Derbyshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Derbyshire, England. The force covers an area of over 1,000 square miles with a population of just under one million. To police the county the force is divided into two territorial divisions, based in the towns of Buxton and Chesterfield, Derby; the Force Headquarters, near Ripley and close to the A38 road, is Butterley Hall, former residence of Benjamin Outram and once owned by the Butterley Company. The Old Hall and additional buildings in the large grounds house much of the force's central administrative services; the Ops Divisions HQ at Wyatts Way Ripley is now the home of Operational Support Division which encompasses the Road Policing Unit, Air Support, a partnership with Nottinghamshire Police), ARU, Dog Section, Uniform Task Force and Road Policing Support. The Constabulary is led by the Chief Constable assisted by a Deputy and two Assistant Chief Constables; each division is headed by a Chief Superintendent - the Divisional Commander - and each division is divided into Sections, which are led by an Inspector.
The force has an authorised establishment of 1,827 police officers, 350 special constables and 104 Police Community Support Officers The Chief Officers of the force worked in partnership with the 17 publicly elected representatives on the Derbyshire Police Authority, which shared responsibility for budgets and policy, was intended to ensure that the public of Derbyshire had a voice in the policing of their county. Since the introduction of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 the Derbyshire Police and Crime Commissioner is now responsible for tasks that were once completed by the Police Authority. In November 2012 Alan Charles was elected the Police and Crime Commissioner for Derbyshire for a four-year term. Charles served as Vice Chair of the Derbyshire Police Authority. Derbyshire Constabulary polices an area which ranges from remote rural locations to busy city-centre and suburban environments; the more urbanised east and south of the county, including the market town of Chesterfield and the city of Derby require more officers to respond to the needs of the large resident population, while the more rural north and west require the smaller number of officers to be more mobile.
Calls for service in the rural areas increase during summer as the population is boosted by twenty million visitors each year to the Peak District and its surrounds. Winter weather on the unforgiving high ground around Glossop and Kinder Scout can cause problems for traffic and residents. Derbyshire's different environments lead to different pressures on the police and different concerns for the public. Anti-social behaviour and drug abuse are more prevalent in town and city areas, whereas the rural districts are prone more to travelling crime. In general, Derbyshire has a lower crime rate in comparison to its neighbouring force areas of Greater Manchester Police, South Yorkshire Police, Nottinghamshire Police; these neighbouring areas all contain larger urban centres than Derbyshire and as a result criminals from these areas travel to Derbyshire to commit crime. A recent Home Office report indicated that Derbyshire had the lowest crime levels in the East Midlands region, the force states that crime rates have fallen in Derbyshire by 15% in the last year.
Proposals were made by the Home Secretary on 20 March 2006 to integrate groups of police forces in England and Wales into'strategic' forces, which he saw as being more'fit for purpose' in terms of combating terrorism and organised crime. Under these proposals Derbyshire would have merged with nearby forces to create an'East Midlands Police'. However, these proposals were unpopular with much of the community and the police, for the moment have been deferred, leaving the East Midlands forces to continue independently. In 2010 following the coalition government's drive to reduce spending regional collaboration has been brought back to the table for serious and in depth discussion on how to provide the same or more for less; this may well be the forerunner of a regional force. The Police Roll of Honour Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty; the Police Memorial Trust since its establishment in 1984 has erected over 38 memorials to some of those officers.
Since 1828 the following officers of Derbyshire Constabulary were killed while attempting to prevent or stop a crime in progress: Parish Constable William Taylor, 1828 Police Constable Joseph Moss, 1879 Police Constable Stevenson, 2013 In 1965, the force had an establishment of 852 and an actual strength of 775. 1873–?: Francis Joseph Parry 1876–1898: Lieutenant-Colonel William Addis Delacombe 1918–c.1927: Major Philip Francis Ross Anley 1954–1967: William Ewart Pitts 1967–1979: Sir Walter Stansfield 1979–1981: James Fryer 1981–1985: Alfred Parrish 1985–1990: Alan Smith 1990–2000: John Newing 2001–2007: David Coleman 2007–2017: Mick Creedon 2017–present: Peter Goodman List of law enforcement agenc
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Midland Railway – Butterley
The Midland Railway – Butterley is a heritage railway at Butterley, near Ripley in Derbyshire. The Midland Railway – Butterley lies on the Ambergate to Pye Bridge line of the old Midland Railway, although the present-day heritage line terminates at Hammersmith; the line runs for 3 1⁄2 miles from Hammersmith via Butterley, Swanwick Junction, Riddings to Ironville. It is operated by the Midland Railway Trust; the railway is home to the 2 ft narrow gauge Golden Valley Light Railway, which opened in 1991 and lies on the trackbed of a former plateway built by the Butterley Company in 1813 to connect its iron works facilities in Butterley and nearby Codnor Park. Hammersmith Butterley – Headquarters of the Midland Railway – Butterley Swanwick Junction The Main Museum Complex Riddings; the railway runs events, ranging from Teddy Bear's Picnic specials to Gala events featuring standard gauge collection and the GVLR's stock. Vintage Train Event steam and diesel locomotive events Annual 1960s events Trains to the seaside at Swanwick Junction Station Santa Specials The railway is licensed to host weddings and parties.
