Vercelli, is a city and comune of 46.552 inhabitants in the Province of Vercelli, northern Italy. One of the oldest urban sites in northern Italy, it was founded, according to most historians, around the year 600 BC; the city is situated on the river Sesia in the plain of the river Po between Turin. It is an important centre for the cultivation of rice, is surrounded by rice paddies, which are flooded in the summer; the climate is typical of the Po Valley with cold, foggy winters and oppressive heat during the summer months. Rainfall is most prevalent during the autumn; the languages spoken in Vercelli are Piedmontese. The world's first university funded by public money was established in Vercelli in 1228, but was closed in 1372. Today it has a university of literature and philosophy as a part of the Università del Piemonte Orientale and a satellite campus of the Politecnico di Torino. Vercellae was the capital of a Ligurian tribe; the imperial magister militum Flavius Stilicho annihilated the Goths there 500 years later.
It was half ruined in St. Jerome's time. After the Lombard invasion it belonged to the Duchy of Ivrea. From 885 it was under the jurisdiction of the prince-bishop, a Count of the Empire, it became an independent commune in 1120, joined the first and second Lombard leagues. Its statutes are among the most interesting of those of the medieval republics. In 1197 they abolished the servitude of the glebe. In 1228 the University of Pavia was transferred to Vercelli, where it remained till the fourteenth century, but without gaining much prominence. In 1307, Fra Dolcino, the leader of the Dulcinian burned at the stake. During the troubles of the 13th century it fell into the power of the Della Torre of Milan, of the Marquesses of Monferrato, who appointed Matteo I Visconti captain; the Tizzoni and Avogadri disputed the city from 1301 to 1334. The Guelphs were expelled several times, enabling the Marquess of Monferrato to take Vercelli, which voluntarily placed itself under the Viscount of Milan in 1334.
In 1373, Bishop Giovanni Fieschi expelled the Visconti. Facino Cane, profiting by the strife between Giovanni Maria and Filippo Maria Visconti, took Vercelli, but was driven out by Theodore II of Montferrat, from whom the city passed to the dukes of Savoy. In 1499 and 1553 Vercelli was captured by the French, in 1616 and 1678 by the Spaniards. In 1704 it sustained an energetic siege by the French, who failed to destroy the fortress, after which it shared the fortunes of Savoy. In 1821 Vercelli rose in favour of the Constitution. Vercelli is home to numerous relics of the Roman period, e.g. an amphitheatre, hippodrome and many important inscriptions, some of which are Christian. There are seven noteworthy towers in the town, most important are the Torre dell’Angelo, which rears up over the old market square, the Torre di Città in Via Gioberti. Vercelli Cathedral adorned with precious pillars and mosaics, was erected and enlarged by Saint Eusebius of Vercelli, to whom it was dedicated after his death.
It was remodeled as of the ninth century, radically changed in the eighteenth by Count Alfieri. Like the other churches in the city, it contains valuable paintings those of Gaudenzio Ferrari, Gerolamo Giovenone and Bernardino Lanino, who were natives of Vercelli; the cathedral's Capitulary Library contains valuable manuscripts. Its religious texts include an evangelarium of the fourth century, its secular texts include the Novels of Justinian. It contains the famous Vercelli Book — an Old English manuscript which includes the celebrated alliterative poem The Dream of the Rood; the civil archives are not less important, contain documents dating from 882. The Basilica di Sant'Andrea was erected by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri in 1219. Together with the old Cistercian monastery, it is one of the most beautiful and best-preserved Romanesque monuments in Italy. Among other noteworthy churches in the city is the Santa Maria Maggiore. Vercelli's synagogue, an example of Moorish Revival architecture, is located at Via Foà 70 and the city's Jewish cemetery at Corso Randaccio 24.
On 23 November 2013, after what was believed to be an antisemitic act, two swastikas were found sprayed on its walls. The Institute of the Beaux-Arts contains paintings by Vercellese artists. Ancient charitable institutions continue, such as the hospital founded by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, which has an annual revenue of more than 600,000 lire. Vercelli is the seat of the Viotti International Music Competition. In 2007, 44,475 people were recorded as residing in Vercelli, of whom 47.3% were male and 52.7% were female. Minors totaled 14.41% of the population and pensioners 25.83%.
