In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Piedmont is a city in Calhoun and Cherokee counties in the U. S. state of Alabama. The population was 4,878 at the 2010 census, it is included in Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. Many surrounding communities are served by the 36272 ZIP code, including Spring Garden, Rock Run, Knighten's Crossroads, Nance's Creek; the current mayor is Bill Baker, chosen by the city council to lead after elected mayor Rick Freeman resigned due to medical issues. The area now known as Piedmont is a community that began in the early 1840s, located at the crossroads of two early post roads. Major Jacob Forney Dailey of North Carolina came to Alabama in 1848 and bought land in present-day Piedmont. Major Dailey named the area Cross Plains, an official post office with that name was established on September 22, 1851. In Reconstruction-era Alabama, an incident at Cross Plains affected race relations and the future of the northeast section of the state for generations as a result of the lynching of William Luke, a northern missionary, several other men in 1870.
In that year, the new northern-owned railroad to connect Washington, D. C. and the North with New Orleans was to have its headquarters near the small northeast Alabama town, at Patona. After the Ku Klux Klan-led lynchings, the headquarters was moved, the town never achieved the dominant position in Calhoun County, with Anniston, founded the next year, achieving that status instead. Wall Street financier Franklin Delano, uncle of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was president of the railroad at the time; the railroad sponsored a school for African-American children of freedmen, Luke was the teacher. Word spread in the area that Luke was teaching racial equality, resentment developed against him in the northern Calhoun County area; the railroad was planning to use the graduates as a source of students for Talladega College who might go on to work for the railroad. A racial fight at the Cross Plains station gave rise to arrests of certain freedmen, of Luke as well. Klansmen seized the prisoners and murdered them.
Congressional hearings followed, with strengthened civil rights laws, but the murderers were never properly punished. On July 30, 1888, the Postal Department renamed the office Piedmont, which means "Foot of the Mountains". An F4 tornado struck the community on Palm Sunday 1994, killing twenty people at Goshen United Methodist Church including Reverend Kelly Clem's four-year-old daughter, Hannah, it destroyed two other area churches mid-service as well as many homes in the town and neighboring communities. The Standard Coosa-Thatcher Company was a textile corporation founded in Piedmont, Alabama in 1891, it was publicly traded beginning in 1922. The firm is important because of its endurance for nearly a century and its expansion throughout the southeast United States and into the western United States. Known in Piedmont as the "Cotton Mill", it began operating in 1892 and closed in 1995. In 2016, demolition of the building began. Over the next two years or so workers will tear down the mill and reclaim more than 100 year-old lumber and other material for resell.
Piedmont is located at 33°55′34″N 85°36′47″W According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.67%, is water. The Piedmont City Schools athletic teams are known as the Bulldogs. Piedmont High School is a member of the Alabama High School Athletic Association and participates in Class 3A Football, Baseball, Golf and Track, they have a band: the Piedmont Blue Knights Marching Band, class 2A. On February 6, 2009, under Head Coach Harley Lamey, the Piedmont High School wrestling team won the first state championship in school history in any sport. At the AHSAA 1A-4A State Wrestling Championship, the bulldogs had two individual champions, two runners-up, nine wrestlers who placed; the Bulldogs were 14-0 in dual meets. On December 3, 2009, at Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Head Coach Steve Smith led Piedmont to a 35-28 overtime win over the Cordova Blue Devils in the AHSAA 3A State Championship Game.
Luke Smith tied state record for most tackles in 3A state championship game and recovered Ryan Smith's fumble to secure the Bulldogs' win. Christian Cantrell was responsible for four of the Bulldogs' touchdowns and one two-point conversion totalling 26 points, but Chase Childers' performance as QB named him the MVP of the Championship Game; the team finished with a 13-2 record. On December 3, 2015, at Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Head Coach Steve Smith led Piedmont to a 44-7 win over Bayside Academy in the AHSAA 3A State Championship Game. Taylor Hayes and Darnell Jackson combined for 124 yards on four touchdowns; the victory gave Piedmont its second football state title in school history – six years after Bulldogs won their first, concluding the 2009 season. Piedmont’s run to the title included a school record for wins in a season and points scored. On May 4, 2013, Head Coach Mark Mitchell led the Piedmont High School Boys Track and Field Team to the 2013 AHSAA 3A Track & Field State Championship in Selma.
The Bulldogs scored 81 points to outpace runner-up Trinity Presbyterian, which scored 74. This was Coach Mitchell's seventh consecutive state championship. On December 1, 2016, at Jordan-Hare Stadium in Auburn, the Piedmont Bulldogs defeated Mobile Christian 22-12; this resulted in back-to-back High School Football State Championships. The Piedmont Bulldogs now have a total of 3 High School Football State Championships; the Bulldogs finished the 2016 season with a 15-
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Calhoun County, Alabama
Calhoun County is a county in the east central part of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 118,572, its county seat is Anniston. It was named in honor of John C. Calhoun, noted US Senator from South Carolina. Calhoun County is included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area. Benton County was established on December 18, 1832, named for Thomas Hart Benton, a member of the United States Senate from Missouri, its county seat was Jacksonville. Benton, a slave owner, was a political ally of John C. Calhoun, U. S. senator from South Carolina and a slaveholder and planter. Through the 1820s-1840s, Benton's and Calhoun's political interests diverged. Calhoun was interested in using the threat of secession as a weapon to maintain and expand slavery throughout the United States. Benton, on the other hand, was coming to the conclusion that slavery was wrong and that preservation of the union was paramount. On January 29, 1858, Alabama supporters of slavery, objecting to Benton's change of heart, renamed Benton County as Calhoun County.
During the Reconstruction era and widespread violence by whites to suppress black and white Republican voting in the state during the campaign for the 1870 gubernatorial election, four blacks and one white were lynched. After years of controversy and a State Supreme Court ruling in June 1900, the county seat was moved to Anniston; the city was hit by an F4 tornado during the 1994 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak on March 27, 1994. Twelve minutes after the National Weather Service of Birmingham issued a tornado warning for northern Calhoun, southeastern Etowah, southern Cherokee counties, the tornado destroyed Piedmont's Goshen United Methodist Church. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 612 square miles, of which 606 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles is water. Cherokee County - northeast Cleburne County - east Talladega County - south St. Clair County - west Etowah County - northwest Mountain Longleaf National Wildlife Refuge Talladega National Forest Alabama and Tennessee River Railway Norfolk Southern Railway Amtrak As of the census of 2010, there were 118,572 people, 47,331 households, 31,609 families residing in the county.
The population density was 194 people per square mile. There were 53,289 housing units at an average density of 87 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.9% White, 20.6% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 3.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 47,331 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.2% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 27.1 % from 45 to 64, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females there were 93.1 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,407, the median income for a family was $49,532. Males had a median income of $41,599 versus $29,756 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,574. About 15.2% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. Calhoun is a staunchly Republican county in Congressional elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In 2016, Republican Donald Trump won sixty-nine percent of the county's vote. Calhoun is part of Alabama's 3rd congressional district, held by Republican Mike D. Rogers. Anniston Glencoe Jacksonville Oxford Piedmont Southside Weaver Hobson City Ohatchee Alexandria Bynum Choccolocco Nances Creek Saks West End-Cobb Town White Plains Minden Tooktocaugee Calhoun County is home to Jacksonville State University, the Anniston Museum of Natural History, the Berman Museum of World History and the Coldwater Covered Bridge.
It contains a portion of the Talladega National Forest. National Register of Historic Places listings in Calhoun County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Calhoun County, Alabama
Anniston is the county seat of Calhoun County in Alabama and is one of two urban centers/principal cities of and included in the Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 23,106. According to 2013 Census estimates, the city had a population of 22,666. Named "The Model City" by Atlanta newspaperman Henry W. Grady for its careful planning in the late 19th century, the city is situated on the slope of Blue Mountain. Along with Selma, Alabama, it ranks as one of the top cities by most violent crimes in the United States, according to FBI data. Though the surrounding area was settled much earlier, the mineral resources in the area of Anniston were not exploited until the Civil War; the Confederate States of America operated an iron furnace near present-day downtown Anniston, until it was destroyed by raiding Union cavalry in early 1865. Cast iron for sewer systems became the focus of Anniston's industrial output. Cast iron pipe called soil pipe, was popular until the advent of plastic pipe in the 1960s.
In 1872, the Woodstock Iron Company, organized by Samuel Noble and Union Gen. Daniel Tyler, rebuilt the furnace on a much larger scale, started a planned community named Woodstock, soon renamed "Annie's Town" for Annie Scott Tyler, Daniel's daughter and wife of railroad president Alfred L. Tyler. Anniston was chartered as a town in 1873. Though the roots of the town's economy were in iron and clay pipe, planners touted it as a health resort, several hotels began operating. Schools appeared, including the Noble Institute, a school for girls established in 1886, the Alabama Presbyterian College for Men, founded in 1905. Careful planning and easy access to rail transportation helped make Anniston the fifth largest city in the state from the 1890s to the 1950s. In 1917, at the start of World War I, the United States Army established a training camp at Fort McClellan. On the other side of town, the Anniston Army Depot opened during World War II as a major weapons storage and maintenance site, a role it continues to serve as munitions-incineration progresses.
Most of the site of Fort McClellan was incorporated into Anniston in the late 1990s, the Army closed the fort in 1999 following the Base Realignment and Closure round of 1995. Anniston was the center of national controversy in 1961 when a mob bombed a bus filled with civilian Freedom Riders during the American Civil Rights Movement; as two Freedom buses were setting out to travel the south in protest of their Civil Rights following the Supreme Court case saying bus segregation was unconstitutional, one headed to Anniston, one to Birmingham, before finishing in New Orleans. The Freedom Riders were riding an integrated bus to protest Alabama's Jim Crow segregation laws that denied African Americans their civil rights. One of the buses was attacked and firebombed by a mob outside Anniston on Mother's Day, May 14, 1961. Prior to the bus being firebombed, attackers broke windows, slashed tires, using metal pipes, clubs and crowbars, before the police came to escort the bus away; the bus was forced to a stop just outside of Anniston, in front of Forsyth and Sons grocery, by more mob members.
As more windows were broken, rocks and a firebomb were thrown into the bus. As the bus burned, the mob held. An exploding fuel tank caused the mob to retreat; the riders were viciously beaten as they tried to flee, where warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched on the spot. A 12-year-old girl, Janie Forsyth, set out against the mob with a bucket of water and cups to help the Riders, first tending to the one who had looked like her own nanny. Forsyth and Son grocery is located along Alabama Highway 202 about 5 miles west of downtown; the site today is home to a historic marker and was designated Freedom Riders National Monument by President Barack Obama in January 2017. In response to the violence, the city formed a bi-racial Human Relations Council made up of prominent white business and religious leaders, but when they attempted to integrate the "whites-only" public library on Sunday afternoon, September 15, 1963, further violence ensued and two black ministers, N.
Q. Reynolds and Bob McClain, were beaten by a mob; the HRC chairman, white Presbyterian minister Rev. Phil Noble, worked with an elder of his church, Anniston City Commissioner Miller Sproull, to avoid KKK mob domination of the city. In a telephone conference with President John F. Kennedy, the President informed the HRC that after the Birmingham church bombing he had stationed additional federal troops at Fort McClellan. On September 16, 1963, with city police present and Sproull escorted black ministers into the library. In February 1964, Anniston Hardware, owned by the Sproull family, was bombed in retaliation for Commissioner Sproull's integration efforts. On the night of July 15, 1965, a white racist rally was held in Anniston, after which Willie Brewster, a black foundry worker, was shot and killed while driving home from work. A $20,000 reward was raised by Anniston civic leaders, resulted in the apprehension and conviction of the accused killer, Damon Strange, who worked for a leader of the Ku Klux Klan.
Historian Taylor Branch called the conviction of Damon Strange a "breakthrough verdict" on p. 391 of his Pulitzer Prize-winning book, At Canaan's Edge. Strange was convicted by an all-white Calhoun County jury to the surprise of many people, including civil rights leaders who had planned to protest an acquittal; this was the first conviction of a white person for killing a b
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th