Byggvir is a figure in Norse mythology. The only surviving mention of Byggvir appears in the prose beginning of Lokasenna, stanzas 55 through 56 of the same poem, where he is referred to as one of Freyr's servants and as the husband of Beyla. Bygg is the Old Norse word for barley. Subsequently, Byggvir is identified with this etymology of his name and connections have been placed with the mentioning of Byggvir's described involvement with mill-grinding as being potential references to barley processing. Comparisons to the Anglo-Saxon figure of Beowa have been put forth. In Lokasenna, Loki is depicted as degrading Byggvir for being of slight stature and as a gossiper: Stanza 43: Stanza 44: Stanza 45: Stanza 46: In relation to Loki's comments in Lokasenna, proposals have been made that Beyla and her husband are personifications of agriculture associated with Freyr: Beyla as the manure that softens the earth and develops the seed, Byggvir as the refuse of the mill, chaff. John Barleycorn Sif

2×2 (TV channel)

2x2 is a Russian television channel. Founded in 1989, it was the first commercial TV station in the Soviet Union; the station shut down in 1994, it re-opened in 2003. Since the channel predominantly broadcasts foreign animated TV series, including anime and Adult Swim shows. 2x2 was established by order of the USSR radio and television department as a structural unit in the General Directorate of Programs. Under Presidence and direction of Pier Luigi Stefani, Managing Director of Videomusic and executive vice-President of Superchannel, there were four people involved in the channel's establishment: Sergey Alexeev, Olga Smirnova, Oleg Schoor and Olga Lukasik. In August 1989, Sergey Lavrov joined the team as an administrator; the channel broadcast its first pilot in July 1989, under the name "Commercial Channel". Broadcasting was conducted during the daytime due to the fact that the state "Moscow" was broadcast in the evening on the same frequency. Length esters, called "Commercial Television Channel," were not fixed.

Music videos that were broadcast included, "All She Wants Is" by Duran Duran, "Always on My Mind," by the group Pet Shop Boys, "Pendant que les champs brûlent," by the group Niagara, "Everywhere," by Fleetwood Mac, "Around My Heart," by singer Sandra, "The Soldier," by Thomas Anders, "Mon mec à moi," by Patricia Kaas, as well as fragments of the concert "Space in Moscow." At this time, the channel's staff was limited to a small room "No. 115" behind a bar. to ask three and two hardware and essential installation, APB 8, AWSM 6-1. The name "2x2" was invented by the channel's team around the end of July 1989. At the same time, Pier Luigi Stefani created the channel's characteristic style and the original version of the logo, which still exists today with minor modifications. Since November 1, 1989, 2x2 started broadcasting under its own name on the channel "Moscow" DH known as "MTK". From 18:00 to 23:00, 2x2 was broadcast by the television channel "ITC"; the first time 2x2 was live on television, it broadcast half-an-hour of ad units, foreign music videos, cartoons.

The "Soviet Screen" was broadcast and repeated multiple times, alongside the television series "Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future" and "I Spy." An advertising clip of the company "Video of Interneshnl" was very broadcast. A patriotic collection of clips including a clip of Oleg Bloodless' "And knock" was broadcast. Clips of the theatre song "Alla Pugacheva" by the company "Video of Interneshnl," clips of "Accountant" by the group "The Combination," clips of Alena Apinoj's "Street of love" and "Xenia", a transmission of "Billboard" DJ Ale-Alena was aired. 2x2 aired videos of Russian artists like Bogdan Titomir and Oleg Gazmanov. 2x2 has been broadcasting Sergei Selenourea's "Batalla!" since its inception. During this period, "2x2" was the only Russian TV channel showing music videos, which distinguished it from the other few available Soviet channels; the channel therefore enjoyed tremendous popularity among Soviet students who waited excitedly for the 20-minute broadcast of music videos and ad units, which could last up to 40 minutes without a break sometimes.

According to a survey of 586 high school students of Moscow schools conducted in late 1991, the channel was immensely popular: it was favored by 34.2% of the respondents. Since August 1990 the station began to broadcast programs from the British television channel, "Super Channel." One of these programs was "A Blue Night." 2x2's comprehensive media collection had become impressive — the collection entailed multiple one-or two-hour compilations of video clips, thematic programs in the domain of music, fashion and movies. The channel began to broadcast some educational programs, including those shown on the Discovery Channel like "After 2000". From 1 July 1992, the channel broadcast a host of Latin American series; these included: "Nobody but you", "Señorita", "The Forbidden Woman", "Revenge", "The Ugly Duckling", "Guadeloupe", "Sweet enemy", "Widow Blanco", "La Usurpadora", "Stolen Love", "I can't live without you", "Once we grow wings", many others. Beginning around 1992, 2x2 began to broadcast heavy rock music like "Green Corridor," produced by Studio "BIZ Enterprises" businessman Boris Zosimova.

From this point onwards, 2x2 was governed by Zosimova, who steered the channel to sign a contract with the owners of "MTV Europe" in 1993. One of the broadcast programs was a concert performed by ABBA in January, 1994. Clips from MTV Europe aired throughout the day between other programs. MTV, including the VJ units, aired quite even without translation. Among some of the broadcast programs was the show "Beavis and Butthead". Soon, the place MTV clips began to take paid videos Russian artists such as Vlad Stashevsky and Eugene Kemerovo. By the summer of 1994 remains a daily one-hour compilation of clips from MTV live, which soon disappeared. Music videos, but not show where MTV aired in the future, still in between series. Despite the fact that some of the ideas Zosimova was not justified, he further took part in the broadcast, creating a TV-producer of "BIZ-TV", in which came a number of music programs and formed all of the musical component of the channel. In the framework of this project aired out the transfer of "Forgotten names" devoted to the Soviet stage moved to channel "TV-6", where he aired in the program "Disc channel" as the "Whirling wheels".