Ready-mix concrete is concrete, manufactured in a batch plant, according to a set engineered mix design. Ready-mix concrete is delivered in two ways. First is in -- transit mixers; this type of truck delivers concrete in a plastic state to the site. Second is the volumetric concrete mixer; this delivers the ready mix in a dry state and mixes the concrete on site. Batch plants combine a precise amount of gravel, sand and cement together by weight, allowing specialty concrete mixtures to be developed and implemented on construction sites; the first ready-mix factory was built in the 1930s, but the industry did not begin to expand until the 1960s, it has continued to grow since then. Ready-mix concrete is used over other materials due to the cost and wide range of uses in building in large projects like high rise buildings and bridges, it has a long life span. It has an average life span of 30 years under high traffic areas compared to the 10 to 12 year life of asphalt concrete with the same traffic.
Ready-mix concrete, or RMC as it's known, refers to concrete, batched or manufactured for customers' construction projects, supplied to the customer on site as a single product. It is a mixture of Portland or other cements and aggregates: sand, gravel, or crushed stone. All aggregates should be of a washed type material with limited amounts of fines or clay. Ready-mixed concrete is used in construction projects where the construction site is not willing, or not able, to mix concrete on site. Using ready-mixed concrete means product is delivered finished, on demand, in the specific quantity required, to the specific mix design required. For a small to medium project, the cost and time of hiring mixing equipment, plus purchase and storage for the ingredients of concrete, added to environmental concerns may be not worth it when compared to the linear cost model of ready-mixed concrete, where the customer pays for what they use, lets someone else do the work up to that point. For a large project, outsourcing concrete production to ready-mixed concrete suppliers means delegating the quality control and testing, material logistics and supply chain issues, mix design, to specialists who are set up for those tasks, trading off against introducing another contracted external supplier who needs to make a profit, losing the control and immediacy of on-site mixing.
Ready-mix concrete is bought and sold by volume - expressed in cubic meters. Batching and mixing is done under controlled conditions. In the UK, ready-mixed concrete is specified either informally, by constituent weight or volume or using the formal specification standards of the European standard EN 206+ A1, supplemented in the UK by BS 8500; this allows the customer to specify what the concrete has to be able to withstand in terms of ground conditions and strength, allows the concrete manufacturer to design a mix that meets that requirement using the materials locally available to a batching plant. This is verified by laboratory testing, such as performing cube tests to verify compressive strength and supplemented by field testing, such as slump tests done on site to verify plasticity of the mix; the performance of a concrete mix can be altered by use of admixtures. Admixtures can be used to reduce water requirements, entrain air into a mixture, add small fibres of PPP to improve surface durability, or superplasticise concrete to make it self-levelling, as self-consolidating concrete, but the use of admixtures requires precision in dosing and mix design, more difficult without the dosing/measuring equipment and laboratory backing of a batching plant, which means they are not used outside of ready-mixed concrete.
Concrete has a limited lifespan between batching / curing. This means that ready-mixed concrete should be placed within 30 to 45 minutes of batching process to hold slump and mix design specifications in the USA, though in the UK, environmental and material factors, plus in-transit mixing, allow for up two hours to elapse Modern admixtures and water reducers can modify that time span to some degree. Ready-mixed concrete can be placed at site using a number of methods; the most common, simplest, is the chute fitted to the back of transit mixer trucks, suitable for placing concrete near locations where a truck can just reverse in. Dumper trucks, crane hoppers, truck-mounted conveyors, and, in extremis, can be used to place concrete from trucks where access is not direct; some concrete mixes are suitable for pumping with a concrete pump. In 2011, there were 2,223 companies employing 72,925 workers. Materials are combined in a batch plant, the hydration process begins at the moment water meets the cement, so the travel time from the plant to the site, the time before the concrete is placed on site, is critical over longer distances.
Some sites are just too far away. Concrete is formable and pourable. If there is a supply interruption, the concrete cannot be poured all at once, a cold joint may appear in the finished form. Cracking and shrinkage. Concrete shrinks, it can shrink 1/16 inch over a 10 foot long area
A cartel is a group of independent producers whose goal is to increase their collective profits by means of price fixing, limiting supply, or other restrictive practices. Cartels control selling prices, but some are organized to control the prices of purchased inputs. Antitrust laws attempt to forbid cartels. A single entity that holds a monopoly by this definition cannot be a cartel, though it may be guilty of abusing said monopoly in other ways. Cartels occur in oligopolies, where there are a small number of sellers and involve homogeneous products. In general, cartels can be divided into international agreements. Export cartels constitute a special case of international cartels. Unlike other cartels, export cartels are legal in all jurisdictions, despite their harmful effects on affected markets. Bid rigging is a special type of cartel. People of the same trade meet together for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices.
