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Byron K. Lichtenberg

Byron Kurt Lichtenberg, Sc. D. is an American engineer and fighter pilot who flew aboard two NASA Space Shuttle missions as a Payload Specialist. In 1983, he and Ulf Merbold became the first Payload Specialists to fly on the shuttle. Born February 19, 1948 in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. Married to Tamara Lichtenberg with five children, including two adopted Chinese daughters. Sc. B. Aerospace engineering, Brown University S. M. mechanical engineering, MIT Sc. D. Biomedical engineering, MIT Sc. D. Westminster College NASA Space Flight Medals AIAA Haley Space Flight Award FAI Komarov Award Went to Space Founding Member: Association of Space Explorers X-Prize Foundation Member: User Panel for National Space Biomedical Research Institute Tau Beta Pi Sigma Xi From 1978 to 1984 he was a researcher for the Massachusetts Institute of Technology /Canadian Vestibular experiments on Spacelab 1, Spacelab D-1, Spacelab SLS-1 and SLS-2, a co-principal investigator for the Mental Workload and Performance experiment flown on IML-1 to assess human-computer workstation characteristics for the Space Station.

He was a founder of Payload Systems, Inc. a company that has provided hardware and flight support for MODE and MACE experiments for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. They were the first commercial user of the Mir Space Station, flying protein crystal growth experiments to Mir in the early 1990s, he is now the Chief Technical Officer of Zero Gravity Corporation, founded to make parabolic, weightless aircraft flights available to the general public. He was a U. S. Air Force fighter pilot for 23 years, flying the F-4, F-100, A-10, reaching the rank of Lieutenant colonel in the Massachusetts Air National Guard. Lichtenberg flew 138 combat missions during the Vietnam War, received two Distinguished Flying Crosses, ten Air Medals, numerous other decorations, he flew as a captain for Southwest Airlines and is now a professor at LeTourneau University in Longview Texas. Lichtenberg was the first astronaut to serve as a Payload Specialist, he flew on Spacelab-1 mission for ten days in 1983, conducted multiple experiments in life sciences, materials sciences, Earth observations and solar physics, upper atmosphere and plasma physics.

His second flight was ATLAS-1 Spacelab mission for nine days in 1992. He flew 310 orbits, logged 468 hours in space. NASA Bio Spacefacts biography of Byron K. Lichtenberg

William John Dieter

William ‘Billy Jack’ Dieter was a sergeant in the United States Army Air Corps. Dieter was a bombardier on the Green Hornet, the sixth plane to take off from a US carrier as part of the Doolittle Raid, a bold long-range retaliatory air raid on the Japanese main islands, on April 18, 1942, four months after the attack on Pearl Harbor; the attack was a major morale booster for the United States. Dieter was one of only three airmen to die in the raid itself, when his B-25 Mitchell,'Green Hornet', crashed on the coast of China, having run out of fuel. Dieter was born on October 1912 in Vail, Iowa to Jesse T. Dieter and Mary McCalpin Dieter. After living in Vail, the family moved to South Dakota, Potosi and Tulelake, California. Dieter attended only one year of high school. Dieter enlisted in the Field Artillery on October 29, 1936 at Vancouver Barracks in Washington. Dieter served a three year term left the Army. After finding it difficult to find work, Dieter enlisted in the United States Army Air Corps on December 12, 1940.

Dieter was trained as a bombardier, served as a Douglas B-18 Bolo and North American B-25 Mitchell bombardier with the 95th Bomb Squadron of the 17th Bomb Group at McChord Field in Washington, at Pendleton Field in Oregon, until he was selected for the mission to be led by James Doolittle in February 1942. In early 1942 lieutenant colonel James Doolittle volunteered for and received General H. H. Arnold's approval to lead the top secret attack of 16 B-25 medium bombers from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet, with targets in Tokyo, Yokohama and Nagoya. After training at Eglin Field and Wagner Field in northwest Florida and the other volunteer flight crew members proceeded to McClellan Field, California for aircraft modifications at the Sacramento Air Depot, followed by a short final flight to Naval Air Station Alameda, California for embarkation aboard the aircraft carrier USS Hornet. On April 18, 16 North American B-25 Mitchell crews took off from the Hornet, reached Japan, bombed their targets.

Dieter was the bombardier in the sixth plane, the'Green Hornet', piloted by 1st Lt. Dean E. Hallmark and 2nd Lt. Robert J. Meder While one crew chose to land in Russia due to their bomber's unusually high fuel consumption, the other fifteen planes headed for their recovery airfields in China. Most of the other crewmen who participated in the one-way mission bailed out over China when their B-25s ran out of fuel. Dieter and fellow crew member S/Sgt. Donald E. Fitzmaurice, drowned in trying to swim to shore, while the other three crew members of the'Green Hornet' were captured shortly afterwards by the Japanese; the following is an excerpt from a letter written in August, 1945, by Earl L. Deiter, S. J. Chaplain, U. S. Army. Note that all spelling and punctuation is "as is" in the original. "1st. Lt. Dean E. Hallmark was pilot of the plane on which Lt. Neilson was Bill was Bombadier, they flew from the Hornet directly over Tokyo and Bill dropped his bombs 100% on his target, a large steel mill. The pilot headed for China, at about 8:30 the night of April 18, 1942, while flying low over the water, he noticed the gas tanks were empty and gave the order to prepare to crash.

Hardly had the order been given, without much preparation, the plane crashed into the sea, just a few hundred yards from the coast. Bill was riding in the nose of the plane, when the plane crashed, the nose was broken open swooping Bill out of the plane. Capt. Nielson said that when he got out of his position, Bill was standing on top of the plane, that he said, "I am hurt all over", they all adjusted their life belts, started swimming to shore. Lt. Hallmark was helping Corporal Donald Fitzmaurice of Lincoln, Neb. and someone was helping Bill. When Lt. Neilson reached shore he said he was collapsed. On awakening the next morning, he saw the bodies of Corp.. Fitzmaurice which had washed ashore. Upon examing the body of Bill he noticed quite a few bruises which hindered Bill from swimming and staying afloat, but he became exhausted while still in the water and no doubt drowning was the cause of his death.""The shore where the accident took place was at the foot of a little village of 300 or 400 people, named Shipu, which in turn was about 20 or 30 miles south of Ningpo.

Any large map of China will show the town of Ningpo. The native Chinese built a coffin for Bill and Fitzmaurice, buried the both of them just over a little knoll a few yards back from the shore where the accident happened."As noted in the letter, Dieter was interred at Shipu, China by Chinese civilians near the site of the crash. His body was returned to the States for reburial after interment at Schofield Barracks, Mausoleum #2 in Oahu, Hawaii. In 1949, his body was relocated permanently to Golden Gate National Cemetery; the Doolittle Raid is viewed by historians as a major morale-building victory for the United States. Although the damage done to Japanese war industry was minor, the raid showed the Japanese that their homeland was vulnerable to air attack, forced them to withdraw several front-line fighter units from Pacific war zones for homeland defense. More Japanese commanders considered the raid embarrassing, their attempt to close the perceived gap in their Pacific defense perimeter led directly to the decisive American victory at the Battle of Midway in June 1942.

When asked from where the Tokyo raid was launched, President Roosevelt coyly said its base was Shangri-La, a fictional paradise from the popular novel Lost H

Interstate 95 in New York

Interstate 95 is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Miami, Florida, to the Canada–United States border near Houlton, Maine. In the U. S. state of New York, I-95 extends 23.50 miles from the George Washington Bridge in New York City to the Connecticut state line at Port Chester. From the George Washington Bridge, which carries I-95 across the Hudson River from New Jersey into New York City, it runs across upper Manhattan on the Trans-Manhattan Expressway and continues east across the Harlem River on the Alexander Hamilton Bridge and onto the Cross Bronx Expressway. In the Bronx, I-95 leaves the Cross Bronx at the Bruckner Interchange, joining the Bruckner Expressway to its end. North of the interchange with Pelham Parkway, it continues northeast via the New England Thruway out of New York City into Westchester County and to the Connecticut state line, where I-95 continues on the Connecticut Turnpike. I-95 enters New York from New Jersey on the George Washington Bridge on a concurrency with U.

S. Route 1 and US 9; as the bridge's eastern approach enters Fort Washington Park, I-95 enters exit 1, which services New York State Route 9A. Access is provided to 181st Street. After crossing Fort Washington Avenue, the interstate goes underground, providing a ramp to 178th Street, where US 9 forks to Broadway. I-95 continues east under Washington Heights, entering an interchange with the Harlem River Drive along with Amsterdam Avenue. After exit 2, I-95 crosses over the Harlem River and enters the Bronx, entering an interchange with the Major Deegan Expressway, marked both exit 1C and exit 3A B. Now the Cross-Bronx Expressway, I-95 and US 1 continue east over University Avenue and enter exit 2A, which serves Jerome Avenue. Crossing over the Grand Concourse, the six-lane expressway crosses into exit 2B, for Webster Avenue; this interchange marks the eastern end of the I-95/US 1 concurrency. Passing south of Tremont Park, the Cross Bronx westbound serves exit 3. At East 176th Street, the Cross Bronx Expressway turns southeast, entering exit 4A eastbound, which marks the northern terminus of NY 895.

After crossing the Bronx River, the expressway enters a full interchange, exit 4B, with the Bronx River Parkway. After a curve from the parkway, the Cross Bronx begins paralleling East 177th Street and enters exit 5A, which connects to White Plains Road in Parkchester. Continuing southeast, the roadway enters exit 5B, Castle Hill Avenue, an eastbound-only exit. After Castle Hill Avenue, the route enters exit 6A, which reaches the Hutchinson River Parkway at the Bruckner Interchange. Changing to the Bruckner Expressway, which runs to the northeast, I-95 enters the Bruckner Interchange with the northern termini of I-678 and I-278. After the Bruckner Interchange, I-95 crosses Tremont Avenue before crossing over I-695. Southbound, exit 7A serves I-695. Continuing north, the Bruckner Expressway and I-95 parallel Bruckner Boulevard and run along the western edge of Pelham Bay Park. Entering exit 8A southbound services Westchester Avenue while northbound, exits 8B and 8C serve the Pelham Parkway and Shore Road through the park, which marks the northern end of the Bruckner Expressway.

Now known as the New England Thruway, I-95 leaves Pelham Bay Park and enters exit 9, a junction with the Hutchinson River Parkway. In the middle of the interchange with the Hutchinson River, exit 10 forks to the left, reaching Gun Hill Road. Now paralleling Baychester Avenue, which services exit 11 and Bartow Avenue, the New England Thruway continues north and enters exit 12 which connects to Baychester. Conner Street is connected to via exit 13 before I-95 turns east and crosses over the Hutchinson River. After crossing the river, the route enters an interchange once again with the Hutchinson River Parkway but this time westbound only. Crossing through the northern reaches of Pelham Bay Park, I-95 turns more northeast and enters Westchester County. Now in Pelham Manor, the route crosses through Pelham Country Club, entering exit 15, which connects to US 1. After US 1, the route crosses out of the Pelham Country Club. Crossing over Metro-North Railroad tracks, the interstate turns northeast and crossing through downtown New Rochelle, reaching exit 16, serving several local streets including Cross Avenue, Cedar Street and Garden Street.

North of exit 16, the New England Thruway enters its lone toll gantry along the alignment, serving the northbound direction only. The road continues northeast through New Rochelle, passing exit 17 as it enters the town of Mamaroneck. Exit 17 connects to Chatsworth Avenue in the Larchmont section. Passing a pedestrian footbridge for the Larchmont station, crossing over NY 125. Winding north through Mamaroneck, I-95 enters exit 18A, servicing Fenimore Road in the village of Mamaroneck. Turning northeast again, I-95 enters exit 18B, a partial cloverleaf interchange with Mamaroneck Avenue before crossing into the town of Harrison; the road turns east, crossing over NY 127, enters exit 19, the western terminus of the Playland Parkway, which connects the expressway to Rye Playland as the road enters Rye. The route crosses through the Rye Village area, entering exit 20, which connects to US 1 and the village. After exit 20, exit 21 marks the eastern end of the Cross-Westchester Expressway. Pr

Friedrich-Carl Peus

Friedrich-Carl Peus was a German jurist and politician. Peus, son of H. Busso Peus and father of Busso Peus, studied law at the universities of Bonn, Freiburg and Berlin and became a solicitor and barrister as well as a notary in Münster. Friedrich married Hedwig Peus at age 27. In 1905, he was elected to the City Council of Münster as a member of the Catholic Centre Party. From 1929 to 1933, during the Great Depression, he was chosen as chairman of the City Council before he was removed from office by the Nazis. After the end of World War II he was appointed Mayor of Münster by the Allied Powers at the suggestion of Clemens August Count von Galen, the Bishop of Münster. Franz-Josef Jakobi: Geschichte der Stadt Münster, Volume 3, Aschendorff 1994, ISBN 978-3-402-05370-6

1991 Refuge Assurance League

The 1991 Refuge Assurance League was the twenty-third competing of what was known as the Sunday League. The competition was won for the first time by Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. Somerset played Lancashire at Taunton on Friday 5 July 1991 to be the first Sunday League game not to be played on a Sunday. Nottinghamshire beat Derbyshire, the previous seasons champions, in the final round of matches at Trent Bridge to claim the title. Tom Moody of Worcestershire had an excellent season scoring a record 917 runs. Following the end of the Sunday League season, the top four teams in the Sunday League competed for the Refuge Assurance Cup. Worcestershire emerged as victors. Sunday League

Minuscule 355

Minuscule 355, ε 235, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Paleographically it has been assigned to the 12th century; the manuscript has some marginalia. The codex contains a complete text of the four Gospels on 410 parchment leaves, in octavo, with a Commentary of Theophylact; the text is written in 18 lines per page. The text is divided according to κεφαλαια, whose numbers are given at the margin, their τιτλοι at the top of the pages. There is another division according to the smaller Ammonian Sections, with references to the Eusebian Canons, it contains the Epistula ad Carpianum, the Eusebian tables, tables of the κεφαλαια before each Gospel, lectionary markings at the margin, Synaxarion. The Greek text of the codex is a representative of the Byzantine text-type. Hermann von Soden classified it to the textual family K1. Aland placed it in Category V. According to the Claremont Profile Method it represents family Kx in Luke 1, Luke 10, Luke 20; the manuscript was added to the list of New Testament manuscripts by Scholz.

It was examined by Burgon. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1886; the manuscript is housed at the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Minuscule 212 Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testaments. 1. Leipzig: Hinrichs. P. 182