Byzantine Revival architecture
The Byzantine Revival was an architectural revival movement, most seen in religious and public buildings. It incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with Eastern and Orthodox Christian architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of Ravenna. Neo-Byzantine architecture emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of the 19th century in the Russian Empire, Bulgaria. Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II. Earliest examples of emerging Byzantine-Romanesque architecture include the Alexander Nevsky Memorial Church, Potsdam, by Russian architect Vasily Stasov, the Abbey of Saint Boniface, laid down by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1835 and completed in 1840; the basilica followed the rules of 6th-century Ravenna architecture, although its corinthian order was a clear deviation from the historical Byzantine art. In 1876 Ludwig II of Bavaria commissioned Neo-Byzantine interiors of the externally Romanesque Neuschwanstein Castle, complete with mosaic images of Justinian I and Greek saints.
Danish architect Theophil Hansen became a supporter of the style in the 1850s. His major works belonged to Neo-Grec style, Hansen as a professor of Byzantine art in University of Vienna shaped a generation of architects that popularized Neo-Byzantine architecture in Austro-Hungary and post-war Yugoslavia. Hansen's own Neo-Byzantine work include the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church and the Christuskirche in Matzleindorf. Several Neo-Byzantine-style churches were constructed during the Gründerzeit, for instance, the Sacred Heart Church or the Rosary Basilica, both located in Berlin. Sophia Cathedral in Pushkin was the earliest and isolated experiment with Byzantine treatment of otherwise neoclassical structures. In 1830s Nicholas I of Russia promoted the so-called Russo-Byzantine style of churches designed by Konstantin Thon. Nicholas I despised true Byzantine art. Notably, Thon replaced the circular Byzantine arch with a keel-shaped gable, the hemispherical Byzantine dome with an onion dome.
True Byzantine art, popularized by Grigory Gagarin and David Grimm, was adopted by Alexander II of Russia as the de facto official style of the Orthodox Church. Byzantine architecture became a vehicle of Orthodox expansion on the frontiers of Empire. However, few buildings were completed in the reign of Alexander II due to financial troubles. Alexander III changed state preference in favor of Russian Revival trend based on 16th-17th century Moscow and Yaroslavl tradition, yet Byzantine architecture remained a common choice for large cathedrals. Neo-Byzantine cathedrals concentrated in the western provinces, the Army bases in Caucasus and Central Asia, the Cossack hosts and the industrial region in Urals around the city of Perm. Architects David Grimm and Vasily Kosyakov developed a unique national type of a single-dome Byzantine cathedral with four symmetrical pendentive apses that became de facto standard in 1880s-1890s; the reign of Nicholas II was notable for the architects's turn from this standard back to Hagia Sophia legacy, peaking in the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt and Poti cathedral.
These designs employed reinforced concrete that allowed fast construction schedule. Russian Neo-Byzantine tradition was terminated by the revolution of 1917 but was continued by emigrant architects in Yugoslavia and Harbin. In the United States and elsewhere, the Neo-Byzantine style is seen in vernacular amalgamations with other Medieval revivalist styles such as Romanesque and Gothic, or with the Mission Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival styles. Notable American examples include many buildings on the campus of Rice University in Texas, Christ Church United Methodist in Manhattan by Ralph Adams Cram. C. In the early 1980s, Philip Johnson designed a Post-Modernist addition to the Cleveland Play House that reflects Byzantine influences, could thus be termed Neo-Byzantine. Westminster Cathedral, the Catholic cathedral in London, is the largest and most thorough British effort in the style, by John Francis Bentley, but there are a number of other churches and other buildings such as the Christ Church, Brixton Road in London, by Arthur Beresford Pite, 1897–1903, near the Oval Cricket Ground and St Mary and St George Church, High Wycombe.
