Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
The Don is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, the Oka basin to the north; the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh southwest to its mouth; the main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the Volga-Don river region was the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans c. 4000BC. The Don river functioned as a fertile cradle of civilization where the Neolithic farmer culture of the Near East fused with the hunter-gatherer culture of Siberian groups, resulting in the nomadic pastoralism of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.
During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs and has been a major trading route since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes. Pliny gives the Scythian name of the Tanais as Silys. According to Plutarch, the Don River was home to the legendary Amazons of Greek mythology; the area around the estuary is speculated to be the source of the Black Death. While the lower Don was well known to ancient geographers, its middle and upper reaches were not mapped with any accuracy before the gradual conquest of the area by Muscovy in the 16th century; the Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. The fort of Donkov was founded by the princes of Ryazan in the late 14th century; the fort stood on the left bank of the Don, about 34 kilometers from the modern town of Dankov, until 1568, when it was destroyed by the Crimean Tatars, but soon restored at a better fortified location.
It is shown as Donko in Mercator's Atlas, Donkov was again relocated in 1618, appearing as Donkagorod in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Both Blaeu and Mercator follow the 16th-century cartographic tradition of letting the Don originate in a great lake, labelled Resanskoy ozera by Blaeu. Mercator still follows Giacomo Gastaldo in showing a waterway connecting this lake to Ryazan and the Oka River. Mercator shows Mtsensk as a great city on this waterway, suggesting a system of canals connecting the Don with the Zusha and Upa centered on a settlement Odoium, reported as Odoium lacum in the map made by Baron Augustin von Mayerberg, leader of an embassy to Muscovy in 1661. In modern literature, the Don region was featured in the work And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a Nobel-prize winning writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya. At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, connecting the two rivers, is a major waterway; the water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.
For the next 130 kilometres below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock, Konstantinovsk Ship Lock, the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock. The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is 7.5 kilometres below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, 131 kilometres upstream of Rostov-on-Don, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets; this is presently the last lock on the Don. In order to improve shipping conditions in the lower reaches of the Don, the waterway authorities support the proposals for the construction of one or two more low dams with locks, in Bagayevsky District and also in Aksaysky District. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Krasivaya Mecha Bystraya Sosna Veduga Voronezh Tikhaya Sosna Bityug Black Kalitva Khopyor – 1,010 kilometres Medveditsa Ilovlya Chir Seversky Donets – 1,053 kilometres Aidar – 264 kilometres Sal Manych Aksay Temernik Don goat And Quiet Flows The Don Rostov railway drawbridge Don at GEOnet Names Server
Yelets is a city in Lipetsk Oblast, situated on the Bystraya Sosna River, a tributary of the Don. Population: 108,404 . Yelets is the oldest center of the Central Black Earth Region, it was mentioned in historical documents as early as 1146 or 1147, when it was a fort belonging to the Princes of Ryazan. The town's position at the south of Russian lands made it an easy prey for Turkic conquerors; the Mongols burned it in 1239, Uzbeg Khan ravaged it in 1316, Timur sacked it in 1395, the Tatars devastated it in 1414. In 1483, the Principality of Yelets was absorbed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow, while the local Rurikid rulers entered the service of Ivan III. In 1591, Boris Godunov revived the deserted town by establishing a fortress there. In 1618, the fortress was captured "by subterfuge" by 20,000 Cossacks under Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny, allied with Władysław IV of Poland, they dismantled a large part of town fortifications. In the 19th century, Yelets became the largest trade center of the region.
Handmade lace has been a notable product of the city since then. The town's chief landmark is the vast Ascension Cathedral, built over the years 1845–1889 to a Neo-Muscovite design by Konstantin Thon; the town was occupied by the German Army from December 4 to 9, 1941 and damaged during the brief occupation and Soviet offensive in the region. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Yelets serves as the administrative center of Yeletsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated as Yelets City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with a status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Yelets City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Yelets Urban Okrug; the city is connected to Moscow, Lipetsk and Rostov by rail and the M4 highway runs past it. The main industries are limestone quarrying, food processing and clothing, tobacco processing, vodka distilling; the city has a theater, movie theaters, several sports venues.
The Yelets State University was upgraded from an institute in 2000 and the city has eight secondary schools. Липецкий областной Совет депутатов. Закон №382-ОЗ от 28 апреля 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Липецкой области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №343-ОЗ от 5 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Липецкой области в связи с объединением сельских поселений Добринский сельсовет и Сафоновский сельсовет Добринского муниципального района Липецкой области». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Липецкая газета", №88, 7 мая 2010 г.. Липецкий областной Совет депутатов. Закон №114-ОЗ от 2 июля 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований в Липецкой области статусом городского округа, муниципального района, городского и сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №343-ОЗ от 5 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Законы Липецкой области в связи с объединением сельских поселений Добринский сельсовет и Сафоновский сельсовет Добринского муниципального района Липецкой области».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Липецкая газета", №131, 8 июля 2004 г
Livny is a town in Oryol Oblast, Russia. Population: 50,343 ; the town originated in 1586 as Ust-Livny, a wooden fort on the bank of the Livenka River, although some believe that a town had existed on the spot previous to the Mongol invasion of Rus'. The fortress was important in guarding the southern border of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the case of a Crimean Tatar raid along the Muravsky Trail. Thirty years Ivan the Terrible sent prince Masalsky to build a town of Livny under the umbrella of a garrison stationed in the fort, it was burnt by the Tatars on many occasions. In 1606, the citizens of Livny raised a rebellion against Boris Godunov, killing his governor and proclaiming their allegiance to False Dmitry I. Two years Ivan Bolotnikov chose it as a base of his military operations against Vasily IV. In 1618, the wooden town was burnt by the Cossacks of Petro Konashevych; the Crimeans again attacked the town in 1661. As soon as the Tatar attacks ceased, the period of prosperity was ushered.
In the 19th century, Livny rivaled Yelets as the main trade center of the area. During World War II, Livny was occupied by the German Army from 26 November to 25 December 1941. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Livny serves as the administrative center of Livensky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Livny—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Livny is incorporated as Livny Urban Okrug. Near Livny, there is a 350-meter tall guyed TV tower, built in 1979. Sergey Bulgakov, a philosopher, was a native of Livny. Орловский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №522-ОЗ от 6 июля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Орловской области», в ред. Закона №1187-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2011 г «О внесении изменений в законодательные акты Орловской области». Вступил в силу с момента официального опубликования.
Опубликован: "Орловская правда", №116, 13 июля 2005 г.. Орловский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №449-ОЗ от 19 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе и границе города Ливны как муниципального образования Орловской области», в ред. Закона №1078-ОЗ от 8 июня 2010 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Орловской области "О статусе и границе города Ливны как муниципального образования Орловской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Орловская правда", №211, 24 ноября 2004 г.. Орловский областной Совет народных депутатов. Закон №442-ОЗ от 19 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Ливенского района Орловской области», в ред. Закона №1109-ОЗ от 3 сентября 2010 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Орловской области о статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Орловская правда", №211, 24 ноября 2004 г.. Pictures of Livny
Lipetsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Lipetsk; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,173,513. Lipetsk Oblast borders with Ryazan Oblast, Tambov Oblast, Voronezh Oblast, Kursk Oblast, Oryol Oblast, Tula Oblast. According to archaeologists and historians, the territory in which for the time being is the Lipetsk Oblast was inhabited since ancient times. Before the arrival of the Mongol-Tatar troops here were of Elec, Dobrinskaya Oaklet, Old fort Vorgol, Voronozh and others. During the Mongol invasion of Rus', many fortified cities had been destroyed. Earth Lipetsk Oblast at the beginning of the period belonged to the disintegration of the Chernigov principality. After 1202, after the death of Chernigov Prince Igor Svyatoslavich Yelets arose and Vorgolskoe fiefdoms. Taking advantage of the weakness of the principality of Chernigov, Ryazan princes seized all the lands of the upper Don, Voronezh River and annexed them to his possessions. For the newly acquired territories in the south of the Ryazan principality subsequently established name "Ryazan Ukraine."
The revival of the territory began after the expulsion of the nomads. In a short period of time were built fortified city: Duncan Talitskii jail, Eletskaya fortress Lebedian. In 1635, construction began on a strong fortified line - Belgorod defense line, which in the Lipetsk region within a modern fortress stood out: Good and Usman. Near the plants have populations of workers. One of these settlements was working Lipetsk settlement. At this time, because of the creation of the Navy and the regular army increased the need for flax and wool. So begins to develop agriculture. In the 18th century the continued growth of large landed estates. Lipetsk region, rich black earth, was the breadbasket of the state. Subsequently, he became known as a resort and mineral waters. During the February Revolution, the October Revolution of 1917 and the Russian Civil War, the lives of many cultural values, private collections of art and literature, but because of the ensuing repression against the church and the "bourgeois past" affected the architectural ensembles of the estates of the nobility and churches.
The modern oblast was formed by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on January 6, 1954 from parts of Voronezh, Tambov and Oryol Oblasts. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Lipetsk CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee. Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament; the Charter of Lipetsk Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Lipetsk Oblast is the province's standing legislative body; the Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province.
The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official, who acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Since 1998, the Governor is Oleg Korolyov; the most important industrial branches are the mechanical engineering. The most industrialized cities are Lipetsk, the administrative center, Yelets; the region's fuel and energy complex is represented by petroleum product marketing companies, a network of consumer gas pipelines, a power grid. The largest companies in the region include NLMK, Cherkizovo Pig Farming, JSC Progress, the local branch of Indesit Company. Crop cultivation and horticulture form the basis of the region's agriculture. Livestock farming specializes in cattle, goats and poultry; the processing industry is well developed. Population: 1,173,513 . Ethnic composition: Russians: 96.3% Ukrainians: 0.9% Armenians: 0.6% Azerbaijanis: 0.3% Others: 1.9% 45,268 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. Total fertility rate: 2003 - 1,24 | 2004 - 1,28 | 2005 - 1,27 | 2006 - 1,28 | 2007 - 1,36 | 2008 - 1,43 | 2009 - 1,44 | 2010 - 1,47 | 2011 - 1,47 | 2012 - 1.63 | 2013 - 1.60 | 2014 - 1.66 | 2015 - 1.70 | 2016 - 1.70 According to a 2012 survey 71.3% of the population of Lipetsk Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims, 1% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith movement. In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist, 2.7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. The world's f