An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Buzzcocks are an English punk rock band formed in Bolton, England in 1976 by singer-songwriter-guitarist Pete Shelley and singer-songwriter Howard Devoto. They are regarded as a seminal influence on the Manchester music scene, the independent record label movement, punk rock, power pop, pop punk, they achieved commercial success with singles that fused pop craftsmanship with rapid-fire punk energy. These singles were collected on Singles Going Steady, described by critic Ned Raggett as a "punk masterpiece". Devoto and Shelley chose the name "Buzzcocks" after reading the headline, "It's the Buzz, Cock!", in a review of the TV series Rock Follies in Time Out magazine. The "buzz" is the excitement of playing on stage, they thought it captured the excitement of the nascent punk scene, as well as having humorous sexual connotations. Devoto left the band in 1977. Shelley died on 6 December 2018. Howard Trafford, a student at Bolton Institute of Technology, placed a notice in the college looking for musicians sharing a liking for The Velvet Underground's song "Sister Ray".
Peter McNeish, a fellow student at the Institute, responded to the notice. Trafford had been involved in electronic music, while McNeish had played rock. By late 1975, Trafford and McNeish had recruited a drummer and formed, in effect, an embryonic version of Buzzcocks; the band formed in February 1976. They performed live for the first time on 1 April 1976 at their college. Garth Davies played Mick Singleton played drums. Singleton played in local band Black Cat Bone. After reading an NME review of the Sex Pistols' first performance and Devoto travelled to London together to see the Sex Pistols in February 1976. Shelley and Devoto were impressed by what they saw and arranged for the Sex Pistols to come and perform at the Lesser Free Trade Hall in Manchester, in June 1976. Buzzcocks intended to play at this concert, but the other musicians dropped out, Shelley and Devoto were unable to recruit other musicians in time for the gig. Once they had recruited bass guitarist Steve Diggle and drummer John Maher, they made their debut opening for the Sex Pistols' second Manchester concert in July 1976.
A brief clip of Devoto-era Buzzcocks performing The Troggs' "I Can't Control Myself" appears in the Punk: Attitude documentary directed by Don Letts. In September 1976 the band travelled to London to perform at the two-day 100 Club Punk Festival, organised by Malcolm McLaren. Other performers included: the Sex Pistols, Subway Sect and the Banshees, The Clash, The Vibrators, The Damned and the French band Stinky Toys. By the end of the year, Buzzcocks had recorded and released a four-track EP, Spiral Scratch, on their own New Hormones label, making them one of the first punk groups to establish an independent record label, trailing only The Saints' " Stranded". Produced by Martin Hannett, the music was recorded, insistently repetitive, energetic. "Boredom" announced punk's rebellion against the status quo while templating a strident musical minimalism. The demos recorded while Devoto was in the band were issued as Time's Up. Long available as a bootleg, this album includes the alternative takes of all the tracks from the Spiral Scratch EP as well as early version of tracks that appeared on the official debut Another Music in a Different Kitchen.
After a few months, Devoto left the group, expressing his dissatisfaction at the direction that punk was taking in his statement "what was once unhealthily fresh is now a clean old hat". He returned to college for a year formed Magazine. Pete Shelley took on the vocal duties. Steve Diggle switched from bass to guitar, Garth Davies rejoined on bass. While Davies appeared on the band’s first Radio 1 Peel Session, in September 1977, his alleged unreliability led to his expulsion from the band. Davies was replaced by Steve Garvey; this new line-up signed with United Artists Records – the signing itself was undertaken at Manchester's Electric Circus on 16 August 1977, the day Elvis Presley died. Their first UA Buzzcocks single, "Orgasm Addict", was a playful examination of compulsive sexuality, uncommonly bold; the BBC refused to play the song, the single did not sell well. More ambiguous songs staked out a territory defined by Shelley's bisexuality and punk's aversion to serious examination of human sexuality.
The next single, "What Do I Get?" reached the UK top 50 chart. "Lipstick", the B-side to "Promises," shared the same ascending progression of notes in its chorus as Magazine's first single, "Shot By Both Sides," released in 1978. Their original career produced three LPs: Another Music in a Different Kitchen, Love Bites, A Different Kind of Tension, each supported by extensive touring in Europe and the U. S. A, their trademark sound was a marriage of catchy pop melodies with punk guitar energy, backed by an unusually tight and skilled rhythm section. They advanced drastically in musical and lyrical sophistication: by the end they were quoting USA writer William S. Burroughs, declaiming their catechism in the anthem "I Believe", tuning in to a fantasy radio station on which their songs could be heard. In 1980, Liberty Records signed the band, released three singles; the double'A' side "Why She's A Girl From
Howard Devoto is an English singer and songwriter, who began his career as the frontman for the punk rock band Buzzcocks, but left to form Magazine, one of the first post-punk bands. After Magazine, he went solo and formed indie band Luxuria, his singing has been characterized as a "speak-sing voice that veered between amused croon and panicked yelp." Born in Scunthorpe, Devoto grew up in Nuneaton and Moortown, where he attended Leeds Grammar School and met and befriended future Buzzcocks manager Richard Boon. In 1972, he went to Bolton Institute of Technology to study psychology, humanities. During these college years, he met his future bandmates Ben Mandelson. Inspired by the Sex Pistols, Devoto co-formed Buzzcocks with singer/guitarist Pete Shelley in 1976, he left the band in February 1977 after only one record and a small number of performances to form the band Magazine. Devoto formed the influential post-punk band Magazine in 1977, they released several critically acclaimed albums, which met with moderate commercial success, as well as minor hits such as "Shot by Both Sides" and "A Song from Under the Floorboards".
Magazine reformed in February 2009 performing on a tour of five dates, subsequently continued playing live and began to record new material. A studio album, No Thyself, was released in October 2011. After Magazine split in 1981 Devoto spent two years putting together a solo album with former Magazine keyboard player Dave Formula. Jerky Versions of the Dream reached No. 57 in the UK Albums Chart in August 1983, was reissued in 2007 by Virgin/EMI, featuring several tracks of bonus material. A collaboration with Bernard Szajner on the Brute Reason LP was released on Island Records in 1983; this was followed by a rendering of Big Star's "Holocaust" for the loose collective This Mortal Coil. The album It'll End in Tears contained contributions from many of the 4AD label's best artists, Devoto's presence being somewhat atypical. In 1997, Devoto wrote the lyrics to the Mansun track, "Everyone Must Win", which appeared on the Closed for Business EP. A year he collaborated again with the band, writing lyrics for and singing on "Railings", a B-side for "Being a Girl".
One of his next projects was a 1988 collaboration with Liverpool multi-instrumentalist Noko. As Luxuria they released two albums and a music video for the single "Redneck". For most of the 1990s, Devoto was little involved in music, earning his living by working for a photo agency. In 2001, Devoto teamed up for the first time in twenty-five years with Buzzcocks Pete Shelley and released the much-anticipated Buzzkunst under the name ShelleyDevoto. Reviews were mixed. In 2002, Devoto had a small part in the movie 24 Hour Party People, a film about Manchester's Factory Records. In his brief cameo appearance, Devoto appears as a janitor cleaning a men's toilet while actor Martin Hancock portrays Devoto having a tryst with the wife of promoter/journalist Tony Wilson; the real-life Devoto breaks the fourth wall by addressing the camera and stating in deadpan, "I don't remember this happening". In February 2009 Magazine reformed, with former Luxuria partner Noko replacing the deceased John McGeoch on guitar.
