Byzantine Revival architecture
The Byzantine Revival was an architectural revival movement, most seen in religious and public buildings. It incorporates elements of the Byzantine style associated with Eastern and Orthodox Christian architecture dating from the 5th through 11th centuries, notably that of Constantinople and the Exarchate of Ravenna. Neo-Byzantine architecture emerged in the 1840s in Western Europe and peaked in the last quarter of the 19th century in the Russian Empire, Bulgaria. Neo-Byzantine school was active in Yugoslavia between World War I and World War II. Earliest examples of emerging Byzantine-Romanesque architecture include the Alexander Nevsky Memorial Church, Potsdam, by Russian architect Vasily Stasov, the Abbey of Saint Boniface, laid down by Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1835 and completed in 1840; the basilica followed the rules of 6th-century Ravenna architecture, although its corinthian order was a clear deviation from the historical Byzantine art. In 1876 Ludwig II of Bavaria commissioned Neo-Byzantine interiors of the externally Romanesque Neuschwanstein Castle, complete with mosaic images of Justinian I and Greek saints.
Danish architect Theophil Hansen became a supporter of the style in the 1850s. His major works belonged to Neo-Grec style, Hansen as a professor of Byzantine art in University of Vienna shaped a generation of architects that popularized Neo-Byzantine architecture in Austro-Hungary and post-war Yugoslavia. Hansen's own Neo-Byzantine work include the Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church and the Christuskirche in Matzleindorf. Several Neo-Byzantine-style churches were constructed during the Gründerzeit, for instance, the Sacred Heart Church or the Rosary Basilica, both located in Berlin. Sophia Cathedral in Pushkin was the earliest and isolated experiment with Byzantine treatment of otherwise neoclassical structures. In 1830s Nicholas I of Russia promoted the so-called Russo-Byzantine style of churches designed by Konstantin Thon. Nicholas I despised true Byzantine art. Notably, Thon replaced the circular Byzantine arch with a keel-shaped gable, the hemispherical Byzantine dome with an onion dome.
True Byzantine art, popularized by Grigory Gagarin and David Grimm, was adopted by Alexander II of Russia as the de facto official style of the Orthodox Church. Byzantine architecture became a vehicle of Orthodox expansion on the frontiers of Empire. However, few buildings were completed in the reign of Alexander II due to financial troubles. Alexander III changed state preference in favor of Russian Revival trend based on 16th-17th century Moscow and Yaroslavl tradition, yet Byzantine architecture remained a common choice for large cathedrals. Neo-Byzantine cathedrals concentrated in the western provinces, the Army bases in Caucasus and Central Asia, the Cossack hosts and the industrial region in Urals around the city of Perm. Architects David Grimm and Vasily Kosyakov developed a unique national type of a single-dome Byzantine cathedral with four symmetrical pendentive apses that became de facto standard in 1880s-1890s; the reign of Nicholas II was notable for the architects's turn from this standard back to Hagia Sophia legacy, peaking in the Naval Cathedral in Kronstadt and Poti cathedral.
These designs employed reinforced concrete that allowed fast construction schedule. Russian Neo-Byzantine tradition was terminated by the revolution of 1917 but was continued by emigrant architects in Yugoslavia and Harbin. In the United States and elsewhere, the Neo-Byzantine style is seen in vernacular amalgamations with other Medieval revivalist styles such as Romanesque and Gothic, or with the Mission Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival styles. Notable American examples include many buildings on the campus of Rice University in Texas, Christ Church United Methodist in Manhattan by Ralph Adams Cram. C. In the early 1980s, Philip Johnson designed a Post-Modernist addition to the Cleveland Play House that reflects Byzantine influences, could thus be termed Neo-Byzantine. Westminster Cathedral, the Catholic cathedral in London, is the largest and most thorough British effort in the style, by John Francis Bentley, but there are a number of other churches and other buildings such as the Christ Church, Brixton Road in London, by Arthur Beresford Pite, 1897–1903, near the Oval Cricket Ground and St Mary and St George Church, High Wycombe.
From about 1850 to 1880 in Bristol a related style known as Bristol Byzantine was popular for industrial buildings which combined elements of the Byzantine style with Moorish architecture. Newman University Church, Dublin is a notable Irish example. Russian Neo-Byzantine Architecture
Byzantine is the self-titled fourth studio album from Byzantine. It was released on February 26, 2013; the album was funded through crowd funding site Kickstarter. On November 28, 2012, the band premiered the first single from the album, "Signal Path" on MetalSucks; the second single and accompanying music video for "Soul Eraser" premiered on January 11, 2013 on No Clean Singing. Chris "OJ" Ojeda - Vocals, Guitar Tony Rohrbough - Lead Guitar Michael "Skip" Cromer - Bass Matt Wolfe - Drums "Signal Path" "Soul Eraser"
The Byzantine text-type is one of several text-types used in textual criticism to describe the textual character of Greek New Testament manuscripts. It is the form found in the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not in the oldest; the New Testament text of the Orthodox Church, the Patriarchal Text, as well as those utilized in the lectionaries, is based on this text-type. While varying, it underlies the Textus Receptus Greek text used for most Reformation-era translations of the New Testament into vernacular languages. Modern translations use Eclectic editions that conform more to the Alexandrian text-type; the Byzantine text is found in a few modern Orthodox editions, as the Byzantine textual tradition has continued in the Eastern Orthodox Church into the present time. The text used by the Orthodox Church is supported by late minuscule manuscripts, it is accepted as standard Byzantine text. The Byzantine textform is marked with the abbreviations M or Byz. For some time following the fourth century different types of text were current in the East, but at the end the Byzantine text "almost wholly displaced the rest."
The Byzantine text-type has by far the largest number of surviving manuscripts, many of them written in the newer minuscule style and in Polytonic orthography handwriting, invented in the 3rd century BC by Aristophanes of Byzantium but which took many centuries to catch on outside scholarly circles. For example, of 522 complete or nearly complete manuscripts of the General Epistles collated by the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Münster, Germany, 372 of them attest the Byzantine reading in at least 90% of 98 test places. Amongst the earliest surviving manuscripts, the position is reversed. There are six manuscripts earlier than the 9th century. By comparison, the Alexandrian text-type is witnessed by nine surviving uncials earlier than the ninth century. Modern critical editions of the New Testament tend to conform most to Alexandrian witnesses — Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus; the earliest Church Father to witness to a Byzantine text-type in substantial New Testament quotations is John Chrysostom.
Chrysostom and Asterius used text only in 75% agreed with the standard Byzantine text. The second earliest translation to witness to a Greek base conforming to the Byzantine text in the Gospels is the Syriac Peshitta. Dating from the fourth century, hence earlier than the Peshitta, is the Ethiopic version of the Gospels. Zuurmond notes that in the Gospel of John, the form of the early Byzantine text found in the Ethiopic Gospels is quite different from the Greek Majority Text, agrees in a number of places with Papyrus 66; the form of the Byzantine text found in the earliest witnesses is not a monolithic whole, sometimes differs from a Byzantine sub-group of manuscripts that proliferated after the 11th century. Amongst the bulk of manuscripts however, it is possible to demonstrate a clear Byzantine majority reading for each variant. Papyri73 UncialsCodex Mutinensis, Codex Cyprius, Codex Mosquensis I, Petropolitanus Purp. Sinopensis, Guelferbytanus A, Guelferbytanus B, Nanianus, Tischendorfianus IV, Tischendorfianus III, Rossanensis, Dionysiou, Vaticanus 2066, Uncial 047, 049, 052, 053, 054, 056, 061, 063, 064, 065, 069, 093, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0116, 0120, 0133, 0134, 0135, 0136, 0142, 0151, 0197, 0211, 0246, 0248, 0253, 0255, 0257, 0265, 0269, 0272, 0273.
MinusculesMore than 80% of minuscules represent the Byzantine text.2, 3, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 65, 66, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 116, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 155, 156, 159, 162, 167, 169, 170, 171, 177, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206
Byzantine (video game)
Byzantine: The Betrayal is a video game, released September 30, 1997 for Microsoft Windows. Byzantine was the first title in the planned Planet Explorer series by Discovery Channel; this series offered a range of cultural experiences from TV to gaming to online expeditions The tie-in television special to this game was called Intrigue in Istanbul. The tie-in online expedition was called Selam: The Secret Language. Serious Games and Edutainment Applications asserts that the flagship game in "cultural entertainment", Versailles 1685, paved the way for other historical video games such as this, as well as China: The Forbidden City, Egypt 1156 B. C.: Tomb of the Pharaoh, Pilgrim: Faith as a Weapon, Rome: Caeser's Will, Vikings. According to Byzantine executive producer Harry Moxley, it took the team 16 months to produce the game, during which time they travelled throughout Turkey with the government's permission, captured rolls of pictures and tapes of anything of interest from vehicles to museums to religious buildings.
The team hired Turkish soap star actors to record lines for the game, despite many of them being able to speak English. According to Byzantine artist Martin Servante, the project went through a crisis situation during the completion of one of the levels. J. D. Sussman, vice president of Enterprise Studios, said: "the techniques and tools we've had to use to convert the Byzantine title from CD-ROM to DVD-ROM are all new. We have had to come up with custom solutions and this title has paved the way to develop solutions for other titles that follow."Package design for the DVD was done by Zimmerman Crowe Design. The game was released in the United States in Oct, 1997. In Germany, the game was distributed by Egmont Interactive GmbH, was re-dubbed into German by voice recording company Tonsynchron, was released in 1998; the game was dubbed and subtitled into Castillian. The protagonist is an American journalist who travels to Turkey to chase an exclusive scoop, ends up being caught up in a murder mystery.
Your friend tells you to travel to the country, when you arrive you are told by police that the friend isn't as innocent as you first thought, that by proxy you are under suspicion of smuggling priceless artifacts out of the country. Their journey takes them to virtual reconstructions of historic locations such as Aya Sofya, Suleymaniye Mosque, the Archaeological Museum; the game consists of a series of 360º screens ala Zork Nemesis, with live actors and photo realistic backgrounds. 16-bit models were designed to be placed into the backdrops for plot puzzles. 45 minutes of live action footage was shot on location in Turkey. The game has a rating of 75.17% on GameRankings based on 6 reviews. Skinny Minnie of Tap Repeatedly wrote that the soundscape consisted of ethnic Turkish-sounding strings and percussion. Just Adventure appreciated. Adventure Classic Gaming felt that the game provided a satisfactory simulation of a tour through Byzantine. Przygodoskop thought the game provided both an entertaining mystery.
Game Revolution thought. Gamespot was impressed by the game's seamless blending of "Muslim and Christian religions" with "modern and conservative cultures". Metzomagic noted that the player is able to die throughout the game, so recommended the player keep autosave open. Byzantine was a finalist for the Software Publishers Association's 1997 "Best Adventure/Role-Playing Software Game" Codie award, which went to Diablo, it was nominated in the "Best Overall Multimedia Production" and "Best Use of Visual Arts in Multimedia" categories. The Computer Game Developers Conference nominated Byzantine for its 1998 "Best Adventure/RPG" Spotlight Award, but this went to Final Fantasy VII. http://www.kultboy.com/index.php?site=t&id=9860
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire; this stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine studies, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire; the beginning of Medieval Greek is dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political, as opposed to cultural and linguistic, developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language pronunciation, had shifted towards modern forms.
The conquests of Alexander the Great, the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, Modern Greek. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still influenced by Attic Greek, it was influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the Greek Orthodox Church. Constantine moved to Byzantium in 330; the city, though a major imperial residence like other cities such as Trier and Sirmium, was not a capital until 359. Nonetheless the imperial court resided there and the city was the political centre of the eastern parts of the Roman Empire where Greek was the dominant language. At first, Latin remained the language of the army, it was used for official documents. From the beginning of the 6th century, amendments to the law were written in Greek. Furthermore, parts of the Roman Corpus Iuris Civilis were translated into Greek.
Under the rule of Emperor Heraclius, who assumed the Greek title Basileus in 629, Greek became the official language of the Eastern Roman Empire. This was in spite of the fact that the inhabitants of the empire still considered themselves Rhomaioi until its end in 1453, as they saw their State as the perpetuation of Roman rule. Despite the absence of reliable demographic figures, it has been estimated that less than one third of the inhabitants of the Eastern Roman Empire, around eight million people, were native speakers of Greek; the number of those who were able to communicate in Greek may have been far higher. The native Greek speakers consisted of many of the inhabitants of the southern Balkan Peninsula, south of the Jireček Line, all of the inhabitants of Asia Minor, where the native tongues, except Armenian in the east, had become extinct, replaced by Greek, by the 5th century. In any case, all cities of the Eastern Roman Empire were influenced by the Greek language. In the period between 603 and 619, the southern and eastern parts of the empire were occupied by Persian Sassanids and, after being recaptured by Heraclius in the years 622 to 628, they were conquered by the Arabs in the course of the Muslim conquests a few years later.
Alexandria, a center of Greek culture and language, fell to the Arabs in 642. During the seventh and eighth centuries, Greek was replaced by Arabic as an official language in conquered territories such as Egypt; as more people gained a knowledge of Arabic. Thus, the use of Greek declined early on in Egypt; the invasion of the Slavs into the Balkan peninsula reduced the area where Greek was spoken and Latin. Sicily and parts of Magna Graecia, Asia Minor and more Anatolia, parts of the Crimean Peninsula remained Greek-speaking; the southern Balkans which would henceforth be contested between Byzantium and various Slavic kingdoms or empires. The Greek language spoken by one-third of the population of Sicily at the time of the Norman conquest 1060-90 remained vibrant for more than a century, but died out to a deliberate policy of Latinization in language and religion from the mid-1160s. From the late 11th century onwards, the interior of Anatolia was invaded by Seljuq Turks, who advanced westwards.
With the Ottoman conquests of Constantinople in 1453, the Peloponnese in 1459/1460, the Empire of Trebizond in 1461, Athens in 1465, two centuries the Duchy of Candia in 1669, the Greek language lost its status as a national language until the emergence of modern Greece in the year 1821. Language varieties after 1453 are referred to as Modern Greek; as early as in the Hellenistic period, there was a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the developing vernacular Koiné. By late antiquity, the gap had become impossible to ignore. In the Byzantine era, written Greek manifested itself in a whole spectrum of divergent registers, all of which were consciously archaic in comparison with the contemporary spoken vernacular, but in different degrees, they ranged from a moderately archaic style employed for most every-day writing and based on the written Koiné of the Bible and early Christian literature, to a artificial learned style, employed by authors with higher literary ambitions and imitating the model of classical Attic, in continuation of the movement of Atticism
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine era is dated from 330 CE, when Constantine the Great moved the Roman capital to Byzantium, which became Constantinople, until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. However, there was no hard line between the Byzantine and Roman empires, early Byzantine architecture is stylistically and structurally indistinguishable from Roman architecture; this terminology was introduced by modern historians to designate the medieval Roman Empire as it evolved as a distinct artistic and cultural entity centered on the new capital of Constantinople rather than the city of Rome and its environs. Its architecture influenced the medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East, became the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture. Stylistic drift, technological advancement, political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture.
Buildings increased in geometric complexity and plaster were used in addition to stone in the decoration of important public structures, classical orders were used more mosaics replaced carved decoration, complex domes rested upon massive piers, windows filtered light through thin sheets of alabaster to illuminate interiors. Most of the surviving structures are sacred in nature, with secular buildings known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from the Emperor Justinian I's reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, as well as in Sofia. One of the great breakthroughs in the history of Western architecture occurred when Justinian's architects invented a complex system providing for a smooth transition from a square plan of the church to a circular dome by means of pendentives. In Ravenna, the longitudinal basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, the octagonal, centralized structure of the church of San Vitale, commissioned by Emperor Justinian but never seen by him, was built.
Justinian's monuments in Istanbul include the domed churches of Hagia Sophia and Hagia Irene, but there is an earlier, smaller church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus, which might have served as a model for both in that it combined the elements of a longitudinal basilica with those of a centralized building. Secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace. Hagios Demetrios in Thessaloniki, Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, Jvari Monastery in present-day Georgia, three Armenian churches of Echmiadzin all date from the 7th century and provide a glimpse on architectural developments in the Byzantine provinces following the age of Justinian. Remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge; the period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a lasting legacy in architecture.
It is presumed that Basil I's votive church of the Theotokos of the Pharos and the Nea Ekklesia served as a model for most cross-in-square sanctuaries of the period, including the Cattolica di Stilo in southern Italy, the monastery church of Hosios Lukas in Greece, Nea Moni of Chios, the Daphni Monastery near Athens. The cross-in-square type became predominant in the Slavic countries which were progressively Christianized by missionaries during the Macedonian period; the Hagia Sophia church in Ochrid, the eponymous cathedral in Kiev testify to a vogue for multiple subsidiary domes set on drums, which would gain in height and narrowness with the progress of time. In Istanbul and Asia Minor the architecture of the Komnenian period is non-existent, with the notable exceptions of the Elmali Kilise and other rock sanctuaries of Cappadocia, of the Churches of the Pantokrator and of the Theotokos Kyriotissa in Istanbul. Most examples of this architectural style and many of the other older Byzantine styles only survive on the outskirts of the Byzantine world, as most of the most significant and ancient churches/ buildings were in Asia Minor, but in World War I all churches that ended up within Turkish borders were destroyed,converted into mosques, or abandoned in the Greek and Christian genocides spanning from 1915–1923.
Only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian countries; the Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures; as a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium. The Church of the Holy Apostles is cited as an archetypal structure of the late period, when the exterior walls were intricately decorated with complex brickwork patterns or with glazed ceramics. Other churches from the years predati