Dorylaeum or Dorylaion, called Şarhöyük in Turkish language, was an ancient city in Anatolia. It is now an archaeological site located near the city of Turkey, its original location was about 10 km southwest of Eskişehir, at a place now known as Karaca Hisar. C. it was moved to a location north of modern Eskişehir. The city may have been much older, it was a Roman trading post. It was a key city of the route the Apostle Paul took on his Second Missionary Voyage in 50 AD, it became a bishopric. In the third century AD, it was threatened by Gothic raids; the Roman army, based in Asia minor was spread thin, the navy had moved west from the Northern city of Sinope, therefore the provincials were left exposed. These Goths came from the trans-danubian region on the black sea; when the city was under threat, the people used dedicatory statues to build their wall quicker, indicating their rush to protect themselves against the invaders. After the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 it was taken by the Seljuk Turks.
Dorylaeum was the site of two battles during the crusades. In 1097, during the First Crusade, the crusaders defeated the Seljuks there, in their first major victory. During the Second Crusade it was the site of a major defeat, which ended the German contribution to the crusade. Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus fortified Dorylaeum in 1175, but according to some authorities the Turks recaptured it in 1176 after the Battle of Myriokephalon. However, the contemporary Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates relates that Manuel did not destroy the fortifications of Dorylaeum, as he had agreed to do as part of the treaty he negotiated with the Seljuk Turkish sultan Kilij Arslan II after Myriokephalon; the sultan's response to this development was not a direct attack on Dorylaeum but the dispatch of a large army to ravage the rich Meander valley to the south. Dorylaeum was described by the Muslim author al-Harawi as a place of medicinal hot springs on the frontier at the end of Christian territory.
Dorylaeum became a bishopric under the Byzantine Empire and was a suffragan the Metropolitan of Synnada in Phrygia. Seven bishops are known from the fourth to the most famous being Eusebius; the see is mentioned as late as the twelfth century among the suffragans of Synnada, but must have been suppressed soon after. Dorylaeum is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees; the diocese was nominally restored as a Latin Catholic titular bishopric in 1715 as Dorylæum, spelled Dorylaëum since 1925. It is vacant since decades, having had had the following incumbents, all of the lowest rank: Johann Hugo von Gärtz Louis-Philippe-François Mariauchau d’Esglis Johann Nepomuk von Wolf Mykhaylo Bradach Stephanus d’Elia Johann Friedrich Oesterreicher Matthias Terrazas John Baptist Salpointe, as Apostolic Vicar of Arizona. F. M. Cap. as emeritus Bishop of Comacchio Titular Archbishop of Pompeiopolis in Paphlagonia Lorenz Zeller, Benedictine Order Joseph Wilhelmus Maria Baeten as Coadjutor Bishop of Breda, succeeded as Bishop of Breda, emeritus as Titular Archbishop of Stauropolis Henri-Charles Dupont Battle of Dorylaeum Battle of Dorylaeum Lindner, R.
P. Explorations in Ottoman Prehistory, Published by University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-09507-2 Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2. GigaCatholic, with titular incumbent biography links
William Mitchell Ramsay
Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, FBA was a Scottish archaeologist and New Testament scholar. By his death in 1939 he had become the foremost authority of his day on the history of Asia Minor and a leading scholar in the study of the New Testament. Although Ramsay was educated in the Tübingen school of thought which doubted the reliability of the New Testament, his extensive archaeological and historical studies convinced him of the historical accuracy of the New Testament. From the post of Professor of Classical Art and Architecture at Oxford, he was appointed Regius Professor of Humanity at Aberdeen. Knighted in 1906 to mark his distinguished service to the world of scholarship, Ramsay gained three honorary fellowships from Oxford colleges, nine honorary doctorates from British and North American universities and became an honorary member of every association devoted to archaeology and historical research, he was one of the original members of the British Academy, was awarded the Gold Medal of Pope Leo XIII in 1893 and the Victorian Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1906.
Ramsay was born in Glasgow, the youngest son of a third-generation lawyer, Thomas Ramsay and his wife Jane Mitchell (daughter of William Mitchell. His father died when he was six years old, the family moved from the city to the family home in the country district near Alloa; the help of his older brother and maternal uncle, Andrew Mitchell, made it possible for him to have a superior education. He studied at the University of Aberdeen, where he achieved high distinction and became Professor of Humanity, he won a scholarship to St. John's College, where he obtained a first class in classical moderations and in literae humaniores, he studied Sanskrit under scholar Theodor Benfey at Göttingen. In 1880 Ramsay received an Oxford studentship for research in Greece. At Smyrna, he met Sir C. W. Wilson British consul-general in Anatolia, who advised him on inland areas suitable for exploration. Ramsay and Wilson made two long journeys during 1881-1882, he traveled in Asia Minor and became the recognized authority on all matters relating to the districts associated with St Paul's missionary journeys and on Christianity in the early Roman Empire.
Greece and Turkey remained the focus of Ramsay's research for the remainder of his academic career. In 1883, he discovered the world's oldest complete piece of the Seikilos epitaph, he was known for his expertise in the historic geography and topography of Asia Minor and of its political, social and religious history. He was Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, in 1882. From 1885 to 1886 Ramsay held the newly created Lincoln Professor of Classical Archaeology and Art at Oxford and became a fellow of Lincoln College. In 1886 Ramsay was appointed Regius Professor of Humanity at the University of Aberdeen, he remained affiliated with Aberdeen until his retirement in 1911. From 1880 onwards he received the honorary degrees of D. C. L. Oxford, LL. D. St Andrews and Glasgow, D. D. Edinburgh. In 1906, Ramsay was knighted for his scholarly achievements on the 400th anniversary of the founding of the University of Aberdeen, he was elected a member of learned societies in Europe and America and was awarded medals by the Royal Geographical Society and the University of Pennsylvania.
His wife, Lady Ramsay, granddaughter of Dr Andrew Marshall of Kirkintilloch, accompanied him in many of his journeys and is the author of Everyday Life in Turkey and The Romance of Elisavet. He was a grandson of entrepreneur William Mitchell. Other relatives include Mary Ramsay and Agnis Margaret Ramsay who were responsible for contributing several photographs and illustrations in his work on The Letters to the Seven Churches. William Ramsay was known for his careful attention to New Testament events the Book of Acts and Pauline Epistles; when he first went to Asia Minor, many of the cities mentioned in Acts had no known location and nothing was known of their detailed history or politics. The Acts of the Apostles was the only record and Ramsay, skeptical expected his own research to prove the author of Acts hopelessly inaccurate since no man could know the details of Asia Minor more than a hundred years after the event—this is, when Acts was supposed to have been written, he therefore set out to put the writer of Acts on trial.
He devoted his life to unearthing the ancient documents of Asia Minor. After a lifetime of study, however, he concluded:'Further study … showed that the book could bear the most minute scrutiny as an authority for the facts of the Aegean world, that it was written with such judgment, skill and perception of truth as to be a model of historical statement'. On page 89 of the same book, Ramsay accounted,'I set out to look for truth on the borderland where Greece and Asia meet, found it there. You may press the words of Luke in a degree beyond any other historian's and they stand the keenest scrutiny and the hardest treatment...' When Ramsay turned his attention to Paul's letters, most of which the critics dismissed as forgeries, he concluded that all thirteen New Testament letters that claimed to have been written by Paul were authentic. Pictures of the Apostolic Church: Studies in the Book of Acts The Bearing of Recent Discovery The Church of the Roman Empire Before AD 170 The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia The First Christian Century: Notes on Dr. Moffatt's Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament The Historical Geography of Asia Minor The Church in the Roman Empire (1
A signal lamp is a visual signaling device for optical communication using Morse code. Modern signal lamps are focused lamps. In large versions, this pulse is achieved by opening and closing shutters mounted in front of the lamp, either via a manually operated pressure switch, or, in versions, automatically. With hand held lamps, a concave mirror is tilted by a trigger to focus the light into pulses; the lamps were equipped with some form of optical sight, were most used on naval vessels and in airport control towers. In manual signaling, a signalman would aim the light at the recipient ship and turn a lever and closing the shutter over the lamp, to emit flashes of light to spell out text messages in Morse code. On the recipient ship, a signalman would observe the blinking light with binoculars, translate the code into text. Signal lamps were pioneered by the Royal Navy in the late 19th century and continue to be used to the present day on naval vessels, they provide handy secure communications, which are useful during periods of radio silence, such as for convoys operating during the Battle of the Atlantic.
There are several types. Some signal lamps are mounted on the mastheads of ships, some small hand-held versions are used; these larger ones use a carbon arc lamp with a diameter of 20 inches. These can be used to signal to the horizon in conditions of bright sunlight. Although it was thought that it was only possible to communicate by line-of-sight, in practice it is possible to illuminate cloud bases both during the night and day, which allow for communication beyond the horizon; the maximum transmission rate possible via flashing lights is no more than 14 wpm. They have a secondary function as simple spotlights; the idea of flashing dots and dashes from a lantern was first put into practice by Captain Vice Admiral, Philip Colomb, of the British Royal Navy, in 1867. His original code, which the Navy used for seven years, was not identical with Morse's, but Morse code was adopted with the addition of several special signals. Another signalling lamp was the Begbie lamp, a kerosene lamp with a lens to focus the light over a long distance.
Flashing lights were the second generation of signalling in the Royal Navy, after the flag signals most famously used to spread Nelson's rallying-cry before the Battle of Trafalgar. During the trench warfare of World War I when wire communications were cut, German signals used three types of optical Morse transmitters, called Blinkgerät, the intermediate type for distances of up to 4 km at daylight and of up to 8 km at night, using red filters for undetected communications; the Commonwealth navies and NATO forces use signal lamps when radio communications need to be silent or electronic "spoofing" is likely. Given the prevalence of night vision equipment in today's armed forces, signaling at night is done with lights that operate in the infrared spectrum, making them less to be detected. All modern forces have followed suit due to technological advances in digital communications. In air traffic control towers, signal lamps are still used today, as a backup device in case of a complete failure of an aircraft's radio.
Light signals can be green, red, or white, steady or flashing. Messages are limited to a handful of basic instructions. Aircraft can acknowledge signals by flashing their landing lights. Colt Acetylene Flash Lantern Flag semaphore Heliograph An Aldis lamp in operation
Phryctoria was a means of communication used in Ancient Greece. Phryctoriae were towers build on selected mountaintops so that one tower would be visible to the next tower; the towers were used for the transmission of a specific prearranged message. Flames were lit on one tower and the next tower in succession lit flames. Aeschylus in the tragedy "Agamemnon" describe how the message for the fall of Troy arrived at Mycenae with phryctoriae. Ιn the 2nd century BC the Greek engineers from Alexandria and Democletus invented the pyrseia. The letters of the Greek alphabet were listed on a table; each letter corresponded to a column on the table. By using two groups of torches, the left indicating the row and the right the column of the table, they could send a message by defining a specific letter through combination of light torches; the coding system was as follows: α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω When they wanted to send the letter o, they opened five torches on the right set and three torches on the left set.
Polybius used the same system in his Polybius square. Polybius square Byzantine beacon system Optical communication Greek hydraulic semaphore system The Medean Wars - Part II
Mount Hasan is an inactive stratovolcano in Aksaray province, Turkey. With an elevation of 3,268 m, it ranks as the second highest mountain of central Anatolia. A caldera 4-5 kilometres wide formed near the current summit around 7500 BC, in an eruption recorded in Neolithic paintings; the ancient settlement of Çatalhöyük collected obsidian from the area of Hasan Dağ, which they traded with other settlements for luxury goods. Obsidian mirrors and flakes have been found; the importance of Hasan Dağ to the people of Çatalhöyük may be shown by a wall painting, sometimes called the "first landscape" by art historians, which some believe is a depiction of Hasan Dağ towering over the settlement's houses. It was the second mountain from the south in the Byzantine beacon system used to warn the Byzantine capital of Constantinople of incursions during the Arab–Byzantine wars. A six hours' walk is required to climb to the top of the mountain from the highest point accessible by car; the summit offers a fabulous view including distant Cappadocia.
List of volcanoes in Turkey List of Ultras of West Asia "Hasan Dagi". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Niğde
Chariot racing was one of the most popular Iranian, ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Chariot racing was dangerous to both drivers and horses as they suffered serious injury and death, but these dangers added to the excitement and interest for spectators. Chariot races could be watched by women. In the Roman form of chariot racing, teams represented different groups of financial backers and sometimes competed for the services of skilled drivers; as in modern sports like football, spectators chose to support a single team, identifying themselves with its fortunes, violence sometimes broke out between rival factions. The rivalries were sometimes politicized, when teams became associated with competing social or religious ideas; this helps explain why Roman and Byzantine emperors took control of the teams and appointed many officials to oversee them. The sport faded in importance in the West after the fall of Rome, it survived for a time in the Byzantine Empire, where the traditional Roman factions continued to play a prominent role for several centuries, gaining influence in political matters.
Their rivalry culminated in the Nika riots. It is unknown when chariot racing began, but It may have been as old as chariots themselves, it is known from artistic evidence on pottery that the sport existed in the Mycenaean world, but the first literary reference to a chariot race is one described by Homer, at the funeral games of Patroclus. The participants in this race were Diomedes, Antilochus and Meriones; the race, one lap around the stump of a tree, was won by Diomedes, who received a slave woman and a cauldron as his prize. A chariot race was said to be the event that founded the Olympic Games. In the ancient Olympic Games, as well as the other Panhellenic Games, there were both four-horse and two-horse chariot races, which were the same aside from the number of horses; the chariot racing event was first added to the Olympics in 680 BC with the games expanding from a one-day to a two-day event to accommodate the new event. The chariot race was not so prestigious as the foot race of 195 meters, but it was more important than other equestrian events such as racing on horseback, which were dropped from the Olympic Games early on.
The races themselves were held in the hippodrome. The single horse race was known as the "keles"; the hippodrome was situated at the south-east corner of the sanctuary of Olympia, on the large flat area south of the stadium and ran parallel to the latter. Until its exact location was unknown, since it is buried by several meters of sedimentary material from the Alfeios River. In 2008, Annie Muller and staff of the German Archeological Institute used radar to locate a large, rectangular structure similar to Pausanias's description. Pausanias, who visited Olympia in the second century AD, describes the monument as a large, flat space 780 meters long and 320 meters wide; the elongated racecourse was divided longitudinally into two tracks by a stone or wooden barrier, the embolon. All the horses or chariots ran on one track toward the east turned around the embolon and headed back west. Distances varied according to the event; the racecourse was surrounded by artificial banks for the spectators. The race was begun by a procession into the hippodrome, while a herald announced the names of the drivers and owners.
The tethrippon consisted of twelve laps around the hippodrome, with sharp turns around the posts at either end. Various mechanical devices were used, including the starting gates which were lowered to start the race. According to Pausanias, these were invented by the architect Cleoitas, staggered so that the chariots on the outside began the race earlier than those on the inside; the race did not begin properly until the final gate was opened, at which point each chariot would be more or less lined up alongside each other, although the ones that had started on the outside would have been traveling faster than the ones in the middle. Other mechanical devices known as the "eagle" and the "dolphin" were raised to signify that the race had begun, were lowered as the race went on to signify the number of laps remaining; these were bronze carvings of those animals, set up on posts at the starting line. In most cases, the owner and the driver of the chariot were different persons. In 416 BC, the Athenian general Alcibiades had seven chariots in the race, came in first and fourth.