From about 1850 to 1880 in Bristol a related style known as Bristol Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. Newman University Church, Dublin is a notable Irish example. Russian Neo-Byzantine Architecture
Byzantine (video game)
Byzantine: The Betrayal is a video game, released September 30, 1997 for Microsoft Windows. Byzantine was the first title in the planned Planet Explorer series by Discovery Channel; this series offered a range of cultural experiences from TV to gaming to online expeditions The tie-in television special to this game was called Intrigue in Istanbul. The tie-in online expedition was called Selam: The Secret Language. Serious Games and Edutainment Applications asserts that the flagship game in "cultural entertainment", Versailles 1685, paved the way for other historical video games such as this, as well as China: The Forbidden City, Egypt 1156 B. C.: Tomb of the Pharaoh, Pilgrim: Faith as a Weapon, Rome: Caeser's Will, Vikings. According to Byzantine executive producer Harry Moxley, it took the team 16 months to produce the game, during which time they travelled throughout Turkey with the government's permission, captured rolls of pictures and tapes of anything of interest from vehicles to museums to religious buildings.
The team hired Turkish soap star actors to record lines for the game, despite many of them being able to speak English. According to Byzantine artist Martin Servante, the project went through a crisis situation during the completion of one of the levels. J. D. Sussman, vice president of Enterprise Studios, said: "the techniques and tools we've had to use to convert the Byzantine title from CD-ROM to DVD-ROM are all new. We have had to come up with custom solutions and this title has paved the way to develop solutions for other titles that follow."Package design for the DVD was done by Zimmerman Crowe Design. The game was released in the United States in Oct, 1997. In Germany, the game was distributed by Egmont Interactive GmbH, was re-dubbed into German by voice recording company Tonsynchron, was released in 1998; the game was dubbed and subtitled into Castillian. The protagonist is an American journalist who travels to Turkey to chase an exclusive scoop, ends up being caught up in a murder mystery.
Your friend tells you to travel to the country, when you arrive you are told by police that the friend isn't as innocent as you first thought, that by proxy you are under suspicion of smuggling priceless artifacts out of the country. Their journey takes them to virtual reconstructions of historic locations such as Aya Sofya, Suleymaniye Mosque, the Archaeological Museum; the game consists of a series of 360º screens ala Zork Nemesis, with live actors and photo realistic backgrounds. 16-bit models were designed to be placed into the backdrops for plot puzzles. 45 minutes of live action footage was shot on location in Turkey. The game has a rating of 75.17% on GameRankings based on 6 reviews. Skinny Minnie of Tap Repeatedly wrote that the soundscape consisted of ethnic Turkish-sounding strings and percussion. Just Adventure appreciated. Adventure Classic Gaming felt that the game provided a satisfactory simulation of a tour through Byzantine. Przygodoskop thought the game provided both an entertaining mystery.
Game Revolution thought. Gamespot was impressed by the game's seamless blending of "Muslim and Christian religions" with "modern and conservative cultures". Metzomagic noted that the player is able to die throughout the game, so recommended the player keep autosave open. Byzantine was a finalist for the Software Publishers Association's 1997 "Best Adventure/Role-Playing Software Game" Codie award, which went to Diablo, it was nominated in the "Best Overall Multimedia Production" and "Best Use of Visual Arts in Multimedia" categories. The Computer Game Developers Conference nominated Byzantine for its 1998 "Best Adventure/RPG" Spotlight Award, but this went to Final Fantasy VII. http://www.kultboy.com/index.php?site=t&id=9860
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest; the New Testament text of the Orthodox Church, the Patriarchal Text, as well as those utilized in the lectionaries, is based on this text-type. While varying, it underlies the Textus Receptus Greek text used for most Reformation-era translations of the New Testament into vernacular languages. Modern translations use Eclectic editions that conform more to the Alexandrian text-type; the Byzantine text is found in a few modern Orthodox editions, as the Byzantine textual tradition has continued in the Eastern Orthodox Church into the present time. The text used by the Orthodox Church is supported by late minuscule manuscripts, it is accepted as standard Byzantine text. The Byzantine textform is marked with the abbreviations M or Byz. For some time following the fourth century different types of text were current in the East, but at the end the Byzantine text "almost wholly displaced the rest."
