Folsom points are a distinct form of knapped stone projectile points associated with the Folsom tradition of North America. The style of tool-making was named after the Folsom Site located in Folsom, New Mexico, where the first sample was found by George McJunkin within the bone structure of a bison in 1908; the Folsom point was identified as a unique style of projectile point in 1926. The points are bifacially worked and have a symmetrical, leaf-like shape with a concave base and wide, shallow grooves running the entire length of the point; the edges are finely worked. The characteristic groove, known as fluting, may have served to aid hafting to a wooden shaft or dart. Use-wear studies have shown; the fluting required great technical ability to effect, it took archaeologists many years of experimentation to replicate it. This point is thought to be the pinnacle of the fluting technology; the flute was made by creating a nipple platform at the center of the base. The remnants of the nipple may be present on completed examples.
Folsom points are found across North America and are dated to the period between 9500 BCE and 8000 BCE. The discovery of these artifacts in the early 20th century raised questions about when the first humans arrived in North America; the prevailing idea of a time depth of about 3,000 years was mistaken. In 1932, an earlier style of projectile point was found, dating back to 11,500 BCE. Clovis points have been found in situ in association with mammoth skeletons. In the Great Plains area, the use of Folsom points was supplanted over time by Plano points of the various Plano cultures. Folsom tradition Cascade point Clovis point Plano point Eden point Cumberland point Levanna projectile point Jack's Reef pentagonal projectile point Lamoka projectile point Susquehanna broad projectile point Bare Island projectile point Greene projectile point American Museum of Natural History--Folsom Point Hillerman, Anthony G.. "The Hunt for the Lost American". The Great Taos Bank Robbery and Other Indian Country Affairs.
University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-0306-4. Republished in The Great Taos Bank Robbery and Other Indian Country Affairs. New York: Harper Paperbacks. May 1997. ISBN 0-06-101173-8. Perino, Gregory. Selected preforms and knives of the North American Indians, Vol. 1. Hyneck Printing
In both the World Reference Base for Soil Resources and the USDA soil taxonomy, a Vertisol is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay minerals, many of them known as montmorillonite, that form deep cracks in drier seasons or years. In a phenomenon known as argillipedoturbation, alternate shrinking and swelling causes self-ploughing, where the soil material mixes itself, causing some Vertisols to have an deep A horizon and no B horizon.. This heaving of the underlying material to the surface creates a microrelief known as gilgai. Vertisols form from basic rocks, such as basalt, in climates that are seasonally humid or subject to erratic droughts and floods, or that impeded drainage. Depending on the parent material and the climate, they can range from grey or red to the more familiar deep black. Vertisols are found between 50°N and 45°S of the equator. Major areas where Vertisols are dominant are eastern Australia, the Deccan Plateau of India, parts of southern Sudan, Ethiopia and Chad, the lower Paraná River in South America.
Other areas where Vertisols are dominant include southern Texas and adjacent Mexico, central India, northeast Nigeria, New Caledonia and parts of eastern China. The natural vegetation of Vertisols is savanna, or grassy woodland; the heavy texture and unstable behaviour of the soil makes it difficult for many tree species to grow, forest is uncommon. The shrinking and swelling of Vertisols can damage buildings and roads, leading to extensive subsidence. Vertisols are used for grazing of cattle or sheep, it is not unknown for livestock to be injured through falling into cracks in dry periods. Conversely, many wild and domestic ungulates do not like to move on this soil. However, the shrink-swell activity allows rapid recovery from compaction; when irrigation is available, crops such as cotton, wheat and rice can be grown. Vertisols are suitable for rice because they are impermeable when saturated. Rainfed farming is difficult because Vertisols can be worked only under a narrow range of moisture conditions: they are hard when dry and sticky when wet.
However, in Australia, Vertisols are regarded, because they are among the few soils that are not acutely deficient in available phosphorus. Some, known as "crusty Vertisols", have a thin, hard crust when dry that can persist for two to three years before they have crumbled enough to permit seeding. In the USA soil taxonomy, Vertisols are subdivided into: Aquerts: Vertisols which are subdued aquic conditions for some time in most years and show redoximorphic features are grouped as Aquerts; because of the high clay content, the permeability is slowed down and aquic conditions are to occur. In general, when precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration, ponding may occur. Under wet soil moisture conditions and manganese are mobilized and reduced; the manganese may be responsible for the dark color of the soil profile. Cryerts: They have a cryic soil temperature regime. Cryerts are most extensive in the grassland and forest-grassland transitions zones of the Canadian Prairies and at similar latitudes in Russia.
