Manors Metro station
Manors Metro station is to the east of Newcastle city centre on the Yellow line of the Tyne and Wear Metro, opened in 1982. Due to its location on the edge of the city centre the station is lightly used with a recorded patronage of 227,000 passengers in the period 2008-9. An abstract mural entitled Magic City by Basil Beattie can be seen in the station, it was commissioned in 1987. Heading east from Manors, the route surfaces alongside the East Coast Main Line and crosses the dramatic 800m long Byker Viaduct constructed by Ove Arup for the Metro; the former North Eastern Railway route between Manors railway station and Jesmond is connected via a link tunnel just west of Manors. It is used only by trains running out of public service, allowing them to terminate at Manors and return to the Gosforth depot without having to travel around the coast; the line can be seen on satellite imagery running alongside the A167 Central Motorway. Manors railway station - the adjacent National Rail station. Train times and station information for Manors Metro station from Nexus Arup webpage describing Byker Viaduct Images of Byker Viaduct on Flickr.com
British Railways, which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the overground rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997. It was formed from the nationalisation of the "Big Four" British railway companies and lasted until the gradual privatisation of British Rail, in stages between 1994 and 1997. A trading brand of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission, it became an independent statutory corporation in 1962 designated as the British Railways Board; the period of nationalisation saw sweeping changes in the national railway network. A process of dieselisation and electrification took place, by 1968 steam locomotion had been replaced by diesel and electric traction, except for the Vale of Rheidol Railway. Passengers replaced freight as the main source of business, one third of the network was closed by the Beeching Axe of the 1960s in an effort to reduce rail subsidies. On privatisation, responsibility for track and stations was transferred to Railtrack and that for trains to the train operating companies.
The British Rail "double arrow" logo is formed of two interlocked arrows showing the direction of travel on a double track railway and was nicknamed "the arrow of indecision". It is now employed as a generic symbol on street signs in Great Britain denoting railway stations, as part of the Rail Delivery Group's jointly-managed National Rail brand is still printed on railway tickets; the rail transport system in Great Britain developed during the 19th century. After the grouping of 1923 under the Railways Act 1921, there were four large railway companies, each dominating its own geographic area: the Great Western Railway, the London and Scottish Railway, the London and North Eastern Railway and the Southern Railway. During World War I the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the Railways Act 1921 is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected. Nationalisation was subsequently carried out after World War II, under the Transport Act 1947.
This Act made provision for the nationalisation of the network, as part of a policy of nationalising public services by Clement Attlee's Labour Government. British Railways came into existence as the business name of the Railway Executive of the British Transport Commission on 1 January 1948 when it took over the assets of the Big Four. There were joint railways between the Big Four and a few light railways to consider. Excluded from nationalisation were industrial lines like the Oxfordshire Ironstone Railway; the London Underground – publicly owned since 1933 – was nationalised, becoming the London Transport Executive of the British Transport Commission. The Bicester Military Railway was run by the government; the electric Liverpool Overhead Railway was excluded from nationalisation. The Railway Executive was conscious that some lines on the network were unprofitable and hard to justify and a programme of closures began immediately after nationalisation. However, the general financial position of BR became poorer, until an operating loss was recorded in 1955.
The Executive itself had been abolished in 1953 by the Conservative government, control of BR transferred to the parent Commission. Other changes to the British Transport Commission at the same time included the return of road haulage to the private sector. British Railways was divided into regions which were based on the areas the former Big Four operated in. Notably, these included the former Great Central lines from the Eastern Region to the London Midland Region, the West of England Main Line from the Southern Region to Western Region Southern Region: former Southern Railway lines. Western Region: former Great Western Railway lines. London Midland Region: former London Midland and Scottish Railway lines in England and Wales. Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines south of York. North Eastern Region: former London and North Eastern Railway lines in England north of York. Scottish Region: all lines, regardless of original company, in Scotland; the North Eastern Region was merged with the Eastern Region in 1967.
In 1982, the regions were abolished and replaced by "business sectors", a process known as sectorisation. The Anglia Region was created in late 1987, its first General Manager being John Edmonds, who began his appointment on 19 October 1987. Full separation from the Eastern Region – apart from engineering design needs – occurred on 29 April 1988, it handled the services from Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street, its western boundary being Hertford East and Whittlesea. The report, latterly known as the "Modernisation Plan", was published in January 1955, it was intended to bring the railway system into the 20th century. A government White Paper produced in 1956 stated that modernisation would help eliminate BR's financial deficit by 1962, but the figures in both this and the original plan were produced for political reasons and not based on detailed analysis; the aim was to increase speed, reliability and line capacity through a series of measures that would make services more attractive to passengers and freight operators, thus recovering traffic lost to the roads.
Important areas included: Electrification of principal main lines, in the Eastern Region, Birmingham to Liverpool/Manchester and Central Scotland Large-scale dieselisation to replace steam locomotives New passenger and freight rolling stock R
Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles south of Edinburgh and 277 miles north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, 8.5 mi from the North Sea. Newcastle is the most populous city in the North East, forms the core of the Tyneside conurbation, the eighth most populous urban area in the United Kingdom. Newcastle is a member of the UK Core Cities Group and is a member of the Eurocities network of European cities. Newcastle was part of the county of Northumberland until 1400, when it became a county of itself, a status it retained until becoming part of Tyne and Wear in 1974; the regional nickname and dialect for people from Newcastle and the surrounding area is Geordie. Newcastle houses Newcastle University, a member of the Russell Group, as well as Northumbria University; the city developed around the Roman settlement Pons Aelius and was named after the castle built in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son.
The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade in the 14th century, became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the River Tyne, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. Newcastle's economy includes corporate headquarters, digital technology, retail and cultural centres, from which the city contributes £13 billion towards the United Kingdom's GVA. Among its icons are Newcastle United football club and the Tyne Bridge. Since 1981 the city has hosted the Great North Run, a half marathon which attracts over 57,000 runners each year; the first recorded settlement in what is now Newcastle was Pons Aelius, a Roman fort and bridge across the River Tyne. It was given the family name of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who founded it in the 2nd century AD; this rare honour suggests Hadrian may have visited the site and instituted the bridge on his tour of Britain. The population of Pons Aelius is estimated at 2,000.
Fragments of Hadrian's Wall are visible in parts of Newcastle along the West Road. The course of the "Roman Wall" can be traced eastwards to the Segedunum Roman fort in Wallsend—the "wall's end"—and to the supply fort Arbeia in South Shields; the extent of Hadrian's Wall was 73 miles. After the Roman departure from Britain, completed in 410, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria, was known throughout this period as Munucceaster. Conflicts with the Danes in 876 left its settlements in ruin. After the conflicts with the Danes, following the 1088 rebellion against the Normans, Monkchester was all but destroyed by Odo of Bayeux; because of its strategic position, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, erected a wooden castle there in the year 1080. The town was henceforth known as New Castle; the wooden structure was replaced by a stone castle in 1087. The castle was rebuilt again in 1172 during the reign of Henry II. Much of the keep which can be seen in the city today dates from this period.
Throughout the Middle Ages, Newcastle was England's northern fortress. Incorporated first by Henry II, the city had a new charter granted by Elizabeth in 1589. A 25-foot high stone wall was built around the town in the 13th century, to defend it from invaders during the Border war against Scotland; the Scots king William the Lion was imprisoned in Newcastle in 1174, Edward I brought the Stone of Scone and William Wallace south through the town. Newcastle was defended against the Scots three times during the 14th century, was created a county corporate with its own sheriff by Henry IV in 1400. From 1530, a royal act restricted all shipments of coal from Tyneside to Newcastle Quayside, giving a monopoly in the coal trade to a cartel of Newcastle burgesses known as the Hostmen; this monopoly, which lasted for a considerable time, helped Newcastle prosper and develop into a major town. The phrase taking coals to Newcastle was first recorded contextually in 1538; the phrase itself means a pointless pursuit.
In the 18th century, the American entrepreneur Timothy Dexter, regarded as an eccentric, defied this idiom. He was persuaded to sail a shipment of coal to Newcastle by merchants plotting to ruin him. In the Sandgate area, to the east of the city, beside the river, resided the close-knit community of keelmen and their families, they were so called because they worked on the keels, boats that were used to transfer coal from the river banks to the waiting colliers, for export to London and elsewhere. In the 1630s, about 7,000 out of 20,000 inhabitants of Newcastle died of plague, more than one-third of the population. Within the year 1636, it is estimated with evidence held by the Society of Antiquaries that 47% of the population of Newcastle died from the epidemic. During the English Civil War, the North declared for the King. In a bid to gain Newcastle and the Tyne, Cromwell's allies, the Scots, captured the town of Newburn. In 1644, the Scots captured the reinforced fortification on the Lawe in South Shields following a siege. and the city was besieged for many months.
It was storm
Byker railway station
Byker railway station was a railway station in Byker, Newcastle upon Tyne which opened in 1884 and closed on 5 April 1954. The station was opened to workers who worked in the vicinity of Shields Road, where the station was situated behind in 1884 and appeared in timetables in 1901. In workers' timetables, the station was referred to as'Byker Platform'. Byker railway station was located south east of the Riverside Junction, the junction itself being west of Heaton station on the North Tyneside Loop. Byker was the first station on the Riverside Branch, in fact a loop which rejoined the North Tyneside line between Howden and Percy Main stations and the 6.5 mile route opened on 1 May 1879 by the North Eastern Railway. From Byker, the line continued to St. Peter's; the station was accessed from Roger Street, itself off Heaton Park Road. The ramp to the platforms was only a foot wide and each platform had a waiting shelter and a small booking office on the southbound platform. A metal footbridge linked both platforms and remained in situ until 1964.
The station itself was in close proximity to Heaton station and was an administerial annexe to the aforementioned station and ticket sales for Byker went under Heaton's numbers. After the Second World War trains were limited to Monday to Saturday at peak hours only and with its obscure location and limited access from the north tallied with the extreme proximity to Heaton resulted in the closure of Byker on 5 April 1954; the Riverside Branch was de-electrified in 1967 and the route itself closed to passengers in 1973. However, until 1979, the station was still intact, with its lampposts and stanchions in situ and ten years the platforms remained; the site was landfilled and informal access was still available until the early 2000s - however the site was redeveloped in 2002 when a new Morrisons supermarket was built. The station site is now a car-park to the rear of the supermarket; when the Tyne and Wear Metro system was constructed a new station was built on an new stretch of line as the Riverside Branch was not included in the plans for the new rapid transit system.
Byker Metro station was opened in 1982 and was constructed to the south of Shields Road
Byker is an inner city electoral ward in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne in Tyne and Wear, England. It is in south of the Heaton area and north of St Peter's. Byker Metro station serves the area; the area contains the Byker Wall estate. The population of the ward is 11,339, increasing to 12,206 at the 2011 Census, 4.4% of the city's total. Car ownership stands at 35.4%, much lower than the city average of 54.7%. Byker has suffered the kinds of the social problems common to other inner-city urban housing areas, including juvenile crime and vandalism. In parts of Byker turnover of tenancies has been high. Families have moved away - those in employment; some shops and services have been boarded up. In the mid-1990s it was estimated. Byker is well known as the setting of the former BBC TV series Byker Grove and although set in the ward, the youth club featured in the series was filmed at The Mitre in the Benwell area in the west end of Newcastle; the earliest form of the visible evidence of development in Byker was by the Roman Emperor, Hadrian.
A wall and mile castles, stretching from the east to the west coast provided a barrier to invading border clans and tribes. Hadrian's Wall was excavated in the 1990s; the area was populated by soldiers and their suppliers of foods and trades, such as weavers and blacksmiths amongst others. There are small fort near Brough Park dog track. Byker first appeared in historical documents in 1198 ‘as the most important Serjeantry in Northumberland’ held by William of Byker, named William Escolland, a Norman noble. In 1549 the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle sought to extend the town's boundaries to include part of Byker Township, to take advantage of the land by the river ‘for the dropping of ballast for the coal trade’; the transaction was disputed due to financial disagreements and settled in the House of Commons and the House of Lords in London. Until the 1960s, Byker was a Victorian working-class area of densely built terraces. Much of the housing needed major repair and some was considered unfit for human habitation, yet most residents wanted to stay in Byker, an area close to industry on the riverside.
In 1966 Newcastle City Corporation took the decision to redevelop the Byker area. The council keep the community. Byker was extensively photographed before its demolition by Sirkka-Liisa Konttinen, who lived in Byker from 1969; the photographs that Konttinen took toured China in 1980 and appeared in the book Byker. Ralph Erskine was appointed as the architect in 1969 for the new Byker; the development was run as a "rolling programme" so local people could continue living in the area during the building work. Residents were involved in the design process and it is thought the outstanding success of Byker was as much to do with this as its innovative architecture which used a different style to the brutalist approach, more common at the time. On 21 May 2012 the area made news when a female Police Community Support Officer was sexually assaulted whilst on duty in the Morrisons branch on Shields Road, Byker; the assailant, Rory Douglas was detained by the female PCSO and arrested. Douglas was put on trial in Newcastle Crown Court where he pleaded guilty to sexual assault and was given a conditional discharge and ordered to sign the sex offender register for 12 months.
