Fallout 4 is a post-apocalyptic action role-playing video game developed by Bethesda Game Studios and published by Bethesda Softworks. It is the fifth major installment in the Fallout series and was released worldwide on November 10, 2015, for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One; the game is set within an open world post-apocalyptic environment that encompasses the city of Boston and the surrounding Massachusetts region known as "The Commonwealth". The main story takes place in the year 2287, ten years after the events of Fallout 3 and 210 years after "The Great War", which caused catastrophic nuclear devastation across the United States; the player assumes control of a character referred to as the "Sole Survivor", who emerges from a long-term cryogenic stasis in Vault 111, an underground nuclear fallout shelter. After witnessing the murder of their spouse and kidnapping of their son, the Sole Survivor ventures out into the Commonwealth to search for their missing child; the player explores the game's dilapidated world, completes various quests, helps out factions, acquires experience points to level up and increase the abilities of their character.
New features to the series include the ability to develop and manage settlements and an extensive crafting system where materials scavenged from the environment can be used to craft drugs and explosives, upgrade weapons and armor, construct and improve settlements. Fallout 4 marks the first game in the series to feature full voice acting for the protagonist. Fallout 4 received positive reviews from critics with many praising the world depth, player freedom, overall amount of content and soundtrack, while criticism was directed at the game's visuals and technical issues; the game was a commercial and critical success, generating US$750 million within the first 24 hours of its launch, received numerous accolades from various gaming publications and award events, including the respective awards for Game of the Year and Best Game at the Academy of Interactive Arts & Sciences and British Academy Games Awards. Bethesda has released six downloadable content add-ons, including the expansions Far Harbor and Nuka-World.
Fallout 4 is an action role-playing game set in an open world environment, gameplay is similar to that of Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas, the two previous primary iterations in the series. Returning features include a camera that can switch between a first-person and third-person perspective. Fallout 4 introduces features including a layered armor system, base-building, a dialogue system featuring 111,000 lines of dialogue, a crafting system which implements every lootable object in the game. Enemies such as Mole Rats, Super Mutants and Feral Ghouls return, along with the companion Dogmeat; the player has the ability to roam in the game's world and leave a conversation at any time. If the player has discovered a certain location they may fast travel to it, they have the ability to customize weapons. Power Armor has been redesigned to be more like a vehicle than an equipable suit of armor, requiring energy cores and being dead weight without it and can be modified, allowing the player to add items such as a jetpack or selecting separate types of armor for each part of the suit.
A new feature to the series is the ability to deconstruct settlements and buildings. The player can select many in-game objects and structures, use them to build their own structures. In addition, the towns can be powered with using a power line system. Merchants and non-player characters can inhabit the player's settlements, for which the player must provide sustenance by growing food in makeshift patches and building water pumps; the player can build various defenses around their settlements, such as turrets and traps, to defend against random attacks. The Pip-Boy, a personal computing device strapped to the player character's wrist, allows the player to access a menu with statistics, maps and items the player has acquired; the player can find game cartridges, which can be played on a terminal. A new feature for the Pip-Boy interface is a downloadable application for iOS, Windows smartphones and tablets; this optional app allows players to access the Pip-Boy interface on a separate screen, play the collected game cartridges when not playing the main game.
Another returning gameplay feature is the Vault-Tec Assisted Targeting System. While using V. A. T. S. Real-time combat is slowed down, action is played out from varying camera angles in a computer graphics version of "bullet time". Various actions cost points, limiting the actions of each combatant during a period of time, the player can target specific body parts for attacks to inflict specific injuries. Unlike previous games, in which the player had a random chance to inflict a critical hit, they are now performed manually through V. A. T. S. At the beginning of the game, players are given points to spend on a character progression system called S. P. E. C. I. A. L.. The system represents seven statistics, namely strength, endurance, intelligence and luck; when the player earns enough experience points to gain a new level, they unlock an ability. When the player allocates more points to a statistic, more abilities can be unlocked; these perks can be upgraded to improve the protagonist's efficiency and to further unlock
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. A merchant is anyone, involved in business or trade. Merchants have been known for as long as industry and trade have existed. During the 16th-century, in Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: One term, described local traders such as bakers, etc.. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In ancient Rome and Greece, merchants may have been wealthy, but were not accorded high social status. In contrast, in the Middle East, where markets were an integral part of the city, merchants enjoyed high status. In modern times, the term has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth. Merchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in commerce.
Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome. During the European medieval period, a rapid expansion in trade and commerce, led to the rise of a wealthy and powerful merchant class; the European age of discovery opened up new trading routes and gave European consumers access to a much broader range of goods. From the 1600s, goods began to travel much further distances as they found their way into geographically dispersed market places. Following the opening Asia and the discovery of the New World, goods were imported from long distances: calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World. By the eighteenth century, a new type of manufacturer-merchant was emerging and modern business practices were becoming evident; the English term, "merchant" comes from the Middle English, which itself originated from the Vulgar Latin mercatant or mercatans, formed from present participle of mercatare meaning to trade, to traffic or to deal in.
The term is used to refer to any type of reseller, but can be used with a specific qualifier to suggest a person who deals in a given characteristic such as "speed merchant" to refer to someone who enjoys fast driving. Other known uses of the term include: "dream merchant" used to describe someone who peddles idealistic visionary scenarios and "merchant of war" to describe proponents of war. Elizabeth Honig has argued that concepts relating to the role of a merchant began to change in the mid-16th century; the Dutch term, became rather more fluid during the 16th century when Antwerp was the most global market town in Europe. Two different terms, for a merchant, began to be used, meerseniers referred to local merchants including bakers, sellers of dairy products and stall-holders, while the alternate term, was used to describe those who traded in goods or credit on a large scale; this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of traders who took up their places on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
Broadly, merchants can be classified into two categories: A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between the producer and retail merchant dealing in large quantities of goods. In other words, a wholesaler does not sell directly to end-users; some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer sells merchandise to end-users or consumers in small quantities. A shop-keeper is a retail merchant. However, the term'merchant' is used in a variety of specialised contexts such as in merchant banker, merchant navy or merchant services. Merchants have existed as long as business and commerce have been conducted. A merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome; these markets occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place.
These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, in ancient Rome the forum. Rome had two forums; the latter was a vast expanse. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling through permanent or semi-permanent retail premises such as stall-holders at market places or shop-keepers selling from their own premises or through door-to-door direct sales via merchants or peddlers; the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal playing into public concerns about the quality of produce; the Phoenicians were well known amongst contemporaries as "traders in purple" – a
Lachlan McIntosh was a Scottish American military and political leader during the American Revolution and the early United States. In a 1777 duel, he fatally shot a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Lachlan McIntosh was born near Raits, Scotland. McIntosh's father, John Mòr McIntosh, moved the family to Georgia in 1736 with a group of 100 Scottish settlers. John McIntosh led the colonists; the dangers of frontier life were brought home to Lachlan in 1737 when his younger brother Lewis McIntosh was killed by an alligator while swimming in the river. Georgia was governed by James Oglethorpe, who had founded the colony in 1732, it was a militarized colony, as clashes with neighboring Spanish Florida and its fortress city of St. Augustine to the south were common. In one of these clashes in 1740, during the War of Jenkins' Ear, Lachlan's father was captured by the Spanish and held prisoner for two years; the elder McIntosh was released, but his health had deteriorated during his captivity, he died a few years later.
Before his death he had supported the Colony's British Board of Trustees in their opposition to the introduction of African slaves into Georgia, demanded by an increasing number of colonists in need of labor. This earned him the gratitude of Oglethorpe; the "Mòr" of his title is Scots Gaelic for "big". After his father's death, McIntosh was sent to the Bethesda Orphanage in Savannah under the care of the noted evangelist George Whitefield, his elder brother, Colonel William McIntosh, served under Oglethorpe and helped to repulse a Spanish invasion of the colony. Lachlan spent two years at the orphanage before traveling to Fort Frederica to serve as a military cadet. During this time, the Jacobite Rebellion broke out in Scotland. Lachlan and his brother William planned to travel to Scotland and join the rebellion, but General James Oglethorpe, who had become a friend and mentor to the young McIntosh, convinced them to remain in Georgia. Lachlan's brother William has sometimes been confused with William McIntosh of the Creek Nation, their cousin.