A survey of hundreds of published economic studies and legal decisions of antitrust authorities found that the median price increase achieved by cartels in the last 200 years is about 23 percent. Private international cartels had an average price increase of 28 percent, whereas domestic cartels averaged 18 percent. Less than 10 percent of all cartels in the sample failed to raise market prices. In general, cartel agreements are economically unstable in that there is an incentive for members to cheat by selling at below the agreed price or selling more than the production quotas set by the cartel; this has caused many cartels. Empirical studies of 20th century cartels have determined that the mean duration of discovered cartels is from 5 to 8 years. However, once a cartel is broken, the incentives to form the cartel return and the cartel may be re-formed. Publicly-known cartels that do not follow this cycle include, by some accounts, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Price fixing is practiced internationally.
When the agreement to control price is sanctioned by a multilateral treaty or protected by national sovereignty, no antitrust actions may be initiated. Examples of such price fixing include oil, whose price is controlled by the supply by OPEC countries, international airline tickets, which have prices fixed by agreement with the IATA, a practice for which there is a specific exception in antitrust law. Prior to World War II, members of cartels could sign contracts that were enforceable in courts of law. There were instances where cartels are encouraged by states. For example, during the period before 1945, cartels were tolerated in Europe and were promoted as a business practice in German-speaking countries; this was the norm due to the accepted benefits, which the U. S. Supreme court has noted. In the case, the U. S. v. National Lead Co. et al. it cited the testimony of individuals, who cited that a cartel, in its protean form, is "a combination of producers for the purpose of regulating production and prices, an association by agreement of companies or sections of companies having common interests so as to prevent extreme or unfair competition."Today, price fixing by private entities is illegal under the antitrust laws of more than 140 countries.
Examples of prosecuted international cartels are lysine, citric acid, graphite electrodes, bulk vitamins. This is highlighted in countries with market economies wherein price-fixing and the concept of cartels are considered inimical to free and fair competition, considered the backbone of political democracy; the current condition makes it difficult for cartels to maintain sustainable operations. If international cartels might be out of reach for the regulatory authorities, they will still have to contend with the fact that their activities in domestic markets will be affected. OPEC: As its name suggests, OPEC is organized by sovereign states; the traditional view holds that it cannot be held to antitrust enforcement in other jurisdictions by virtue of the doctrine of state immunity under public international law. OPEC serves as an example of state entanglement in anticompetitive conduct. Many trade associations in industries dominated by only a few major companies, have been accused of being fronts for cartels or facilitating secret meetings among cartel members.
Although cartels are thought of as a group of corporations, the free-market economist Charles W. Baird considers trade unions to be cartels, as they seek to raise the price of labor by preventing competition. For example, negotiated cartelism is a labor arrangement in which labor prices are held above the market clearing level through union leverage over employers. An example of a new international cartel is the one created by the members of the Asian Racing Federation and documented in the Good Neighbor Policy signed on September 1, 2003. Bishop and Mike Walker: The Economics of EC Competition Law. Sweet and Maxwell. Connor, John M.: Global Price Fixing: 2nd Paperback Edition. Heidelberg: Springer. Freyer, Tony A.: Antitrust and global capitalism 1930–2004, New York 2006. Hexner, The International Steel Cartel, Chapel Hill 1943. Kleinwächter, Die Kartelle. Ein Beitrag zur Frage der Organisation der Volkswirtschaft, Innsbruck 1883. Levenstein, Margaret C. and Valerie Y. Suslow. "What Determines Cartel Success?"
Journal of Economic Literature 64: 43–95. Liefmann, Robert: Cartels and Trusts, Ontario 2001 Martyniszyn
Italian Competition Authority
The Italian Competition Authority is an Italian quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization established on the basis of Law №287 of 10 October 1990, 100 years after the Sherman Antitrust Act. As of 2004, the Italian Competition Authority has been in charge of enforcing laws against conflicts of interest for Holders of Public Office; as the Italian competition regulator, the Authority has the task of enforcing both Italian and European consumer protection laws. It is financed by annual allocations through a special chapter of the Ministry of Economic Development's budget; the Financial Law of 2006 introduced partial self-financing: AGCM has full control over the management of these funds for its own operations. An annual report is presented to the President of the Council of Ministers of Italy; the main duties of the authority are: Vigilance against abuses from market dominance. Vigilance against cartels that may prejudice or restrict fair competition. Vigilance on takeovers to check concentration ratio and verify market impact.