On 9 July 2009, Devoto was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Bolton for his contribution to music. In November 2011 it was announced he would be returning to the stage with the Buzzcocks for two special shows as part of the Buzzcocks "Back to Front" tour on 25 and 26 May 2012; these took place at the O2 Apollo in Manchester and the O2 Academy in Brixton A number of bands continue to be influenced by his work. Momus recorded the tribute song "The Most Important Man Alive" for the Bungalow Records compilation Suite 98 in 1988. Mansun have covered "Shot by Both Sides" live, it was recorded in their fourth and final album Kleptomania. Radiohead and Jarvis Cocker have both covered "Shot by Both Sides". Both Ministry and Peter Murphy have covered Magazine's "The Light Pours Out of Me", whilst Morrissey, My Friend the Chocolate Cake and Strange Boutique have covered Magazine's "A Song from Under the Floorboards". For Magazine and Luxuria, see Discography of Magazine and Discography of Luxuria.
This is from his solo career: Albums 1983: Jerky Versions of the Dream - No. 57 UKSingles 1983: "Rainy Season" - No. 97 UK 1983: "Cold Imagination" Spiral Scratch Real Life #29 UK Secondhand Daylight #38 UK The Correct Use of Soap #28 UK Magic and the Weather #39 UK Jerky Versions of the Dream #57 UK Unanswerable Lust Beast Box Buzzkunst No Thyself #167 UK Magazine official website Interview Buzzcocks official website
Uncut magazine, trademarked as UNCUT, is a monthly publication based in London. It is available across the English-speaking world, focuses on music, but includes film and books sections. A DVD magazine under the Uncut brand was published quarterly from 2005 to 2006. Uncut was launched in May 1997 as "a monthly magazine aimed at 25- to 45-year-old men that focuses on music and movies", edited by Allan Jones. Jones has stated that "he idea for Uncut came from my own disenchantment about what I was doing with Melody Maker. There was a publishing initiative to make the audience younger. According to IPC Media, 86% of the magazine's readers are male and their average age is 37 years. Uncut's contents include lengthy features on old albums, interviews with film directors and film news, reviews of all major new album, film and DVD releases, its music features tend to focus on genres such as Americana and alternative country. Each month the magazine includes a free CD. Special Issues have covered U2, Bob Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, The Byrds, David Bowie, Demon Records, Eric Clapton, John Lennon, Pink Floyd, Martin Scorsese, Motown Records, George Harrison, Jimmy Page, Led Zeppelin, The Beach Boys, Paul McCartney, Neil Young, The Beatles, Elvis Costello, The Kinks, Fleetwood Mac and more.
Uncut underwent a radical redesign in May 2006, as a result of which the magazine no longer catered for books and reduced its film content. Allan Jones writes a regular monthly column, recounting stories from his long career in music journalism. Uncut's monthly circulation has dropped from over 90,000 in 2007 to 47,890 in the second half of 2015. Uncut produces themed spin-off titles celebrating the career of one artist; this series has been known as Uncut Legends. Artists who have so far had magazines devoted to them include Radiohead, Kurt Cobain, U2, Bruce Springsteen, Tom Waits and John Lennon; the Lennon magazine was produced to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the death of the former Beatle. The majority of these titles have been produced by magazine editor Chris Hunt; the series started in 2003 with an inaugural issue devoted to Bob Dylan, edited by Nigel Williamson. In 2008 Uncut launched their inaugural Uncut Music Award, described as "a quest to find the most inspiring and rewarding musical experience of the past 12 months."
A list of 25 nominees is selected by a panel of 10 judges, who are all musicians or music industry professionals, they come together to decide a winner. Past winners have included Fleet Foxes, Paul Weller and P. J. Harvey. In late 2005, Allan Jones and publishing director Andrew Sumner launched a spin-off of the main movies and music magazine, that focused its attention on DVD releases of classic movies. Billed as "the only great movie magazine," Uncut DVD was designed to compete with such established titles as Ultimate DVD, DVD Review and DVD Monthly. Despite strong reviews in the UK trade press, Uncut DVD folded after three quarterly issues
The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists of the soprillo, soprano, tenor, bass, contrabass saxophone and tubax. Soprano saxophones are the smallest saxophone in common use. A transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F♯ key have a range from B♭3 to F♯6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone; some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and G at the top of the range. These extra keys are found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the altissimo register, which allows them to play higher. There is a soprano pitched in C, less common and until had not been made since around 1940; the soprano saxophone can be compared to the B♭ clarinet, although the clarinet can play an augmented fourth lower and over a fifth higher.