The Creek William McIntosh was the son of Capt. William McIntosh, a Tory in the Revolutionary War, a high-status Creek woman; the senior William McIntosh was the son of Capt. John McIntosh, who had immigrated with his brother Roderick, with John "Mòr" McIntosh from Scotland. Confusion about the names stems from the fact that on their ship The Prince of Wales, at least five males were named John McIntosh in one form or another. In 1748, McIntosh moved to Charleston, South Carolina, where he took a position as a clerk for Henry Laurens, a wealthy merchant and slaveholder. Laurens became a lifelong friend and mentor. In 1756 McIntosh married Sarah Threadcraft, he soon returned with her to Georgia. He acquired land in slaves to work it. By 1770, McIntosh had become a leader in the independence movement in Georgia. In January 1775 he helped organize delegates to the Provincial Congress from the Darien District of St. Andrew Parish. On January 7, 1776, McIntosh was commissioned as a colonel in the Georgia Militia.
He raised the 1st Georgia Regiment of the Georgia Line, organized the defense of Savannah, helped repel a British assault at the Battle of the Rice Boats in the Savannah River. He was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in the Continental Army, charged with defense of Georgia's southern flank from British incursions from Florida, by a British possession. On October 22, 1776, McIntosh ordered his brother William to construct a fort on the Satilla River to protect Georgia from Florida; the fort was the first to be named Fort McIntosh. During the period of 1776 to 1777, McIntosh became embroiled in a bitter political dispute with Button Gwinnett, the Speaker of the Georgia Provisional Congress and a radical Whig leader, their bitter personal rivalry began when McIntosh succeeded Gwinnett as commander of Georgia's Continental Battalion in early 1776. The two men represented opposing factions in a divided Patriot movement in Georgia. Gwinnett had been forced to step aside after his election had been called into question by opposing forces within the independence movement.
Gwinnett, thwarted in his military ambitions, became a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence. He returned to Georgia after his allies gained control of the Provisional Congress and succeeded in electing him speaker. Shortly afterward, he was elected commander-in-chief of the Committee of Safety. Gwinnett began purging the military of his political rivals. One of his early targets was George McIntosh, Lachlan's brother, who had opposed Gwinnett's election. Gwinnett had George charged with treason against the revolution. In addition, Gwinnett had ordered Lachlan McIntosh to lead a poorly planned military expedition into British Florida; the operation was a disaster. On May 1, 1777, Lachlan McIntosh, a staunch supporter of John Treutlen for Governor, addressed the Georgia assembly and denounced Gwinnett in the harshest terms, calling Gwinnett a "scoundrel and lying rascal." Gwinnett sent a written challenge to McIntosh demanding an satisfaction.
McIntosh refused to apologize, Gwinnett challenged him to a duel. On May 16, in a field owned by James Wright a few miles east of Savannah, Gwinnett and McIntosh met to duel with pistols
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Nathaniel Hone the Elder
Nathaniel Hone was an Irish-born portrait and miniature painter, one of the founder members of the Royal Academy in 1768. The son of a Dublin-based Dutch merchant, Hone moved to England as a young man and, after marrying Molly Earle - daughter of the Duke of Argyll - in 1742 settled in London, by which time he had acquired a reputation as a portrait-painter. While his paintings were popular, his reputation was enhanced by his skill at producing miniatures and enamels, he interrupted his time in London by spending two years studying in Italy. As a portrait painter, several of his works are now held at the National Portrait Gallery in London, his sitters included magistrate Sir John Fielding and Methodist preacher John Wesley, General Richard Wilford and Sir Levett Hanson in a double portrait. He used his son John Camillus Hone in some of his works, including his unique portrait of "The Spartan Boy," painted in 1774, he courted controversy in 1775 when his satirical picture The Conjurer was seen to attack the fashion for Italian Renaissance art and to ridicule Sir Joshua Reynolds, leading the Royal Academy to reject the painting.
It originally included a nude caricature of fellow Academician Angelica Kauffman in the top left corner, painted out by Hone after Kauffman complained to the academy. The combination of a little girl and an old man has been seen as symbolic of Kauffman and Reynolds's closeness, age difference, rumoured affair. To show that his reputation was undamaged, Hone organised a one-man retrospective in London, the first such solo exhibition of an artist's work; the Hone family is related to the old Dutch landed family the van Vianens, who hold the hereditary title of Vrijheer. His great-grand-nephew shared the same name and was a notable Irish painter, known as Nathaniel Hone the Younger, he is a relation to painter Evie Hone. 42 paintings by or after Nathaniel Hone the Elder at the Art UK site