Xererts: They have a thermic, mesic, or frigid soil temperature regime. They show cracks that are open at least 60 consecutive days during the summer, but are closed at least 60 consecutive days during winter. Xererts are most extensive in the eastern parts of California. Torrerts: They have cracks that are closed for less than 60 consecutive days when the soil temperature at 50 cm is above 8 °C; these soils are not extensive in the U. S. and occur in west Texas, New Mexico and South Dakota, but are the most extensive suborder of Vertisols in Australia. Usterts: They have cracks that are open for at least 90 cumulative days per year. Globally, this suborder is the most extensive of the Vertisols order, encompassing the Vertisols of the tropics and monsoonal climates in Australia and Africa. In the U. S. the Usterts are common in Texas, Montana and California. Uderts: They have cracks that are open less than 90 cumulative days per year and less than 60 consecutive days during the summer. In some areas, cracks open only in drought years.
Uderts are of small extent globally, being most abundant in Uruguay and eastern Argentina, but found in parts of Queensland and the "Black Belt" of Mississippi and Alabama. Profile photos WRB homepage profile photos IUSS World of Soils IUSS Working Group WRB: World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015. World Soil Resources Reports 106, FAO, Rome 2015. ISBN 978-92-5-108369-7.. Soil Survey Staff: Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 12th edition. Natural Resources Conservation Service. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Washington D. C. USA, 2014. "Vertisols". USDA-NRCS. Archived from the original on 2003-08-28. Retrieved 2006-05-14. "Vertisols". University of Florida. Archived from the original on 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2006-05-14. "Vertisols". University of Idaho. Retrieved 2006-05-14. Pedogenesis Pedology Soil classification
Knapping is the shaping of flint, obsidian or other conchoidal fracturing stone through the process of lithic reduction to manufacture stone tools, strikers for flintlock firearms, or to produce flat-faced stones for building or facing walls, flushwork decoration. The original Germanic term "knopp" meant strike, shape, or work, so it could theoretically have referred well to making a statue or dice. Modern usage is more specific, referring exclusively to the hand-tool pressure-flaking process pictured. Flintknapping or knapping is done in a variety of ways depending on the purpose of the final product. For stone tools and flintlock strikers, chert is worked using a fabricator such as a hammerstone to remove lithic flakes from a nucleus or core of tool stone. Stone tools can be further refined using wood and antler tools to perform pressure flaking. For building work a hammer or pick is used to split chert nodules supported on the lap; the chert nodule will be split in half to create two cherts with a flat circular face for use in walls constructed of lime.
More sophisticated knapping is employed to produce near-perfect cubes. There are many different methods of shaping stone into useful tools. Early knappers could have used simple hammers made of antler to shape stone tools; the factors that contribute to the knapping results are varied, but the EPA indeed influences many attributes, such as length and termination of flakes. Hard hammer techniques are used to remove large flakes of stone. Early knappers and hobbyists replicating their methods use cobbles of hard stone, such as quartzite; this technique can be used by flintknappers to remove broad flakes that can be made into smaller tools. This method of manufacture is believed to have been used to make some of the earliest stone tools found, some of which date from over 2 million years ago. Soft hammer techniques are more precise than hard hammer methods of shaping stone. Soft hammer techniques allow a knapper to shape a stone into many different kinds of cutting and projectile tools; these "soft hammer" techniques produce longer, thinner flakes allowing for material conservation or a lighter lithic tool kit to be carried by mobile societies.
Pressure flaking involves removing narrow flakes along the edge of a stone tool. This technique is used to do detailed thinning and shaping of a stone tool. Pressure flaking involves putting a large amount of force across a region on the edge of the tool and causing a narrow flake to come off of the stone. Modern hobbyists use pressure flaking tools with a copper or brass tip, but early knappers could have used antler tines or a pointed wooden punch; the major advantage of using soft metals rather than wood or bone is that the metal punches wear down less and are less to break under pressure. In cultures that have not adopted metalworking technologies, the production of stone tools by knappers is common, but in modern cultures the making of such tools is the domain of experimental archaeologists and hobbyists. Archaeologists undertake the task so that they can better understand how prehistoric stone tools were made. Knapping is learned by outdoorsmen. Knapping gun flints, used by flintlock firearms was a major industry in flint bearing locations, such as Brandon in Suffolk and the small towns of Meusnes and Couffy in France.
Meusnes has a small museum dedicated to the industry. In 1804, during the Napoleonic Wars, Brandon was supplying over 400,000 flints a month for use by the British Army and Navy. Brandon knappers made gun flints for export to Africa as late as the 1960s. Knapping for building purposes is still a skill, practiced in the flint-bearing regions of southern England, such as Sussex and Norfolk, in northern France Brittany and Normandy, where there is a resurgence of the craft due to government funding. Flint knappers suffered from silicosis, due to the inhalation of flint dust; this has been called "the world's first industrial disease". When gun flint knapping was a large-scale industry in Brandon, silicosis was known as knappers' rot, it has been claimed silicosis was responsible for the early death of three-quarters of Brandon gun flint makers. In one workshop, seven of the eight workmen died of the condition before the age of fifty. Modern knappers are advised to work in the open air to reduce the dust hazard, to wear eye and hand protection.
Some modern knappers wear a respirator to guard against dust. Modern American interest in knapping can be traced back to the study of a California Native American called Ishi who lived in the early twentieth century. Ishi taught scholars and academics traditional methods of making stone tools and how to use them for survival in the wild. Early European explorers to the New world were exposed to flint knapping techniques. Additionally, several pioneering nineteenth-century European experimental knappers are known and in the late 1960s and early 1970s experimental archaeologist Don Crabtree published texts such as "Experiments in Flintworking". François Bordes was an early writer on Old World knapping; these authors helped to ignite a small craze in knapping among prehistorians. English archaeologist Phil Harding is another contemporary expert, whose exposure on the television series Time Team has led to him being a familiar figure in the UK and beyond. Many groups, with members from all walks of life, can now be found across the United States and Europe.
These organizations continue to
Colluvium is a general name for loose, unconsolidated sediments that have been deposited at the base of hillslopes by either rainwash, slow continuous downslope creep, or a variable combination of these processes. Colluvium is composed of a heterogeneous range of rock types and sediments ranging from silt to rock fragments of various sizes; this term is used to refer to sediment deposited at the base of a hillslope by unconcentrated surface runoff or sheet erosion. Colluviation refers to the buildup of colluvium at the base of a hillslope. Colluvium is loosely consolidated angular material located at the base of a steep hill slope or cliff. Colluvium accumulates as sloping aprons or fans, either at the base of or within gullies and hollows within hillslopes; these accumulations of colluvium can be several meters in thickness and contain buried soils, crude bedding, cut and fill sequences. Thick accumulations of colluvium may preserve a rich record of long term paleoclimatic change based on the paleosols and the remains of plants and animals and vertebrates that they contain.
These fossils indicate previous environmental settings. Thick accumulations of colluvium contain well-preserved and sometimes buried archaeological deposits as excavated at the Cherokee Sewer Site, Cherokee County and the Koster Site, Greene County, Illinois. Colluvium can be rocks that have been transported downward from glaciers and so can indicate past stages of cooler and/or wetter weather. Deposits of detrital colluvium can reveal the soil composition and signify processes of chemical weathering; the definitions of colluvium and alluvium are reliant on one another. Distinctions between the two are important in order to properly define the geomorphic processes that have occurred in a specific geological setting. Alluvium is clay, or other similar detrital material deposited by running water; the distinction between colluvium and alluvium relates to the involvement of running water. Alluvium refers to the geomorphic processes involved with flowing water and so alluvium is fine-grained clay and silt material that has the capacity to be entrained in water currents and deposited.
For these same reasons, alluvium is generally well sorted material while colluvium is not. Colluvium-filled bedrock hollow Diluvium Eluvium Erosion Illuvium Scree Anonymous Field Analysis:Is this a colluvial deposit, Soil Analysis Support System for Archaeology, Natural Environment Research Council, United Kingdom
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be adopted, it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at different dates in different places, the term is less used in discussing societies where prehistory ended recently. Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilization, ancient Egypt were the first civilizations to develop their own scripts and to keep historical records. Neighboring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age; the three-age system of division of prehistory into the Stone Age, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remains in use for much of Eurasia and North Africa, but is not used in those parts of the world where the working of hard metals arrived abruptly with contact with Eurasian cultures, such as the Americas, Oceania and much of Sub-Saharan Africa.
These areas with some exceptions in Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, did not develop complex writing systems before the arrival of Eurasians, their prehistory reaches into recent periods. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century; this article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history. Earlier periods are called "prehistoric". Beginning The term "prehistory" can refer to the vast span of time since the beginning of the Universe or the Earth, but more it refers to the period since life appeared on Earth, or more to the time since human-like beings appeared. End The date marking the end of prehistory is defined as the advent of the contemporary written historical record.