Due to the wide bore of the soprano, it is less forgiving with respect to intonation than the lower saxophones, though an experienced player will use alternate fingerings or vary breath support, tongue position or embouchure to compensate. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation. Due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it. In addition to straight sopranos, there are slightly and curved sopranos; the curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some players believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer, less nasal tone; the soprano has all the keys of other saxophone models and some may have a top'G' key next to the F♯ key. Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required. In 2001, François Louis created the aulochrome, a woodwind instrument made of two joined soprano saxophones, which can be played either in unison or in harmony.
The soprano saxophone is used as a solo and chamber instrument in classical music, though it is used in a concert band or orchestra. It plays a lead role. Many solo pieces have been written for it by composers such as Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alan Hovhaness, Jennifer Higdon, Takashi Yoshimatsu, Charles Koechlin, John Mackey; as an orchestral instrument, it has been used in several compositions. It was used by Richard Strauss in his Sinfonia Domestica, where included in the music are parts for four saxophones, including a soprano saxophone in C, it is used in Maurice Ravel's "Bolero" and has a featured solo directly following the tenor saxophone's solo. Vincent d'Indy includes a soprano in his opera Fervaal. Notable classical soprano saxophonists include Carina Rascher, Christine Rall, Eugene Rousseau, Kenneth Tse, Jean-Yves Fourmeau, Jean-Denis Michat, Vincent David, John Harle, Mariano Garcia, Claude Delangle, Arno Bornkamp and Christopher Creviston. While not as popular as the alto and tenor saxes in jazz, the soprano saxophone has played a role in its evolution.
Greats of the jazz soprano sax include 1930s virtuoso Sidney Bechet, 1950s innovator Steve Lacy, beginning with his landmark 1960 album My Favorite Things, John Coltrane. Other well known jazz players include: Wayne Shorter, Paul McCandless, Johnny Hodges, Walter Parazaider, Bob Berg, Joe Farrell, Lucky Thompson, Sonny Fortune, Anthony Braxton, Sam Rivers, Gary Bartz, Dan Forshaw, Bennie Maupin, Branford Marsalis, Kirk Whalum, Jan Garbarek, Danny Markovitch of Marbin, Paul Winter, Dave Liebman, Evan Parker, Sam Newsome, Kenny G and Charlie Mariano. Other notable soprano saxophonists include Joshua Redman, Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, Grover Washington Jr. Ronnie Laws, Nigerian Afrobeat multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti. List of saxophonists
Pete Shelley was an English singer and guitarist. He formed early punk band Buzzcocks with Howard Devoto in 1976, was the lead singer and guitarist from 1977 when Devoto left, releasing "Ever Fallen in Love" in 1978; the band broke up in 1981, reforming in 1989. Shelley had a solo career. Shelley was born to John McNeish at 48 Milton Street, in Leigh, Lancashire, his mother was an ex-mill worker in the town and his father was a fitter at Astley Green Colliery. He had Gary. Shelley's stage name is inspired by his favorite Romantic poet. Shelley formed Buzzcocks with Howard Devoto after they met at the Bolton Institute of Technology in 1975 and subsequently travelled to High Wycombe, near London, to see the Sex Pistols; the band included drummer John Maher. In 1977 Buzzcocks released their first EP, Spiral Scratch, on their independent label, New Hormones; when Devoto left the band in February 1977, Shelley took over as the lead vocalist and chief songwriter. Working with the producer Martin Rushent, the band created the punk/new wave singles "Orgasm Addict", "What Do I Get?" and "Ever Fallen in Love", along with three LPs: Another Music in a Different Kitchen, Love Bites and A Different Kind of Tension.