In September 1999 the Kosovo Train for Life was loaded at Butterley station, before travelling via Kensington Olympia railway station and the Channel Tunnel, to Kosovo in conjunction with the Kosovo Force peace-keeping efforts. The steam engines of the Midland Railway Trust that run passenger services are ex-LMS and BR locomotives of similar designs. Rarer industrial and mainline classes, are stored in the Swanwick museum site. Extra Note: A pair of 21-inch gauge steam-outlined replicas of the PRCLT's Pacifics and a carriage were given to the Trust as a gift and two roads in the West Shed and about 50 metres of track have since been laid for them. In addition to the standard gauge stock on the Midland Railway, The Golden Valley Light Railway, a separate organisation altogether, owns a collection of locomotives, ex colliery manriders, Ashover coach No.4 and ex industrial wagons, many of which are being restored to work on the line. These coaches are only in use on vintage days; as with most railways, BR Mk1s are the staple passenger stock of the MRB While some other railways have an active rake of LMS coaches, most of Butterley's collection is still unrestored.
As with most other railways, Butterley owns several unique carriages, which are only used on special occasions, e.g. tributes to fellow servicemen. The main museum site is with many attractions and groups based there. There are other attractions at Butterley. Butterley railway station Ais Gill Signal Box – Formerly situated at Ais Gill on the Settle to Carlisle line, this is the working signal box at Butterley, it is technically a ground frame. There is no public access. Alfreton Model Railway Society Butterley Station Building – The original brick-built station buildings were demolished after the line closed; the new station building contains a shop and booking office. Butterley Tea Rooms – Butterley station's catering facility, serves hot and cold snacks and drinks every day of the year. Carriage Shed – A depot with repair and overhaul facilities. Is closed to the public. Garden Railway – An outdoor 16 mm scale model railway which runs on most Sundays and some Saturdays. Heanor Model Railway Club – This building contains a 4 mm scale OO Gauge layout and a 7 mm O gauge shunting yard layout.
Open on various dates throughout the year. Swanwick Junction railway station Station Building – Moved from Syston railway station and rebuilt on Swanwick platform 2, booking offices and a waiting room. Island Platform Waiting Room – A replica of the original Station building at Broom Junction, it is located between Platforms 3 and 4. There is only public access on certain events; the original building was intended to be used. Signal Box – The operational signal box at Swanwick Junction, moved from Kettering Station in 1988. There is no public access. Matthew Kirtley Museum – The main museum on the Swanwick site, it houses various locomotives and wagons; the main workshops are situated in this building. There is no public access to the workshops. Historical Model Railway Society – Was opened in 2005, it contains study centre and small shop. Only open by appointment it is sometimes open at special events; the West Shed – Home of the Princess Royal Class Locomotive Trust, owners of 6233 "Duchess of Sutherland" and 46203 "Princess Margaret Rose".
BR Standard Class 4 Tanks 80080 and 80098 and a small collection of classic LMS Saloons including the famous Dynamometer car are stationed here. St. Saviour's Church – Moved from Westhouses, this Railwayman's church holds occasional services. Upcast Colliery Headstocks and Winding Gear. Johnson's Buffet – Swanwick Junction's catering facility, Toilets are located nearby on the same building. Golden Valley Light Railway – Laid on the trackbed of a former Ironworks Railway, this line runs for just under one mile to Newlands Inn; the terminus of this 2 ft gauge line is just above the entrance to the Butterley Tunnel of the Cromford Canal. The Swanwick Terminus gained a new engine shed in 2007. Allports Emporium – The main shop at Swanwick. Swanwick Junction Model Railway Club – The model railway at Swanwick Junction in St Mary's gatehouse. Derby St Marys Gatehouse – Situated a
Derbyshire is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills which extend into the north of the county; the county contains part of the National Forest, borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire to the west. Kinder Scout, at 636 metres, is the highest point in the county, whilst Trent Meadows, where the River Trent leaves Derbyshire, is its lowest point at 27 metres.:1 The River Derwent is the county's longest river at 66 miles, runs north to south through the county. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts Farm at Coton in the Elms as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain; the city of Derby is a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire.