The Byzantine text-type has by far the largest number of surviving manuscripts, many of them written in the newer minuscule style and in Polytonic orthography handwriting, invented in the 3rd century BC by Aristophanes of Byzantium but which took many centuries to catch on outside scholarly circles. For example, of 522 complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the General Epistles collated by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Münster, Germany, 372 of them attest the Byzantine reading in at least 90% of 98 test places. Amongst the earliest surviving manuscripts, the position is reversed. There are six manuscripts earlier than the 9th century. By comparison, the Alexandrian text-type is witnessed by nine surviving uncials earlier than the ninth century. Modern critical editions of the New Testament tend to conform most to Alexandrian witnesses — Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus; the earliest Church Father to witness to a Byzantine text-type in substantial New Testament quotations is John Chrysostom.
Chrysostom and Asterius used text only in 75% agreed with the standard Byzantine text. The second earliest translation to witness to a Greek base conforming to the Byzantine text in the Gospels is the Syriac Peshitta. Dating from the fourth century, hence earlier than the Peshitta, is the Ethiopic version of the Gospels. Zuurmond notes that in the Gospel of John, the form of the early Byzantine text found in the Ethiopic Gospels is quite different from the Greek Majority Text, agrees in a number of places with Papyrus 66; the form of the Byzantine text found in the earliest witnesses is not a monolithic whole, sometimes differs from a Byzantine sub-group of manuscripts that proliferated after the 11th century. Amongst the bulk of manuscripts however, it is possible to demonstrate a clear Byzantine majority reading for each variant. Papyri73 UncialsCodex Mutinensis, Codex Cyprius, Codex Mosquensis I, Petropolitanus Purp. Sinopensis, Guelferbytanus A, Guelferbytanus B, Nanianus, Tischendorfianus IV, Tischendorfianus III, Rossanensis, Dionysiou, Vaticanus 2066, Uncial 047, 049, 052, 053, 054, 056, 061, 063, 064, 065, 069, 093, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0116, 0120, 0133, 0134, 0135, 0136, 0142, 0151, 0197, 0211, 0246, 0248, 0253, 0255, 0257, 0265, 0269, 0272, 0273.
MinusculesMore than 80% of minuscules represent the Byzantine text.2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 155, 156, 159, 162, 167, 169, 170, 171, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206
Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire; this stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine studies, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire; the beginning of Medieval Greek is dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political, as opposed to cultural and linguistic, developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language pronunciation, had shifted towards modern forms.
The conquests of Alexander the Great, the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, Modern Greek. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still influenced by Attic Greek, it was influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church. Constantine moved to Byzantium in 330; the city, though a major imperial residence like other cities such as Trier and Sirmium, was not a capital until 359. Nonetheless the imperial court resided there and the city was the political centre of the eastern parts of the Roman Empire where Greek was the dominant language. At first, Latin remained the language of the army, it was used for official documents. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were translated into Greek.
Under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire. This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves Rhomaioi until its end in 1453, as they saw their State as the perpetuation of Roman rule. Despite the absence of reliable demographic figures, it has been estimated that less than one third of the inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, around eight million people, were native speakers of Greek; the number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. The native Greek speakers consisted of many of the inhabitants of the southern Balkan Peninsula, south of the Jireček Line, all of the inhabitants of Asia Minor, where the native tongues, except Armenian in the east, had become extinct, replaced by Greek, by the 5th century. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were influenced by the Greek language. In the period between 603 and 619, the southern and eastern parts of the empire were occupied by Persian Sassanids and, after being recaptured by Heraclius in the years 622 to 628, they were conquered by the Arabs in the course of the Muslim conquests a few years later.
Alexandria, a center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as an official language in conquered territories such as Egypt; as more people gained a knowledge of Arabic. Thus, the use of Greek declined early on in Egypt; the invasion of the Slavs into the Balkan peninsula reduced the area where Greek was spoken and Latin. Sicily and parts of Magna Graecia, Asia Minor and more Anatolia, parts of the Crimean Peninsula remained Greek-speaking; the southern Balkans which would henceforth be contested between Byzantium and various Slavic kingdoms or empires. The Greek language spoken by one-third of the population of Sicily at the time of the Norman conquest 1060-90 remained vibrant for more than a century, but died out to a deliberate policy of Latinization in language and religion from the mid-1160s. From the late 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards.
With the Ottoman conquests of Constantinople in 1453, the Peloponnese in 1459/1460, the Empire of Trebizond in 1461, Athens in 1465, two centuries the Duchy of Candia in 1669, the Greek language lost its status as a national language until the emergence of modern Greece in the year 1821. Language varieties after 1453 are referred to as Modern Greek; as early as in the Hellenistic period, there was a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the developing vernacular Koiné. By late antiquity, the gap had become impossible to ignore. In the Byzantine era, written Greek manifested itself in a whole spectrum of divergent registers, all of which were consciously archaic in comparison with the contemporary spoken vernacular, but in different degrees, they ranged from a moderately archaic style employed for most every-day writing and based on the written Koiné of the Bible and early Christian literature, to a artificial learned style, employed by authors with higher literary ambitions and imitating the model of classical Attic, in continuation of the movement of Atticism
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine era is dated from 330 CE, when Constantine the Great moved the Roman capital to Byzantium, which became Constantinople, until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. However, there was no hard line between the Byzantine and Roman empires, early Byzantine architecture is stylistically and structurally indistinguishable from Roman architecture; this terminology was introduced by modern historians to designate the medieval Roman Empire as it evolved as a distinct artistic and cultural entity centered on the new capital of Constantinople rather than the city of Rome and its environs. Its architecture influenced the medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East, became the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture. Stylistic drift, technological advancement, political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture.
Buildings increased in geometric complexity and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to illuminate interiors. Most of the surviving structures are sacred in nature, with secular buildings known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from the Emperor Justinian I's reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, as well as in Sofia. One of the great breakthroughs in the history of Western architecture occurred when Justinian's architects invented a complex system providing for a smooth transition from a square plan of the church to a circular dome by means of pendentives. In Ravenna, the longitudinal basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the octagonal, centralized structure of the church of San Vitale, commissioned by Emperor Justinian but never seen by him, was built.
Justinian's monuments in Istanbul include the domed churches of Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, but there is an earlier, smaller church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, which might have served as a model for both in that it combined the elements of a longitudinal basilica with those of a centralized building. Secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace. Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki, Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, Jvari Monastery in present-day Georgia, three Armenian churches of Echmiadzin all date from the 7th century and provide a glimpse on architectural developments in the Byzantine provinces following the age of Justinian. Remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge; the period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture.
It is presumed that Basil I's votive church of the Theotokos of the Pharos and the Nea Ekklesia served as a model for most cross-in-square sanctuaries of the period, including the Cattolica di Stilo in southern Italy, the monastery church of Hosios Lukas in Greece, Nea Moni of Chios, the Daphni Monastery near Athens. The cross-in-square type became predominant in the Slavic countries which were progressively Christianized by missionaries during the Macedonian period; the Hagia Sophia church in Ochrid, the eponymous cathedral in Kiev testify to a vogue for multiple subsidiary domes set on drums, which would gain in height and narrowness with the progress of time. In Istanbul and Asia Minor the architecture of the Komnenian period is non-existent, with the notable exceptions of the Elmali Kilise and other rock sanctuaries of Cappadocia, of the Churches of the Pantokrator and of the Theotokos Kyriotissa in Istanbul. Most examples of this architectural style and many of the other older Byzantine styles only survive on the outskirts of the Byzantine world, as most of the most significant and ancient churches/ buildings were in Asia Minor, but in World War I all churches that ended up within Turkish borders were destroyed,converted into mosques, or abandoned in the Greek and Christian genocides spanning from 1915–1923.
Only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian countries; the Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures; as a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium. The Church of the Holy Apostles is cited as an archetypal structure of the late period, when the exterior walls were intricately decorated with complex brickwork patterns or with glazed ceramics. Other churches from the years predati
Byzantine art refers to the body of Christian Greek artistic products of the Eastern Roman Empire, as well as the nations and states that inherited culturally from the empire. Though the empire itself emerged from the decline of Rome and lasted until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the start date of the Byzantine period is rather clearer in art history than in political history, if still imprecise. Many Eastern Orthodox states in Eastern Europe, as well as to some degree the Muslim states of the eastern Mediterranean, preserved many aspects of the empire's culture and art for centuries afterward. A number of states contemporary with the Byzantine Empire were culturally influenced by it, without being part of it; these included the Rus, as well as some non-Orthodox states like the Republic of Venice, which separated from the Byzantine empire in the 10th century, the Kingdom of Sicily, which had close ties to the Byzantine Empire and had been a Byzantine possession until the 10th century with a large Greek-speaking population persisting into the 12th century.
Other states having a Byzantine artistic tradition had oscillated throughout the Middle Ages between being part of the Byzantine empire and having periods of independence, such as Serbia and Bulgaria. After the fall of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople in 1453, art produced by Eastern Orthodox Christians living in the Ottoman Empire was called "post-Byzantine." Certain artistic traditions that originated in the Byzantine Empire in regard to icon painting and church architecture, are maintained in Greece, Serbia, Romania and other Eastern Orthodox countries to the present day. Byzantine art originated and evolved from the Christianized Greek culture of the Eastern Roman Empire; the art of Byzantium never lost sight of its classical heritage. The basis of Byzantine art is a fundamental artistic attitude held by the Byzantine Greeks who, like their ancient Greek predecessors, "were never satisfied with a play of forms alone, but stimulated by an innate rationalism, endowed forms with life by associating them with a meaningful content."
Although the art produced in the Byzantine Empire was marked by periodic revivals of a classical aesthetic, it was above all marked by the development of a new aesthetic defined by its salient "abstract", or anti-naturalistic character. If classical art was marked by the attempt to create representations that mimicked reality as as possible, Byzantine art seems to have abandoned this attempt in favor of a more symbolic approach; the nature and causes of this transformation, which took place during late antiquity, have been a subject of scholarly debate for centuries. Giorgio Vasari attributed it to a decline in artistic skills and standards, which had in turn been revived by his contemporaries in the Italian Renaissance. Although this point of view has been revived, most notably by Bernard Berenson, modern scholars tend to take a more positive view of the Byzantine aesthetic. Alois Riegl and Josef Strzygowski, writing in the early 20th century, were above all responsible for the revaluation of late antique art.
Riegl saw it as a natural development of pre-existing tendencies in Roman art, whereas Strzygowski viewed it as a product of "oriental" influences. Notable recent contributions to the debate include those of Ernst Kitzinger, who traced a "dialectic" between "abstract" and "Hellenistic" tendencies in late antiquity, John Onians, who saw an "increase in visual response" in late antiquity, through which a viewer "could look at something, in twentieth-century terms purely abstract and find it representational." In any case, the debate is purely modern: it is clear that most Byzantine viewers did not consider their art to be abstract or unnaturalistic. As Cyril Mango has observed, "our own appreciation of Byzantine art stems from the fact that this art is not naturalistic; the subject matter of monumental Byzantine art was religious and imperial: the two themes are combined, as in the portraits of Byzantine emperors that decorated the interior of the sixth-century church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
These preoccupations are a result of the pious and autocratic nature of Byzantine society, a result of its economic structure: the wealth of the empire was concentrated in the hands of the church and the imperial office, which had the greatest opportunity to undertake monumental artistic commissions. Religious art was not, limited to the monumental decoration of church interiors. One of the most important genres of Byzantine art was the icon, an image of Christ, the Virgin, or a saint, used as an object of veneration in Orthodox churches and private homes alike. Icons were more religious than aesthetic in nature: after the end of iconoclasm, they were understood to manifest the unique "presence" of the figure depicted by means of a "likeness" to that figure maintained through maintained canons of representation; the illumination of manuscripts was another major genre of Byzantine art. The most illustrated texts were religious, both scripture itself (pa
The Byzantine Rite known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek/Byzantine Catholic churches, in a modified form, Byzantine Rite Lutheranism. Its development began during the fourth century in Constantinople and it is now the second most-used ecclesiastical rite in Christendom after the Roman Rite; the Byzantine Rite was developed and used in Greek language and with introduction of Eastern Orthodoxy to other ethnic groups it was translated into local languages and continued further development. Most important non-Greek variants of Byzantine Rite are: Byzantine-Slavonic and Byzantine-Georgian; the rite consists of the divine liturgies, canonical hours, forms for the administration of sacred mysteries and the numerous prayers and exorcisms developed by the Church of Constantinople. Involved are the specifics of church architecture, liturgical music and traditions which have evolved over the centuries in the Eastern Orthodox Church and which are associated with this rite.
Traditionally, the congregation stands throughout the whole service, an iconostasis separates the sanctuary from the nave of the church. The faithful are active in their worship, making frequent bows and prostrations, feeling free to move about the temple during the services. Traditionally, the major clergy and monks neither shave nor cut their hair or beards. Scripture plays a large role in Byzantine worship, with not only daily readings but many quotes from the Bible throughout the services; the entire psalter is read each week, twice weekly during Great Lent. Fasting is stricter than in the Roman Rite. On fast days, the faithful give up not only meat, but dairy products, on many fast days they give up fish and the use of oil in cooking; the rite observes four fasting seasons: Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast. In addition, most Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are fast days and many monasteries observe Monday as a fast day. There are two ancient liturgical traditions from which all of the Eastern Rites developed: the Alexandrian Rite in Egypt and the Antiochene Rite in Syria.
These two Rites developed directly from practices of the Early Church. Of these two traditions, the Rite of Constantinople developed from the Antiochene Rite. Prior to the see of Constantinople's elevation to the dignity of patriarch by the Second Ecumenical Council in 381, the primary jurisdiction in Asia Minor was the Patriarchate of Antioch. With the council's elevation of Constantinople to primacy in the East, with the words "The Bishop of Constantinople... shall have the prerogative of honour after the Bishop of Rome. Because the Rite of Constantinople evolved as a synthesis of two distinct rites — cathedral rite of Constantinople called the "asmatiki akolouthia" and the monastic typicon of the Holy Lavra of Saint Sabbas the Sanctified near Jerusalem — its offices are developed and quite complex. Further developments continued to occur, centered around Constantinople and Mount Athos. Monasticism played an important role in the development of the rituals. In Constantinople, the work of the monastery of the Studion enriched the liturgical traditions with regard to the Lenten observance.
Iconography continued to develop and a canon of traditional patterns evolved which still influences Eastern religious art to this day. Historical events have influenced the development of the liturgy; the great Christological and Trinitarian controversies of Late Antiquity are reflected in the glorifications of the Trinity heard in the numerous ekphonies encountered during the services. In response to Nestorius' attack on giving the title of Theotokos to the Virgin Mary, the Byzantines increased the use of the term in the liturgy, now every string of hymns ends with one in her honour, called a theotokion. All liturgical rites develop over time; as new saints are canonized, new hymns are composed. The rite profits from the fact that the Christian East is not so centralized in ecclesiastical polity as the West; this allows for greater diversity, as members of one church visit another, a natural cross-pollination occurs with resultant enrichment on all sides. In spite of its great emphasis on tradition, the Byzantine Rite comprises a growing and expanding ritual, with room for local practice.
The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the older of its two main Divine Liturgies to St. Basil the Great, Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia; this tradition is confirmed by the witness of several ancient authors, some of whom were contemporaries. It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time. St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea. and other contemporary witnesses attest his arrangement of the services. Basil had as his goal the streamlining of the services to make them more cohesive and attractive to the faithful, he worked to reform the clergy and improve the moral life of Christians. He wrote a number of new prayers; the most important work attributed to him is the Divine Liturgy of St. Basil, he took as his basis the Liturgy of St. James as it was celebrated at his time in the r