The date varies from region to region depending on the date when relevant records become a useful academic resource. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more at around 1900 common era. In Europe the well-documented classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had neighbouring cultures, including the Celts and to a lesser extent the Etruscans, with little or no writing, historians must decide how much weight to give to the highly prejudiced accounts of these "prehistoric" cultures in Greek and Roman literature. Time periods In dividing up human prehistory in Eurasia, historians use the three-age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods use the well-defined geologic record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale; the three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British and Scandinavian archeologists and anthropologists; the main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history; the primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation and geographic surveys, other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Cultural anthropologists help provide context for societal interactions, by which objects of human origin pass among people, allowing an analysis of any article that arises in a human prehistoric context.
Therefore, data about prehistory is provided by a wide variety of natural and social sciences, such as paleontology, archaeology, geology, comparative linguistics, molecular genetics and many others. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous; because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic sta
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Salado is a village in Bell County, United States. Salado was first incorporated in 1867 for the sole purpose of building a bridge across Salado Creek. In 2000, the citizens of Salado voted in favor of reincorporation, before which it was a census-designated place; the population of the village was 2,126 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area; the town is home to the oldest continuously running hotel in Texas. Archaeological evidence of a paleolithic Native American settlement dating back about 15,500 years, the Buttermilk Creek Complex, has been unearthed in Salado; the first record of white settlers in the area occurred in 1834, but by 1836, the pioneer settlers abandoned the area due to frequent Indian attacks and the invasion by General Santa Anna and the Mexican Army. The first permanent Anglo-American settler at Salado was Archibald Willingham in 1850. In 1852, the Salado Post Office was established. In 1859, the Salado College Joint Stock Company was created by Col. Elijah Sterling Clack Robertson, who donated 320 acres north and south of the springs to be broken into lots and form the village of Salado, with the proceeds of the sale going to form Salado College.
The college operated from 1860-1885 and 1895-1913. From 1866 to 1885, the famous Chisholm Trail cattle drives passed through this area, with the Stagecoach Inn being one of the stops. In 1867, Salado incorporated to build a bridge across Salado Creek. By 1884, Salado had a population of 900, seven churches, 14 stores, two hotels, two blacksmiths, three cotton gins. However, after the railroads bypassed Salado to the north and south, trade moved away from the town and the population began to dwindle, hitting 400 by 1914 and down to 200 by 1950. Nineteen Salado locations are listed in the National Register of Historic Places, including the George Washington Baines House. Salado is located in south-central Bell County at 30°57′19″N 97°32′05″W. Interstate 35 runs through the village, leading north 9 miles to Belton, the county seat, south 23 miles to Georgetown. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.2 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 2.10%, is covered by water.
Salado is located along the Balcones Fault. The fault line is a demarcation line for some species' natural ranges. For example, the California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, occurs west of Salado or the Balcones Fault. Salado Creek was selected as the first Texas Natural Landmark; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Salado has a humid subtropical climate, Cfa on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, 3,475 people, 1,382 households, 1,112 families resided in the village. The population density was 204.2 people per square mile. The 1,465 housing units averaged 86.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.37% White, 0.26% African American, 0.63% Native American, 0.60% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 5.15% from other races, 0.92% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.66% of the population. There were 1,382 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.1% were married couples living together, 6.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.5% were non-families.
16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.81. In the village, the population was distributed as 22.4% under the age of 18, 5.5% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 31.3% from 45 to 64, 17.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.0 males. The median income for a household was $63,646, for a family was $70,667. Males had a median income of $48,098 versus $26,528 for females; the per capita income was $29,685. About 3.0% of families and 3.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 4.5% of those age 65 or over. Salado is served by the Salado Independent School District; the Texas Association of Private and Parochial Schools is headquartered in the Salado Civic Center in downtown Salado. Liz Carpenter, journalist James Edward Ferguson, 26th governor of Texas Miriam Amanda Ferguson, 29th and 32nd governor of Texas Lela and Raymond Howard, an older married couple who disappeared and became the basis for a 1998 hit song "The Way" by Fastball William Whitaker Reed, one of the first settlers of Bell County and its first sheriff, was elected in 1850.
George Washington Baines was the maternal great-grandfather of U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, was a Baptist clergyman who served as natural science professor and president of Baylor University; the home on Royal Street serves as a bed and breakfast, The Baines House. Scott Cawthon, video game designer, creator of the Five Nights at Freddy's series Texas Brazos Trail Felda Davis Shanklin. 1960. Salado, Texas Bell, Texas Salado Chamber of Commerce Salado Village Voice, local newspaper Salado from the Handbook of Texas Online