing by Olivier de Serres and originated in southwestern and Southeast Europe along the Atlantic coasts and the Mediterranean Sea, in North Africa, Macaronesia, to Western Asia. In 2016, the combined world production of those two crops was about two billion tonnes. Other disaccharides include lactose. Longer chains of sugar molecules are called polysaccharides.
Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar. Sucrose is used in prepared foods, is sometimes added to commercially available beverages, may be used by people as a sweetener for foods and beverages; the average person consumes about 24 kilograms of sugar each year, or 33.1 kilograms in developed countries, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day. As sugar consumption grew in the latter part of the 20th century, researchers began to examine whether a diet high in sugar refined sugar, was damaging to human health. Excessive consumption of sugar has been implicated in the onset of obesity, cardiovascular disease and tooth decay. Numerous studies have tried to clarify those implications, but with varying results because of the difficulty of finding populations for use as controls that consume little or no sugar. In 2015, the World Health Organization recommended that adults and children reduce their intake of free sugars to less than 10%, encouraged a reduction to below 5%, of their total energy intake.
The etymology reflects the spread of the commodity. From Sanskrit शर्करा, meaning "ground or candied sugar," "grit, gravel", came Persian shakar, whence Arabic سكر, whence Medieval Latin succarum, whence 12th-century French sucre, whence the English word sugar. Italian zucchero, Spanish azúcar, Portuguese açúcar came directly from Arabic, the Spanish and Portuguese words retaining the Arabic definite article; the earliest Greek word attested is σάκχαρις. The English word jaggery, a coarse brown sugar made from date palm sap or sugarcane juice, has a similar etymological origin: Portuguese jágara from the Malayalam ചക്കരാ, itself from the Sanskrit शर्करा. Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, it was not plentiful or cheap in early times, in most parts of the world, honey was more used for sweetening. People chewed raw sugarcane to extract its sweetness. Sugarcane was a native of Southeast Asia.
Different species seem to have originated from different locations with Saccharum barberi originating in India and S. edule and S. officinarum coming from New Guinea. One of the earliest historical references to sugarcane is in Chinese manuscripts dating to 8th century BCE, which state that the use of sugarcane originated in India. In the tradition of Indian medicine, the sugarcane is known by the name Ikṣu and the sugarcane juice is known as Phāṇita, its varieties and characterics are defined in nighaṇṭus such as the Bhāvaprakāśa. Sugar remained unimportant until the Indians discovered methods of turning sugarcane juice into granulated crystals that were easier to store and to transport. Crystallized sugar was discovered by the time of the Imperial Guptas, around the 5th century CE. In the local Indian language, these crystals were called khanda, the source of the word candy. Indian sailors, who carried clarified butter and sugar as supplies, introduced knowledge of sugar along the various trade routes they travelled.
Traveling Buddhist monks took sugar crystallization methods to China. During the reign of Harsha in North India, Indian envoys in Tang China taught methods of cultivating sugarcane after Emperor Taizong of Tang made known his interest in sugar. China established its first sugarcane plantations in the seventh century. Chinese documents confirm at least two missions to India, initiated in 647 CE, to obtain technology for sugar refining. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East and China, sugar became a staple of cooking and desserts. Nearchus, admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, knew of sugar during the year 325 B. C. because of his participation in the campaign of India led by Alexander. The Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides in the 1st century CE described sugar in his medical treatise De Materia Medica, Pliny the Elder, a 1st-century CE Roman, described sugar in his Natural History: "Sugar is made in Arabia as well, but Indian sugar is better, it is a kind of honey found in cane, white as gum, it crunches between the teeth.
It comes in lumps the size of a hazelnut. Sugar is used only for medical purposes." Crusaders brought sugar back to Europe after their campaigns in the Hol
Butter is a dairy product with high butterfat content, solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions, liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk, it is used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, pan frying. Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, added salt. Most made from cow's milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter, removing the water and milk solids, produces clarified butter or ghee, entirely butterfat. Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, where the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a firm solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, melts to a thin liquid consistency at 32 to 35 °C.
The density of butter is 911 grams per Litre. It has a pale yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white, its natural, unmodified color is dependent on the source animal's feed and genetics, but the commercial manufacturing process manipulates the color with food colorings like annatto or carotene. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον; this may be a compound of βοῦς, "ox, cow" + τυρός, "cheese", "cow-cheese". The word turos is attested in Mycenaean Greek; the unlatinized form is found in the name butyric acid, a compound found in rancid butter and dairy products such as Parmesan cheese. In general use, the term "butter" refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors; the word is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and almond butter. It is applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as cocoa butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as "butters".
Non-dairy items that have a dairy-butter consistency may use "butter" to call that consistency to mind, including food items such as maple butter and witch's butter and nonfood items such as baby bottom butter, hyena butter, rock butter. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules; these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass. Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, separating from the other parts of the cream. Variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three separate forms: free butterfat, butterfat crystals, undamaged fat globules. In the finished product, different proportions of these forms result in different consistencies within the butter. Churning produces small butter grains floating in the water-based portion of the cream.
This watery liquid is called buttermilk—although the buttermilk most common today is instead a directly fermented skimmed milk. The buttermilk is drained off; the grains are "worked": pressed and kneaded together. When prepared manually, this is done using wooden boards called scotch hands; this consolidates the butter into a solid mass and breaks up embedded pockets of buttermilk or water into tiny droplets. Commercial butter is about 15 % water. Butterfat is a mixture of triglyceride, a triester derived from glycerol and three of any of several fatty acid groups. Butter becomes rancid when these chains break down into smaller components, like butyric acid and diacetyl; the density of butter is about the same as ice. In some countries, butter is given a grade before commercial distribution. Before modern factory butter making, cream was collected from several milkings and was therefore several days old and somewhat fermented by the time it was made into butter. Butter made from a fermented cream is known as cultured butter.
During fermentation, the cream sours as bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The fermentation process produces additional aroma compounds, including diacetyl, which makes for a fuller-flavored and more "buttery" tasting product. Today, cultured butter is made from pasteurized cream whose fermentation is produced by the introduction of Lactococcus and Leuconostoc bacteria. Another method for producing cultured butter, developed in the early 1970s, is to produce butter from fresh cream and incorporate bacterial cultures and lactic acid. Using this method, the cultured butter flavor grows. For manufacturers, this method is more efficient, since aging the cream used to make butter takes more space than storing the finished butter product. A method to make an artificial simulation of cultured butter is to add lactic acid and flavor compounds directly to the fresh-cream butter. Dairy products are pasteurized during production to kill pathogenic bacteria and other