Difficulties with their record company and a dispute with Virgin Publishing over the UK release of their greatest hits record, Singles Going Steady, brought the band to a halt in 1981. Shelley developed a different personal image than many of his rebellious 1970s punk contemporaries, telling Melody Maker in 1978, "I won't be nasty. We’re just four nice lads, the kind of people you could take home to your parents." Shelley's solo debut album Sky Yen was recorded in 1974 but remained unheard until it was released on 12" vinyl on Shelley's own label, Groovy Records, in March 1980. It was recorded as a continuous piece of music using a purpose-built oscillator, used layered electronics and playback speed manipulation to achieve its experimental feel. Rooted in electronic music, it has been compared with krautrock. Released on Groovy Records was the soundtrack LP Hangahar by Sally Timms and Lindsay Lee, which included Shelley as a musician, an album by artists Eric Random, Barry Adamson and Francis Cookson under the name Free Agents.
After these releases, Groovy Records never released another album. In 1981 Shelley released his first solo single, the song "Homosapien", produced by Rushent. On this recording he returned to his original interests in electronic music and shifted emphasis from guitar to synthesiser. "Homosapien" was banned by the BBC for "explicit reference to gay sex". In the US dance chart, "Homosapien" peaked at number fourteen, it was at this time that Shelley talked about his bisexuality, implicit in many of the songs he had written, but now came to wider attention due to "Homosapien" and the BBC ban. The single was followed by an LP of the same title. Shelley released his second LP XL1 in 1983 on Genetic Records; as well as the minor hit "Telephone Operator", the album included a computer program for the ZX Spectrum with lyrics and graphics that displayed in time to the music. XL1 was produced by Shelley. In June 1986 Shelley released the single "Never Again", followed by the Sea. In 1987 he followed the album with "Do Anything", for the film Some Kind of Wonderful.
He composed the theme music for the intro of the Tour de France on Channel 4, used from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. Shelley recorded a new version of "Homosapien", called "Homosapien II", in 1989; the single featured four mixes of the new recording. He played with various other musicians during his career, including the Invisible Girls who backed punk poet John Cooper Clarke. Shelley formed a short-lived band called the Tiller Boys, he reunited with Howard Devoto to make the LP Buzzkunst, released in 2002. Shelley appeared on the 2005 debut EP by the Los Angeles band the Adored, who toured with Buzzcocks the following year. Buzzcocks reunited in 1989 and released a new full-length album, Trade Test Transmissions, in 1993, they continued to tour and record and released the album The Way in 2014. In 2005 Shelley re-recorded "Ever Fallen in Love" with an all-star group, including Roger Daltrey, David Gilmour, Peter Hook, Elton John, Robert Plant and several contemporary bands, as a tribute to John Peel.
Shelley performed. Shelley was open about his bisexuality. Diggle suggested that his earlier same sex encounters were "a phase", but Shelley continued to identify as bisexual in life, he was married in 1991 and divorced in 2002. His son was born in 1993. Shelley moved to Tallinn, Estonia, in 2012 with his second wife, Greta, an Estonian, preferring the less hectic pace there to London, he died there of a suspected heart attack on the morning of 6 December 2018. His brother, Gary McNeish, announced his death on Facebook. Tributes to Shelley included Pearl Jam, Duff McKagan, Billy Talent, Peter Hook, Duran Duran, Billie Joe Armstrong, Mike Joyce, Gary Kemp, Mike Mills, Ginger Wildheart, Glen Matlock and Stuart Braithwaite Sky Yen Groovy Records Hangahar by Sally Smmit (a.k.a. Sally Timms of The Mekons And her Musicians.