Philip II of Macedon won an Olympic chariot race in an attempt to prove he was not a barbarian, although if he had driven the chariot himself he would have been considered lower than a barbarian. The poet Pindar did praise the courage of Herodotes of Thebes, for driving his own chariot; this rule meant that women could win the race through ownership, despite the fact that women were not allowed to participa
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959. He was the son of the emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife, Zoe Karbonopsina, the nephew of his predecessor, the emperor Alexander. Most of his reign was dominated by co-regents: from 913 until 919 he was under the regency of his mother, while from 920 until 945 he shared the throne with Romanos Lekapenos, whose daughter Helena he married, his sons. Constantine VII is best known for his four books, De Administrando Imperio, De Ceremoniis, De Thematibus, Vita Basilii, his nickname alludes to the Purple Room of the imperial palace, decorated with porphyry, where legitimate children of reigning emperors were born. Constantine was born in this room, although his mother Zoe had not been married to Leo at that time; the epithet allowed him to underline his position as the legitimized son, as opposed to all others who claimed the throne during his lifetime.
Sons born to a reigning Emperor held precedence in the Eastern Roman line of succession over elder sons not born "in the purple". Constantine was born at Constantinople, an illegitimate son born before an uncanonical fourth marriage. To help legitimize him, his mother gave birth to him in the Purple Room of the imperial palace, hence his nickname Porphyrogennetos, he was symbolically elevated to the throne as a two-year-old child by his father and uncle on May 15, 908. In June 913, as his uncle Alexander lay dying, he appointed a seven-man regency council for Constantine, it was headed by the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, the two magistroi John Eladas and Stephen, the rhaiktor John Lazanes, the otherwise obscure Euthymius and Alexander's henchmen Basilitzes and Gabrielopoulos. Following Alexander's death, the new and shaky regime survived the attempted usurpation of Constantine Doukas, Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos assumed a dominant position among the regents. Patriarch Nicholas was presently forced to make peace with Tsar Simeon of Bulgaria, whom he reluctantly recognized as Bulgarian emperor.
Because of this unpopular concession, Patriarch Nicholas was driven out of the regency by Constantine's mother Zoe. She was no more successful with the Bulgarians, who defeated her main supporter, the general Leo Phokas, in 917. In 919 she was replaced as regent by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine. Romanos used his position to advance to the ranks of basileopatōr in May 919, to kaisar in September 920, to co-emperor in December 920. Thus, just short of reaching nominal majority, Constantine was eclipsed by a senior emperor. Constantine's youth had been a sad one due to his unpleasant appearance, his taciturn nature, his relegation to the third level of succession, behind Christopher Lekapenos, the eldest son of Romanos I Lekapenos, he was a intelligent young man with a large range of interests, he dedicated those years to studying the court's ceremonial. Romanos kept and maintained power until 944, when he was deposed by his sons, the co-emperors Stephen and Constantine.
Romanos spent the last years of his life in exile on the Island of Prote as a monk and died on June 15, 948. With the help of his wife, Constantine VII succeeded in removing his brothers-in-law, on January 27, 945, Constantine VII became sole emperor at the age of 39, after a life spent in the shadow. Several months Constantine VII crowned his own son Romanos II co-emperor. Having never exercised executive authority, Constantine remained devoted to his scholarly pursuits and relegated his authority to bureaucrats and generals, as well as to his energetic wife Helena Lekapene. In 949 Constantine launched a new fleet of 100 ships against the Arab corsairs hiding in Crete, but like his father's attempt to retake the island in 911, this attempt failed. On the Eastern frontier things went better if with alternate success. In 949 the Byzantines conquered Germanicea defeated the enemy armies, in 952 they crossed the upper Euphrates, but in 953 the Hamdanid amir Sayf al-Daula entered the imperial territory.
The land in the east was recovered by Nikephoros Phokas, who conquered Hadath, in northern Syria, in 958, by the general John Tzimiskes, who one year captured Samosata, in northern Mesopotamia. An Arab fleet was destroyed by Greek fire in 957. Constantine's efforts to retake themes lost to the Arabs were the first such efforts to have any real success. Constantine had active diplomatic relationships with foreign courts, including those of the caliph of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman III and of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. In the autumn of 957 Constantine was visited by Olga of Kiev, regent of the Kievan Rus'; the reasons for this voyage have never been clarified. According to legends, Constantine VII fell in love with Olga, however she found the way to refuse him by tricking him to become her godfather; when she was baptized, she said. Constantine VII died at Constantinople in November 959 and was succeeded by his son Romanos II, it was rumored that Constantine had been poisoned by his son or his da