The leading program was Cyril Nemolyaev. In 1993, 2x2 first appeared on satellite television, whic

Military history of the Song dynasty

The military history of the Song dynasty covers the period of Chinese history from 960 AD to 1279 AD when China was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty created by Kublai Khan after the Division of the Mongol Empire. Emperor Taizu of Song, Zhao Kuangyin, was commander-in-chief of the capital guards and jiedushi of Songzhou in the Later Zhou dynasty. In 960 he was dispatched by the Grand Chancellor Fan Zhi to fight against Northern Han and the Khitans; when Zhao's army reached Chenqiao Station, his soldiers proclaimed him emperor, the administration of Kaifeng accepted his authority. Resistance from the provincial commanders Li Yun and Li Chongjin were suppressed by Zhao's generals Murong Yanzhao and Han Lingkun. Afterwards, Zhao took over the imperial guard and dismissed all his generals with honors, gaining complete control over the former territory of Later Zhou. Emperor Taizu set about conquering the various states of the Ten Kingdoms. Jingnan fell in 963, Meng Chang surrendered Later Shu in 965, Liu Chang surrendered Southern Han in 970, Southern Tang fell in 975.

Campaigns against Northern Han were launched in 968 and 969, but Song forces were unable to breach the fortifications of Taiyuan. In 969, gunpowder propelled fire arrows, rocket arrows, were invented by Yue Yifang and Feng Jisheng. In 975, the state of Wuyue sent a group of soldiers skilled in the use of fire arrows to the Song dynasty, which used fire arrows and incendiary bombs in the same year to destroy the fleet of Southern Tang. Taizu did not live to see China unified, he died in 976 and was succeeded by his younger brother Zhao Guangyi, posthumously Emperor Taizong of Song. Emperor Taizong of Song, Zhao Guangyi, finished the conquest of the remaining Ten Kingdoms. Qian Chu surrendered Wuyue in 978 and in 979, four Song armies under Pan Mei and Guo Jin marched on the capital of Northern Han, Taiyuan; the Khitans were annihilated. So fell Northern Han. In the southwest, the Song and their aboriginal allies in Guizhou attacked the Mu'ege Kingdom in 976, forcing them to retreat to Dafang County.

In 979, Taizong led an invasion of the Khitan Liao dynasty to retake the Sixteen Prefectures. He laid siege to Youzhou but was defeated by Khitan reinforcements led by Yelü Xiuge at the Battle of Gaoliang River. In 980, Yang Ye and his son Yanlang defeated a major Liao invasion, consisted of 100,000 troops, at the Yanmen Pass region. In 982, he scored yet again another victory. In 981, the Song invaded the Early Lê dynasty with initial success but was ambushed and the campaign ended with Lê Hoàn accepting Song suzerainty. In 982, Li Jipeng of the Dingnan Jiedushi surrendered to the Song, but his cousin Li Jiqian rebelled. In 986, the Song attacked the Liao again. Song troops under Pan Mei, Cao Bin, Yang Ye were defeated by a Liao army led by Empress Dowager Chengtian. Yang Ye was died in captivity due to wound infection. In 993, Wang Xiaopo and Li Shun rebelled in Sichuan and were suppressed by 995. In 994, the Song deposed Li Jiqian; the Liao laid siege to Zitong with 100,000 troops. They were repelled with the aid of fire arrows.

Taizong died on 9 May 997, was succeeded by his son, Zhao Heng, posthumously Emperor Zhenzong of Song. Emperor Zhenzong of Song did not have any stomach for war so he legitimized Li Jiqian and appeased the Tanguts to the northwest with gold, brocade and tea. Li Jiqian captured Lingzhou in 1002; the Khitans attacked in 998 but were forced to retreat in 1000 after failing to take key cities. They were repulsed. Khitan aggression towards the Song culminated in a full scale invasion in 1004 by Emperor Shenzong of Liao. Khitan forces penetrated as far as Chanzhou at the Yellow River, within striking distance of Kaifeng. Zhenzong, Yang Si, Yang Yanzhao marched the Song army north to meet the Khitans in combat. In January 1005, the Khitan general Xiao Dalin was killed by a giant crossbow, crippling the Khitan offensive. Peace negotiations commenced from 13 to 18 January. In the resulting peace treaty, known as the Chanyuan Treaty, the two sides agreed to delineate their current territorial boundaries and for the Song to make annual installments of 200,000 bolts of raw silk and 100,000 taels of silver to the Liao as tribute.

In 1000, Tang Fu was rewarded. In 1002, Shi Pu demonstrated fireballs utilizing gunpowder to the Song court and blueprints were created for promulgation throughout the realm. Zhenzong died on 23 March 1022 and was succeeded by his son, Zhao Zhen, posthumously Emperor Renzong of Song. Empress Liu became regent. Emperor Renzong of Song was still a child when his father died, so Empress Liu became regent, ruling in his stead for the next 12 years until she died. By the time he came to power, the Song military had been without any practical combat experience for decades. In 1034, Li Yuanhao of the Tanguts raided Song dynastyOn 10 November 1038, Li Yuanhao declared himself Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia. In the same year, rebellion was suppressed. With the proclamation of their own dynasty, the Tanguts began a protracted campaign of military aggression against the Song, lasting six years until a truce was called in 1044; the Liao dynasty attacked the Song as well. Although repelled, the Song agreed to increase annual tribute to 200,000 taels of silver and 300,000 bolts of silk.

In 1043, the Yao people of Guiyang rebelled. It was only suppressed in 1051. In 1044, rebellion broke out in Sichuan. In the same year, the chemical formula for gunpowder appeared in