The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax in the 1840s. The tenor and the alto are the two most used saxophones; the tenor is pitched in the key of B♭, written as a transposing instrument in the treble clef, sounding an octave and a major second lower than the written pitch. Modern tenor saxophones which have a high F♯ key have a range from A♭2 to E5 and are therefore pitched one octave below the soprano saxophone. People who play the tenor saxophone are known as "tenor saxophonists", "tenor sax players", or "saxophonists"; the tenor saxophone uses a larger mouthpiece and ligature than the alto and soprano saxophones. Visually, it is distinguished by the bend in its neck, or its crook, near the mouthpiece; the alto saxophone lacks its neck goes straight to the mouthpiece. The tenor saxophone is most recognized for its ability to blend well with the soprano and baritone saxophones, with its "husky" yet "bright" tone; the tenor saxophone is used in classical music, military bands, marching bands and jazz.
It is included in pieces written for symphony orchestra. In concert bands, the tenor plays a supporting role, sometimes sharing parts with the euphonium and trombone. In jazz ensembles, the tenor plays a more prominent role as a member of a section that includes the alto and baritone saxes. Many of the most innovative and influential jazz musicians have been tenor saxophonists; these include Coleman Hawkins, Lester Young, Ben Webster, Dexter Gordon, Wardell Gray, Stan Getz, Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane and Wayne Shorter. The work of younger players such as Michael Brecker and Chris Potter has been an important influence in more recent jazz; the tenor saxophone is one of a family of fourteen instruments designed and constructed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax, a Belgian-born instrument maker and clarinetist. Based on an amalgam of ideas drawn from the clarinet, flute and ophicleide, the saxophone was intended to form a tonal link between the woodwinds and brass instruments found in military bands, an area that Sax considered sorely lacking.
Sax's patent, granted on 28 June 1846, divided the family into two groups of seven instruments, each ranging from alto down to contrabass. One family, pitched alternatively in B♭ and E♭, was designed to integrate with the other instruments common in military bands; the tenor saxophone, pitched in B♭, is the fourth member of this family. The tenor saxophone, like all saxophones, consists of an conical tube of thin brass, a type of metal; the wider end of the tube is flared to form a bell, while the narrower end is connected to a single reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. At intervals down the bore are placed between 23 tone holes. There are two small speaker holes which, when opened, disrupt the lower harmonics of the instrument and cause it to overblow into an upper register; the pads are controlled by pressing a number of keys with the fingers of the left and right hands. The original design of tenor saxophone had a separate octave key for each speaker hole, in the manner of the bassoon.
Although a handful of novelty tenors have been constructed'straight', like the smaller members of the saxophone family, the unwieldy length of the straight configuration means that all tenor saxophones feature a'U-bend' above the third-lowest tone hole, characteristic of the saxophone family. The tenor saxophone is curved at the top, above the highest tone-hole but below the highest speaker hole. While the alto is bent only through 80–90° to make the mouthpiece fit more in the mouth, the tenor is bent a little more in this section, incorporating a slight S-bend; the mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is similar to that of the clarinet, an wedge-shaped tube, open along one face and covered in use by a thin strip of material prepared from the stem of the giant cane known as a reed. The reed is shaved to come to an thin point, is clamped over the mouthpiece by the use of a ligature; when air is blown through the mouthpiece, the reed vibrates and generates the acoustic resonances required to produce a sound from the instrument.
The mouthpiece is the area of the saxophone with the greatest flexibility in shape and style, so the timbre of the instrument is determined by the dimensions of its mouthpiece. The design of the mouthpiece and reed play a big role in. Classical mouthpieces help produce a warmer and rounder tone, while jazz mouthpieces help produce a brighter and edgier tone. Materials used in mouthpiece construction include plastic and various metals e.g. bronze and stainless steel. The mouthpiece of the tenor saxophone is proportionally larger than that of the alto, necessitating a larger reed; the increased stiffness of the reed and the greater airflow required to establish resonance in the larger body means the tenor sax requires greater lung power but a looser embouchure than the higher-pitched member