New leisure and shopping facilities have been brought to the Shields Road area. There are street wardens operating in Byker to deter other low level crime. Education and employment initiatives aim to break the cycle of unemployment. There are proposals to improve the fabric of the Byker area and the Ouseburn Valley in general; the ward has three primary schools, St. Lawrence RC Primary School, Welbeck Primary School and Byker Primary School, equipped with a nursery class; the ward does not have any secondary schools, the nearest secondary schools are Heaton Manor School, Walker Technology College and Benfield School. Most of these facilities are in the bordering ward of South Heaton such as the East End Pool & Library on Corbridge Street. In March 2019 it was announced that the library would be transferred to the Shields Road Customer Service Centre in May 2019.<ref>https://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/newcastle-east-end-library-move-15953721</ref> Open green spaces in the ward are limited and the ward hosts the'Byker in Bloom' gardening competition which takes place in every summer.
In 2008, Newcastle City Council agreed a lease of the former Byker Swimming Pool on Shipley Place which had remained closed and unused since the late 1990s, allowing it to be converted into an indoor bouldering and climbing centre known as'Climb Newcastle'. Byker is served by Byker Metro station on the Tyne and Wear Metro and Shields Road is served by numerous bus routes. Byker ward stretches from the Fossway and Millers Road in the north of the ward to the banks of the River Tyne in the south, it heads south onto the Shields Road bypass and continues along the A193 bypass along Shields Road to the Ouse Burn. It turns south down the Ouse Burn to the River Tyne and follows the river east, turning northwards to the west of the properties on The Oval. Heading east along Walker Road, the boundary turns north up Monkchester Road and continues north, it turns west along Dunstanburgh Road, north between Welbeck Primary School grounds and the properties on Allendale Road. It turns east along Welbeck Road north up Scrogg Road, east at Middle Stree
South Shields Metro station
South Shields Metro station is the main Tyne and Wear Metro station for South Shields, England. In 2008-9 the station was used by over 1 million passengers; the station is located on a bridge above King Street, the main shopping street in South Shields Town Centre. The Metro station is located about 200 metres down the line from the former South Shields railway station, which it replaced; the station includes a sandwich bar at ground level. The station can be accessed via the main concourse by either lift or stairs from King Street or Keppel Street Bus Station; the station can be accessed via the Mile End Road concourse by ramp. The original two-platform railway station closed on 1 June 1981, when the line was closed for conversion to Metro standards. However, the Grade II-listed station building survived for many years, housing a newsagent and a barber, but has since been demolished; the Metro line continues beyond the station and through the site of the BR station to some engineering sidings.
The new Metro station was opened on 24 March 1984 and completed the initial Tyne and Wear Metro system. It was the terminus of the Green line, but is now the terminus of the Yellow line. In June 2015, plans were unveiled for a new transport interchange to be built, featuring a new Metro station and enclosed bus station; this development would replace the existing Metro station, the adjacent Keppel Street Bus Station. Building work started in 2018 and is expected to be completed in the summer of 2019; the opening date has not yet been announced. Train times and station information for South Shields Metro station from Nexus
The Byker Viaduct is an 815 metre long curved'S' shaped light railway bridge, which carries the Tyne and Wear Metro over the River Ouseburn in Newcastle upon Tyne. It carries the line from Manors Metro station in the city centre to the west, to Byker Metro station in the area of Byker to the east, over the lower Ouseburn valley, with the river emptying into the north side of the River Tyne, to the south. Designed by Ove Arup and Partners, built by John Mowlem & Co Ltd, construction began in 1976, was completed in 1979, it was opened on 11 November 1982 as part of the St James to Tynemouth section of the Metro, it is 8.2m wide, carries standard gauge double tracks up to 30m above the ground, with 18 spans up to 68.9m long. It was notable, in being the first such structure in Britain to be built using cantilevered concrete sections with joints glued with epoxy resin, it was one of two major bridges built for the Tyne and Wear Metro, the other being the Queen Elizabeth II Bridge crossing the River Tyne.
It is one of three high level bridges in close proximity making the same crossing, with the Ouseburn railway viaduct to the north and the Byker road bridge to the south. The bridge and elevated section form an S-curve, which takes the track over the Byker road bridge at its east end. Constructing the Byker Viaduct - Contemporary film of the construction