The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area; the area, now Derbyshire was first visited briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago during the Aveley interglacial as evidenced by a Middle Paleolithic Acheulean hand axe found near Hopton. Further occupation came with the Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age when Mesolithic hunter gatherers roamed the hilly tundra. Evidence of these nomadic tribes has been found in limestone caves located on the Nottinghamshire border. Deposits left in the caves date the occupancy at around 12,000 to 7,000 BCE. Burial mounds of Neolithic settlers are situated throughout the county; these chambered tombs were designed for collective burial and are located in the central Derbyshire region. There are tombs at Minninglow and Five Wells that date back to between 2000 and 2500 BCE. Three miles west of Youlgreave lies the Neolithic henge monument of Arbor Low, dated to 2500 BCE.
It is not until the Bronze Age that real signs of agriculture and settlement are found in the county. In the moors of the Peak District signs of clearance, arable fields and hut circles were discovered after archaeological investigation; however this area and another settlement at Swarkestone are all. During the Roman invasion the invaders were attracted to Derbyshire because of the lead ore in the limestone hills of the area, they settled throughout the county with forts built near Glossop. They settled around Buxton, famed for its warm springs, set up a fort near modern-day Derby in an area now known as Little Chester. Several kings of Mercia are buried in the Repton area. Following the Norman Conquest, much of the county was subject to the forest laws. To the northwest was the Forest of High Peak under the custodianship of William Peverel and his descendants; the rest of the county was bestowed upon a part of it becoming Duffield Frith. In time the whole area was given to the Duchy of Lancaster.
Meanwhile, the Forest of East Derbyshire covered the whole county to the east of the River Derwent from the reign of Henry II to that of Edward I. Most of Derbyshire consists of rolling hills and uplands, with the southern Pennines extending from the north of Derby throughout the Peak District and into the north of the county, reaching a high point at Kinder Scout; the south and east of the county are lower around the valley of the River Trent, the Coal Measures, the areas of clay and sandstones between the Peak District and the south west of the county. The main rivers in the county are the River Derwent and the River Dove which both join the River Trent in the south; the River Derwent rises in the moorland of Bleaklow and flows throughout the Peak District and county for the majority of its course, while the River Dove rises in Axe Edge Moor and forms a boundary between Derbyshire and Staffordshire for most of its length. The varied landscapes within Derbyshire have been formed as a consequence of the underlying geology, but by the way the land has been managed and shaped by human activity.
The county contains 11 discrete landscape types, known as National Character Areas, which have been described in detail by Natural England and further refined and described by Derbyshire County Council and the Peak District National Park. The 11 National Character Areas found within Derbyshire are: Dark Peak White Peak South West Peak Derbyshire Peak Fringe & Lower Derwent Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire & Yorkshire Coalfield Southern Magnesian Limestone Needwood & South Derbyshire Claylands Trent Valley Washlands Melbourne Parklands Leicestershire & South Derbyshire Coalfield Mease/Sence Lowlands From a geological perspective, Derbyshire's solid geology can be split into two different halves; the oldest rocks occur in the northern, more upland half of the county, are of Carboniferous age, comprising limestones, gritstones and shales. In its north-east corner to the east of Bolsover there are Magnesian Limestone rocks of Permian age. In contrast, the southern and more lowland half of Derbyshire contains much softer rocks mudstones and sandstones of Permo-Triassic age, which create gentler, more rolling landscapes with few rock outcrops.
Across both regions can be found drift deposits of Quaternary age – terrace and river gravel deposits and boulder clays. Landslip features are found on unstable layers of sandstones and shales, with Mam Tor and Alport Castles being the most well-known. Cemented screes and tufa deposits occur rarely in the limestone dales and
Arsenal Football Club is a professional football club based in Islington, England, that plays in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. It has won 13 League titles, a record 13 FA Cups, two League Cups, the League Centenary Trophy, 15 FA Community Shields, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one Inter-Cities Fairs Cup. Arsenal was the first club from the South of England to join The Football League, in 1893, they reached the First Division in 1904. Relegated only once, in 1913, they continue the longest streak in the top division, have won the second-most top-flight matches in English football history. In the 1930s, Arsenal won five League Championships and two FA Cups, another FA Cup and two Championships after the war. In 1970 -- 71, they won their first FA Cup Double. Between 1989 and 2005, they won five FA Cups, including two more Doubles, they completed the 20th century with the highest average league position. Herbert Chapman died prematurely, he helped introduce the WM formation and shirt numbers, added the white sleeves and brighter red to Arsenal's kit.
Arsène Wenger won the most trophies. He won a record 7 FA Cups, his title-winning team set an English record for the longest top-flight unbeaten league run at 49 games between 2003 and 2004, receiving the nickname The Invincibles, a special gold Premier League trophy. In 1886, Woolwich munitions workers founded the club as Dial Square. In 1913, the club crossed the city to Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, becoming close neighbours of Tottenham Hotspur, creating the North London derby. In 2006, they moved to the nearby Emirates Stadium. In terms of revenue, Arsenal is the ninth highest-earning football club in the world, earned €487.6m in 2016–17 season. Based on social media activity from 2014 to 2015, Arsenal's fanbase is the fifth largest in the world. In 2018, Forbes estimated the club was the third most valuable in England, with the club being worth $2.24 billion. In October 1886, Scotsman David Danskin and his fellow 15 munitions workers in Woolwich, now South East London, formed Arsenal as Dial Square, with each member contributing sixpence and Danskin adding another three shillings to help form the club.
Named after the heart of the Royal Arsenal complex, they took the name of the whole complex a month later. Royal Arsenal F. C.'s first home was Plumstead Common, though they spent most of their time in South East London playing on the other side of Plumstead, at the Manor Ground. Royal Arsenal won Arsenal's first trophies in 1890 and 1891, these were the only football association trophies Arsenal won during their time in South East London. In 1891, Royal Arsenal became the first London club to turn professional. Royal Arsenal renamed themselves for a second time upon becoming a limited liability company in 1893, they registered their new name, Woolwich Arsenal, with The Football League when the club ascended that year. Woolwich Arsenal was the first southern member of The Football League, starting out in the Second Division and winning promotion to the First Division in 1904. Falling attendances, due to financial difficulties among the munitions workers and the arrival of more accessible football clubs elsewhere in the city, led the club close to bankruptcy by 1910.
Businessmen Henry Norris and William Hall became involved in the club, sought to move them elsewhere. In 1913, soon after relegation back to the Second Division, Woolwich Arsenal moved to the new Arsenal Stadium in Highbury, North London; this saw their third change of name: the following year, they reduced Woolwich Arsenal to The Arsenal. In 1919, The Football League voted to promote The Arsenal, instead of relegated local rivals Tottenham Hotspur, into the newly enlarged First Division, despite only listing the club sixth in the Second Division's last pre-war season of 1914–15; some books have speculated. That year, The Arsenal started dropping "The" in official documents shifting its name for the final time towards Arsenal, as it is known today. With a new home and First Division football, attendances were more than double those at the Manor Ground, Arsenal's budget grew rapidly, their location and record-breaking salary offer lured star Huddersfield Town manager Herbert Chapman in 1925. Over the next five years, Chapman built a new Arsenal.
He appointed enduring new trainer Tom Whittaker, implemented Charlie Buchan's new twist on the nascent WM formation, captured young players like Cliff Bastin and Eddie Hapgood, lavished Highbury's income on stars like David Jack and Alex James. With record-breaking spending and gate receipts, Arsenal became known as the Bank of England club. Transformed, Chapman's Arsenal claimed their first national trophy, the FA Cup, in 1930. Two League Championships followed, in 1930–31 and 1932–33. Chapman presided over multiple off the pitch changes: white sleeves and shirt numbers were added to the kit. In the middle of the 1933–34 season, Chapman died of pneumonia, his work was left to Joe Shaw and George Allison, who saw out a hat-trick with the 1933–34 and 1934–35 titles, won the 1936 FA Cup and 1937–38 title. World War II meant The Football League was suspended for seven years, but Arsenal returned to win it in the second post-war season, 1947–48; this was Tom Whittaker's first season as manager, after his promotion to succeed Allison, the club had equalled the champions of England record.
They won a third FA Cup in 1950, won a record-breaking seven
The Butterley Company was an English manufacturing firm founded as Benjamin Outram and Company in 1790. Portions of it existed until 2009; this area of Derbyshire had been known for its outcrops of iron ore, exploited at least since the Middle Ages. After the Norman Conquest, nearby Duffield Frith was the property of the de Ferrers family who were iron masters in Normandy. In 1793, William Jessop, with the assistance of Benjamin Outram, constructed the Cromford Canal to connect Pinxton and Cromford with the Erewash Canal. In digging Butterley Tunnel for the Cromford Canal and iron were discovered. Fortuitously, Butterley Hall fell vacant and in 1790 Outram, with the financial assistance of Francis Beresford, bought it and its estate; the following year they were joined by Jessop and John, the grandson of Ichabod Wright, a wealthy Nottingham banker, betrothed to Beresford's daughter and who owned the Butterley Park estate. In 1793 the French Revolutionary Wars broke out and by 1796 the blast furnace was producing nearly a thousand tons of pig iron a year.
By the second decade of the next century the company had expanded with another works at Codnor Park in Codnor, both works having two blast furnaces, output had risen to around 4,500 tons per year. Outram died in 1805 and the name changed to the Butterley Company, with one of Jessop's sons William, taking over. In 1814 the company produced the iron work for Vauxhall Bridge over the River Thames; the company owned Hilt's Quarry at Crich, which supplied limestone for the ironworks and for the limekilns at Bullbridge, providing lime for farmers and for the increasing amount of building work. The steep wagonway to the Cromford Canal at Bullbridge was called the Butterley Gangroad and incorporated the world's oldest surviving railway tunnel, at Fritchley. In 1812, William Brunton, an engineer for the company, produced his remarkable Steam Horse locomotive In 1817, in the depression following the Napoleonic Wars, the works at Butterley was the scene of the Pentrich Revolution; the intention of the rebels was to ransack the works for weapons.
When they arrived they were confronted by George Goodwin the factory agent, with a few constables, faced them down. There is little to be seen of the event, but the hexagonal office where Goodwin stood his ground is a listed building in the yard of the works. Following this the country entered a long period of the company with it. In 1830 it was considered to be the largest coal owner and the second-largest iron producer in the East Midlands. By this time the company owned a considerable number of quarries for limestone and mines for coal and iron, installed a third blast furnace at Codnor Park. One of the two drainage engines at Pode Hole and the engine in the Pinchbeck Engine land drainage museum were built by Butterley, as were the Scoop wheel pumps, they produced a vast array of goods, from rails for wagonways to heaters for tea urns. Thomas Telford's Caledonian Canal used lock gates and machinery with castings produced at Butterley, two steam dredgers designed by Jessop; the company produced steam locomotives for its own use, but it provided two for the Midland Counties Railway.
It produced all the necessary castings for the new railways and two complete lines, the Croydon and Godstone Iron Railway and the Cromford and High Peak Railway. A winding engine for the latter exists in working order at Middleton Top near Wirksworth; the company was quick to invest in the new Bessemer process for steel manufacture in 1856, being one of four businesses that took out a licence from Sir Henry Bessemer within a month of his announcing his method. The licences were spread around the country in order to protect the trading interests of the licensees. Notable patents were taken out by Sir John Alleyne. In December 1859 Alleyne patented a method of producing a load-bearing iron beam known as the Butterley Bulb, used in many early iron steam ships including HMS Warrior In 1861 Alleyne patented a method that allowed hot ingots to be moved around a roller after they had passed by just one person. During the production of steel sections the bar has to be put through rollers. Allowing this to happen using just one person was a substantial increase in productivity.
By 1863 the company was rolling the largest masses of iron of any foundry in the country. Among its most famous buildings are the Barlow train shed at St Pancras station in London, which included 240-foot spans. Alleyne's next invention was the two high reversing steel mill patented in 1870, which used two steam engines to allow metal ingots to be rolled to get the correct size and section. With this technique the steel did not have to be moved to re-enter the rolling process but had to be moved back into the rolling machine once it had passed through. There was an extensive brickworks for railways, thousands of factories and domestic dwellings. By 1874 company workers were starting to fight for better conditions; the company sacked 11 miners "without a charge" on 5 May 1874. At its peak in the 1950s the company employed around 10,000 people. In 1957, a partnership with Air Products of the USA helped establish that company in the United Kingdom. In the early 1960s the company acquired locomotive manufacturer F. C.
Hibberd & Co Ltd. The Codnor Park works closed in 1965; the company was acquired by Lord Hanson in 1968 for £4.7 million. The company was subsequently split up into Butterley Engineering, Butterley Brick and Butterley Aggregates. Butterley Hall, Outram's home and the companies offices, was sold off to become the headquarters of Derbyshire Constabulary. In the mid 1980s the foundry closed down; when surplus buildings were demolished the original blast fur
Liverpool Football Club is a professional football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club has won 5 European Cups, more than any other English club, 3 UEFA Cups, 3 UEFA Super Cups, 18 League titles, 7 FA Cups, a record 8 League Cups, 15 FA Community Shields. Founded in 1892, the club joined the Football League the following year and has played at Anfield since its formation. Liverpool established itself as a major force in English and European football in the 1970s and 1980s when Bill Shankly and Bob Paisley led the club to 11 League titles and seven European trophies. Under the management of Rafael Benítez and captained by Steven Gerrard, Liverpool became European champions for the fifth time in 2005. Liverpool was the ninth highest-earning football club in the world in 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €424.2 million, the world's eighth most valuable football club in 2018, valued at $1.944 billion. The club is one of the best supported teams in the world.
Liverpool has long-standing rivalries with Manchester Everton. The club's supporters have been involved in two major tragedies: the Heysel Stadium disaster, where escaping fans were pressed against a collapsing wall at the 1985 European Cup Final in Brussels, with 39 people – Italians and Juventus fans – dying, after which English clubs were given a five-year ban from European competition, the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, where 96 Liverpool supporters died in a crush against perimeter fencing; the team changed from red shirts and white shorts to an all-red home strip in 1964, used since. The club's anthem is "You'll Never Walk Alone". Liverpool F. C. was founded following a dispute between the Everton committee and John Houlding, club president and owner of the land at Anfield. After eight years at the stadium, Everton relocated to Goodison Park in 1892 and Houlding founded Liverpool F. C. to play at Anfield. Named "Everton F. C. and Athletic Grounds Ltd", the club became Liverpool F. C. in March 1892 and gained official recognition three months after The Football Association refused to recognise the club as Everton.
The team won the Lancashire League in its début season, joined the Football League Second Division at the start of the 1893–94 season. After finishing in first place the club was promoted to the First Division, which it won in 1901 and again in 1906. Liverpool reached its first FA Cup Final in 1914, it won consecutive League championships in 1922 and 1923, but did not win another trophy until the 1946–47 season, when the club won the First Division for a fifth time under the control of ex-West Ham Utd centre half George Kay. Liverpool suffered its second Cup Final defeat in 1950; the club was relegated to the Second Division in the 1953–54 season. Soon after Liverpool lost 2–1 to non-league Worcester City in the 1958–59 FA Cup, Bill Shankly was appointed manager. Upon his arrival he released 24 players and converted a boot storage room at Anfield into a room where the coaches could discuss strategy; the club was promoted back into the First Division in 1962 and won it in 1964, for the first time in 17 years.
In 1965, the club won its first FA Cup. In 1966, the club won the First Division but lost to Borussia Dortmund in the European Cup Winners' Cup final. Liverpool won both the League and the UEFA Cup during the 1972–73 season, the FA Cup again a year later. Shankly was replaced by his assistant, Bob Paisley. In 1976, Paisley's second season as manager, the club won another UEFA Cup double; the following season, the club retained the League title and won the European Cup for the first time, but it lost in the 1977 FA Cup Final. Liverpool retained the European Cup in 1978 and regained the First Division title in 1979. During Paisley's nine seasons as manager Liverpool won 21 trophies, including three European Cups, a UEFA Cup, six League titles and three consecutive League Cups. Paisley was replaced by his assistant, Joe Fagan. Liverpool won the League, League Cup and European Cup in Fagan's first season, becoming the first English side to win three trophies in a season. Liverpool reached the European Cup final again in 1985, against Juventus at the Heysel Stadium.
Before kick-off, Liverpool fans breached a fence which separated the two groups of supporters, charged the Juventus fans. The resulting weight of people caused a retaining wall to collapse, killing 39 fans Italians; the incident became known as the Heysel Stadium disaster. The match was played in spite of protests by both managers, Liverpool lost 1–0 to Juventus; as a result of the tragedy, English clubs were banned from participating in European competition for five years. Fourteen Liverpool fans received convictions for involuntary manslaughter. Fagan had announced his retirement just before the disaster and Kenny Dalglish was appointed as player-manager. During his tenure, the club won another three league titles and two FA Cups, including a League and Cup "Double" in the 1985–86 season. Liverpool's success was overshadowed by the Hillsborough disaster: in an FA Cup semi-final against Nottingham Forest on 15 April 1989, hundreds of Liverpool fans were crushed against perimeter fencing. Ninety-four fans died that day.
After the Hillsborough disaster there was a government review of stadium saf