Consumer protection, against unfair trade practices and false advertising. Supervise and penalize the cases of conflict of interest regarding members of Government of Italy; the Authority in such cases may conduct investigations or hearings with the Guardia di Finanza at his disposal, which may result in a warning or an administrative penalty. Official website AGCM commission hearings are available on Radio Radicale website
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market. A stock symbol may consist of numbers or a combination of both. "Ticker symbol" refers to the symbols. Stock symbols are unique identifiers assigned to each security traded on a particular market. A stock symbol can consist of letters, numbers, or a combination of both, is a way to uniquely identify that stock; the symbols were kept as short as possible to reduce the number of characters that had to be printed on the ticker tape, to make it easy to recognize by traders and investors. The allocation of symbols and formatting convention is specific to each stock exchange. In the US, for example, stock tickers are between 1 and 4 letters and represent the company name where possible. For example, US-based computer company stock Apple Inc. traded on the NASDAQ exchange has the symbol AAPL, while the motor company Ford's stock, traded on the New York Stock Exchange has the single-letter ticker F.
In Europe, most exchanges use three-letter codes, for example Dutch consumer goods company Unilever traded on the Amsterdam Euronext exchange has the symbol UNA. While in Asia, numbers are used as stock tickers to avoid issues for international investors when using non-Latin scripts. For example, the bank HSBC's stock traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange has the ticker symbol 0005. Symbols sometimes change to reflect mergers. Prior to the 1999 merger with Mobil Oil, Exxon used a phonetic spelling of the company "XON" as its ticker symbol; the symbol of the firm after the merger was "XOM". Symbols are sometimes reused. In the US the single-letter symbols are sought after as vanity symbols. For example, since Mar 2008 Visa Inc. has used the symbol V, used by Vivendi which had delisted and given up the symbol. To qualify a stock, both the ticker and the exchange or country of listing needs to be known. On many systems both must be specified to uniquely identify the security; this is done by appending the location or exchange code to the ticker.
Although stock tickers identify a security, they are exchange dependent limited to stocks and can change. These limitations have led to the development of other codes in financial markets to identify securities for settlement purposes; the most prevalent of these is the International Securities Identifying Number. An ISIN uniquely identifies a security and its structure is defined in ISO 6166. Securities for which ISINs are issued include bonds, commercial paper and warrants; the ISIN code is a 12-character alpha-numerical code that does not contain information characterizing financial instruments, but serves for uniform identification of a security at trading and settlement. The ISIN identifies not the exchange on which it trades. For instance, Daimler AG stock trades on twenty-two different stock exchanges worldwide, is priced in five different currencies. ISIN cannot specify a particular trade in this case, another identifier the three- or four-letter exchange code will have to be specified in addition to the ISIN.
While a stock ticker identifies a security that can be traded, stock market indices are sometimes assigned a symbol though they can not be traded. Symbols for indices are distinguished by adding a symbol in front of the name, such as a caret or a dot. For example, Reuters lists the Nasdaq Composite index under the symbol. IXIC. In Canada the Toronto Stock Exchange TSX and the TSXV use the following special codes after the ticker symbol: In the United Kingdom, prior to 1996, stock codes were known as EPICs, named after the London Stock Exchange's Exchange Price Information Computer. Following the introduction of the Sequence trading platform in 1996, EPICs were renamed Tradable Instrument Display Mnemonics, but they are still referred to as EPICs. Stocks can be identified using their SEDOL number or their ISIN. In the United States, modern letter-only ticker symbols were developed by Standard & Poor's to bring a national standard to investing. A single company could have many different ticker symbols as they varied between the dozens of individual stock markets.
The term ticker refers to the noise made by the ticker tape machines once used by stock exchanges. The S&P system was standardized by the securities industry and modified as years passed. Stock symbols for preferred stock have not been standardized; some companies use a well-known product as their ticker symbol. Belgian brewer InBev, the brewer of Budweiser beer, uses "BUD" as its three-letter ticker for American Depository Receipts, symbolizing its premier product in the United States, its rival, Molson Coors Brewing Company, uses a beer-related symbol, "TAP". Southwest Airlines pays tribute to its headquarters at Love Field in Dallas through its "LUV" symbol. Cedar Fair Entertainment Company, which operates large amusement parks in the United States, uses "FUN" as its symbol. Harley-Davidson uses "HOG" for its Harley Owners Group. Yamana Gold uses "AUY", because on the periodic table of elements. Sotheby's uses the symbol "BID". While most symbols come from the company's name, sometimes it happens the other way around.
Tricon Global, owner of KFC, Pi
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer