The Czechs or the Czech people, are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture and Czech language. Ethnic Czechs were called Bohemians in English until the early 20th century, referring to the medieval land of Bohemia which in turn was adapted from late Iron Age tribe of Celtic Boii. During the Migration Period, West Slavic tribes of Bohemians settled in the area, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations", formed a principality in the 9th century, part of Great Moravia, in form of Duchy of Bohemia and Kingdom of Bohemia, the predecessors of the modern republic; the Czech diaspora is found in notable numbers in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Russia and Brazil, among others. The Czech ethnic group is part of the West Slavic subgroup of the larger Slavic ethno-linguistical group; the West Slavs have their origin in early Slavic tribes which settled in Central Europe after East Germanic tribes had left this area during the migration period.
The West Slavic tribe of Bohemians settled in the area of Bohemia during the migration period, assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations. They formed a principality in the 9th century, the Duchy of Bohemia, under the Přemyslid dynasty, part of the Great Moravia under Svatopluk I. According to mythology, the founding father of the Czech people were Forefather Čech, who according to legend brought the tribe of Czechs into its land; the Czech are related to the neighbouring Slovaks. The Czech–Slovak languages form a dialect continuum rather than being two distinct languages. Czech cultural influence in Slovak culture is noted as having been much higher than the other way around. Czech people have a long history of coexistence with Germanic people. In the 17th century, German replaced Czech in local administration; the Czech National Revival took place in the 18th and 19th centuries aiming to revive Czech language and national identity. The Czech were the initiators of Pan-Slavism; the Czech ethnonym was the name of a Slavic tribe in central Bohemia that subdued the surrounding tribes in the late 9th century and created the Czech/Bohemian state.
The origin of the name of the tribe itself is unknown. According to legend, it comes from their leader Čech. Research regards Čech as a derivative of the root čel-; the Czech ethnonym was adopted by the Moravians in the 19th century. The population of the Czech lands has been influenced by different human migrations that wide-crossed Europe over time. In their Y-DNA haplogroups, which are inherited along the male line, Czechs have shown a mix of Eastern and Western European traits. According to a 2007 study, 34.2% of Czech males belong to R1a. Within the Czech Republic, the proportion of R1a seems to increase from west to east According to a 2000 study, 35.6% of Czech males have haplogroup R1b, common in Western Europe among Germanic and Celtic nations, but rare among Slavic nations. A mtDNA study of 179 individuals from Western Bohemia showed that 3% had East Eurasian lineages that entered the gene pool through admixture with Central Asian nomadic tribes in the early Middle Ages. A group of scientists suggested that the high frequency of a gene mutation causing cystic fibrosis in Central European and Celtic populations supports the theory of some Celtic ancestry among the Czech population.
The population of the Czech Republic descends from diverse peoples of Slavic and Germanic origin. Presence of West Slavs in the 6th century during the Migration Period has been documented on the Czech territory. Slavs settled in Bohemia and Austria sometime during the 6th or 7th centuries, "assimilated the remaining Celtic and Germanic populations". According to a popular myth, the Slavs came with Forefather Čech. During the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs fighting against nearby settled Avars, became the ruler of the first known Slav state in Central Europe, the Samo's Empire; the principality Great Moravia, controlled by the Moymir dynasty, arose in the 8th century and reached its zenith in the 9th when it held off the influence of the Franks. Great Moravia was Christianized, the crucial role played Byzantine mission of Methodius; the Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late 9th century. In 880, Prague Castle was constructed by Prince Bořivoj, founder of the Přemyslid dynasty and the city of Prague was established.
Vratislav II was the first Czech king in 1085 and the duchy was raised to a hereditary kingdom under Ottokar I in 1198. The second half of the 13th century was a period of advancing German immigration into the Czech lands; the number of Czechs who have at least German ancestry today runs into hundreds of thousands. The Habsburg Monarchy focused much of its power on religious wars against the Protestants. While these religious wars were taking place, the Czech estates revolted against Habsburg from 1546 to 1547 but were defeated. Defenestrations of Prague in 1618, signaled an open revolt by the Bohemian estates against the Habsburgs and started the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle
Adolf Neubauer was sublibrarian at the Bodleian Library and reader in Rabbinic Hebrew at Oxford University. He was born in Upper Hungary; the Kingdom of Hungary was part of the Austrian Empire. He received a thorough education in rabbinical literature. In 1850 he obtained a position at the Austrian consulate in Jerusalem. At this time, he published articles about the situation of the city's Jewish population, which aroused the anger of some leaders of that community, with whom he became involved in a prolonged controversy. In 1857 he moved to Paris, where he continued his studies of Judaism and started producing scientific publications, his earliest contributions were made to the Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums and the Journal Asiatique. In 1865 he published a volume entitled Meleket ha-Shir, a collection of extracts from manuscripts relating to the principles of Hebrew versification. In 1864, Neubauer was entrusted with a mission to Saint Petersburg to examine the numerous, hitherto unpublished Karaite manuscripts preserved there.
As a result of this investigation he published a report in French, subsequently Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek. The work which established his reputation, was La Géographie du Talmud, an account of the geographical data scattered throughout the Talmud and early Jewish writings and relating to places in the Land of Israel. Starting in 1865 he lived in England and in 1868 his services were secured by the University of Oxford for the task of cataloging the Hebrew manuscripts in the Bodleian Library; the catalog appeared in 1886 after 18 years of preparation. The volume includes more than 2,500 entries, is accompanied by a portfolio with forty facsimiles. While engaged in this work Neubauer published other works of considerable importance, he purchased a manuscript of the Samaritan Tolidah for the Bodleian and published its text in 1869. In 1875, he edited the Arabic text of the Hebrew dictionary of Abu al-Walid, in 1876 published Jewish Interpretations of the Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah, edited by Neubauer and translated by Samuel Rolles Driver jointly in 1877.
In the same year, he contributed Les Rabbins Français du Commencement du XIVe Siècle to L'Histoire Littéraire de la France, according to the rules of the French Academy, it appeared under the name of Renan. In 1878, Neubauer edited the Aramaic text of the Book of Tobit. In 1892 together with Stern, he published a German translation of a medieval chronicle of the First Crusade: Hebräische Berichte über die Judenverfolgungen Während der Kreuzzüge, he was the first to discover fragment of the Hebrew text of Ben Sira. In 1884, a readership in Rabbinic Hebrew was founded at Oxford, Neubauer was appointed to the post, which he held for 16 years until failing eyesight compelled his resignation in May 1900. Neubauer's chief fame has been won as a librarian, in which capacity he enriched the Bodleian with many priceless treasures, displaying great judgment in their acquisition. Among other things he acquired manuscripts from the Cairo geniza as well as Yemenite manuscripts, he received the M. A. degree at Oxford in 1873 and was elected an honorary fellow of Exeter College in 1890.
In the latter year, he received the honorary degree of PhD from the University of Heidelberg and was made an honorary member of the Real Academia de la Historia at Madrid. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Joseph Jacobs, Goodman Lipkind. "Adolf Neubauer". In Singer, Isidore; the Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. Jewish Encyclopedia bibliographyCanon Driver, in Jew. Chron. Dec. 1899. Jewish Encyclopedia article on Adolf Neubauer, by Joseph Jacobs and Goodman Lipkind. Works by or about Adolf Neubauer at Internet Archive
Slovakia the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the west, the Czech Republic to the northwest. Slovakia's territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mountainous; the population is over 5.4 million and consists of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava, the second largest city is Košice; the official language is Slovak. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 6th centuries. In the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samo's Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra, conquered by the Principality of Moravia to establish Great Moravia. In the 10th century, after the dissolution of Great Moravia, the territory was integrated into the Principality of Hungary, which would become the Kingdom of Hungary in 1000. In 1241 and 1242, much of the territory was destroyed by the Mongols during their invasion of Central and Eastern Europe.
The area was recovered thanks to Béla IV of Hungary who settled Germans which became an important ethnic group in the area in what are today parts of central and eastern Slovakia. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Czechoslovak National Council established Czechoslovakia. A separate Slovak Republic existed during World War II as a totalitarian, clero-fascist one-party client state of Nazi Germany. At the end of World War II, Czechoslovakia was re-established as an independent country. A coup in 1948 ushered in a totalitarian one-party state under the Communist regime during whose rule the country existed as a satellite of the Soviet Union. Attempts for liberalization of communism in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Prague Spring, crushed by the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. In 1989, the Velvet Revolution ended the Communist rule in Czechoslovakia peacefully. Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia, sometimes known as the Velvet Divorce.
Slovakia is a developed country, with a high-income advanced economy and a high Human Development Index, a high standard of living and performs favourably in measurements of civil liberties, press freedom, internet freedom, democratic governance and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of market economy with a comprehensive social security system. Citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education and one of the longest paid parental leave in the OECD; the country joined the European Union on 1 May 2004 and joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2009. Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes. In 2018, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 10th in the world; as part of Eurozone, Slovak legal tender is the world's 2nd-most-traded currency.
Slovakia is the world's largest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone and the 7th largest car producer in the European Union. The car industry represents 43% of Slovakia's industrial output, a quarter of its exports; the first written mention of name Slovakia is in 1586. It derives from the Czech word Slováky; the native name Slovensko derives from an older name of Slovaks Sloven what may indicate its origin before the 15th century. The original meaning was geographic, since Slovakia was a part of the multiethnic Kingdom of Hungary and did not form a separate administrative unit in this period. Radiocarbon dating puts the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BCE, in the Early Paleolithic era; these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia. Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave in Bojnice and from other nearby sites.
The most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. Archaeologists have found prehistoric human skeletons in the region, as well as numerous objects and vestiges of the Gravettian culture, principally in the river valleys of Nitra, Ipeľ, Váh and as far as the city of Žilina, near the foot of the Vihorlat and Tribeč mountains, as well as in the Myjava Mountains; the most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the famous Venus of Moravany. The statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and Radošina; these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and central Europe. The Bronze Age in the geographical territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BCE.
Major cultural and political development can be attributed to the significant growth in production of copper in central Slovakia and northwe
Upper Váh region
Upper Váh region is the tourism region in the north-west of Slovakia, because of its beautiful countryside it is one of the most visited regions in Slovakia. In the past it was part of Trencsén County. Bytča District Považská Bystrica District Žilina District Púchov District A romantic ruin of medieval Gothic castle is making an essential silhouette on the right side of the river Váh, near Považská Bystrica, it is built on a cliff 497 meters above sea level. Due to its location it was one of the most important castles guarding the valley of the river Váh, location of the castle is attractive nowadays because it is set above important rail and road routes. At the peak of its fame it was home of around 400 people, it is famously known as an "eagles nest" of the important noble family of Podmaniczky, which controlled most of the region. Budatín castle is a castle in north-western Slovakia, it was built as a guarding castle in the second half of the 13th century near the confluence of the Kysuca and the Váh, where tolls were collected.
At the beginning of the 14th century royal fortress passed into the hands of Matthew Csák and the castle towers were fortified, inside the fortress a new palace was built. Strečno castle is a castle in north-western Slovakia, it is the symbol of slovak feudalism. It was built in the 14th century. Leopold I ordered to destroy the castle in the 17th century, similarity with Považský hrad, it is part of Slovak national heritage. It was built in the 13th century by the archbishop of Nitra. From 1563 it became the possession of Frantisek Thurzo, he built a manor house around an old Gothic castle. Works ended in 1574. A famous Italian architect Kilian of Milan was invited to supervise the works. Another great Italian architect was called to supervise the repairs in 1612, it was Pocabello
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Opoczno ) is a town in south-central Poland, in eastern part of Łódź Voivodeship in Piotrków Trybunalski Voivodeship. It has a long and rich history, in the past it used to be one of the most important urban centers of northwestern Lesser Poland. Opoczno is an important road and rail junction. Opoczno lies on the Wąglanka river, in northwestern corner of historic Lesser Poland, on the boundary between Lesser Polish Upland, Mazovian Lowland. On December 31, 2016, its population was 21,635; the town and its commune have a total area of 190 km2, which makes it one of the largest communes in the voivodeship. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Opoczno was part of Sandomierz Voivodeship, for centuries was the seat of a large county; the town is an important communication hub. It lies near the Central Rail Line, which connects Kraków with Warsaw. Opoczno has a rail station, along the line nr. 25, with connections to Tomaszów Mazowiecki and Skarżysko-Kamienna. Furthermore, the town lies along National Road Nr.
12, which creates a connection between western and eastern parts of Poland, has a good connection with the nearby A1 Motorway. First mention of Opoczno comes from 1284, when Prince Leszek II the Black wrote in documents that the village belonged to the Sandomierz Collegiate church. According to historian F. Kiryk, the history of Opoczno as a town date from the mid-13th century, when it was granted town charter by Duke of Sandomierz, Bolesław V the Chaste. For unknown reason, Opoczno declined in the late 13th century, turned into a village called Staromieście or Old Opoczno; the prosperity for Opoczno began during the reign of King Kazimierz Wielki. In the year 1347 he decided to move the village to another location, to found the so-called New Town, located southwest of Staromieście; the New Opoczno had the original area of 6 hectares, was surrounded with a defensive wall. Staromieście, together with the ancient Mary Magdalene church remained outside of the wall. A new church of St. Bartholomew was built, together with a royal castle, located in southwestern part of the town.
Opoczno gained its Magdeburg rights in 1365, its first starosta was Sobek z Wyszkowic. The defensive wall had the length of 940 meters, with two gates. Opoczno developed, due to convenient location along two busy merchant routes - from Kiev to Wrocław, from Toruń to Sandomierz. According to legend, King Kazimierz Wielki favored Opoczno over other towns because it was the birthplace of his legendary mistress Esterka. In the second half of the 14th century Opoczno prospered, in the 1360s, it was named the capital of a newly created county, which meant that it was no longer subjected to the Castellany of Żarnów. In ca. 1405, the complex of a hospital together with a Holy Spirit church was built. During the Polish Golden Age, good times continued, as both in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Opoczno was one of the most important urban centers of the Sandomierz Voivodeship. In 1405, a hospital was opened here, in 1550, with the permission of King Sigismund II Augustus, waterworks were built.
In 1599, the third gate in the defensive wall was added. At that time, Opoczno had as many as 90 artisans, with several guilds, such as shoemakers, blacksmiths and coppersmiths. In 1646, a synagogue was opened for the Jewish minority; the period of prosperity came to an end during the Swedish invasion of Poland, when Opoczno together with its castle was burned to the ground by the invaders, most of its inhabitants were murdered. Several skirmishes and battles between Poles and Swedish invaders took place at that time in Opoczno County. On September 9, 1655, the division of Stefan Czarniecki attacked Swedish reiters near Inowłódz. Three days the Poles attacked Swedish units under Arvid Wittenberg, which were resting by Opoczno. On September 16, 1655, the Battle of Żarnów took place. After the invasion, the destruction of Opoczno was complete, with only 15 houses still standing in the town in 1660. All artisans were killed, the development of the town was stopped for many years. Similar was the fate of other towns of the county.
Until 1795, Opoczno belonged to Lesser Poland's Sandomierz Voivodeship. Following the Partitions of Poland, the town was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, in 1815 it became part of Russian-controlled Congress Poland. At that time, the town was divided into Jewish districts; the population was decimated by frequent outbreaks of cholera, which returned several times until as late as the 1890s. In 1834, the Opoczno County was re-created, until World War I, Opoczno belonged to Radom Governorate. In 1828, the population of the town was app. 3,500, with 342 houses. Both Polish rebellions in Congress Poland resulted in Tsarist repressions, which were hard in the 1860s. Opoczno was one of major center of the insurrection, the town was temporarily captured by the rebels on January 31, 1863. In early 1863, in the summer of that year, several skirmishes took place here In the late 19th century, the process of industrialization and development began, spurred by the construction of a rail line from Koluszki to Skarżysko-Kamienna.
Several new businesses and shops opened, with the largest one being the tile manufacturer Dziewulski i Lange, which today is known as Opoczno S. A. founded in Congres
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif