The Byzantine economy was among the most robust economies in the Mediterranean for many centuries. Constantinople was a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa; some scholars argue that, up until the arrival of the Arabs in the 7th century, the Eastern Roman Empire had the most powerful economy in the world. The Arab conquests, would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of decline and stagnation. Constantine V's reforms marked the beginning of a revival that continued until 1204. From the 10th century until the end of the 12th, the Byzantine Empire projected an image of luxury, the travelers were impressed by the wealth accumulated in the capital. All this changed with the arrival of the Fourth Crusade, an economic catastrophe; the Palaiologoi tried to revive the economy, but the late Byzantine state would not gain full control of either the foreign or domestic economic forces. One of the economic foundations of the empire was trade.
The state controlled both the internal and the international trade, retained the monopoly of issuing coinage. Constantinople remained the single most important commercial centre of Europe for much of the Medieval era, which it held until the Republic of Venice began to overtake Byzantine merchants in trade; the Eastern Roman economy suffered less from the Barbarian raids that plagued the Western Roman Empire. Under Diocletian's reign, the Eastern Roman Empire's annual revenue was at 9,400,000 solidi, out of a total of 18,000,000 solidi for the entire Roman Empire; these estimates can be compared to the AD 150 annual revenue of 14,500,000 solidi and the AD 215 of 22,000,000 solidi. By the end of Marcian's reign, the annual revenue for the Eastern empire was 7,800,000 solidi, thus allowing him to amass about 100,000 pounds of gold or 7,200,000 solidi for the imperial treasury. Warren Treadgold estimates that during the period from Diocletian to Marcian, the Eastern Empire's population and agriculture declined a bit, but not much.
The few preserved figures show that the largest eastern cities grew somewhat between the 3rd and 5th centuries. By Marcian's reign the Eastern Empire's difficulties seem to have been easing, the population had begun growing for the first time in centuries; the wealth of Constantinople can be seen by how Justin I used 3,700 pounds of gold just for celebrating his own consulship. By the end of his reign, Anastasius I had managed to collect for the treasury an amount of 23,000,000 solidi or 320,000 pounds of gold. At the start of Justinian I's reign, the Emperor had inherited a surplus 28,800,000 from Anastasius I and Justin I. Before Justinian I's reconquests the state had an annual revenue of 5,000,000 solidi, which further increased after his reconquests in 550. Justinian I had little money left towards the end of his reign because of the Justinian Plague, the Roman–Persian Wars, which both harmed the economy. In addition to these expenses, the rebuilding of Hagia Sophia cost 20,000 pounds of gold.
Subsidies to enemy states were paid by Justinian's successors: Justin II was forced to pay 80,000 silver coins to the Avars for peace. Since Emperor Heraclius changed the empire's official language from Latin to Greek in around 620, the solidus would thereafter be known by its Greek name, the nomisma; the Byzantine-Arab Wars reduced the territory of the Empire to a third in the 7th century and the economy slumped. From the 8th century onward the Empire's economy improved dramatically; this was a blessing for Byzantium in more than one way. Since Byzantium was in a constant state of warfare with her neighbours the military required weapons to be manufactured by the bigger cities whilst the smaller towns were subject to grain and biscuit requisitions by Imperial officers. Though the soldiers' pay was minimal, large armies were a considerable strain on Byzantium; as gold coins were spent on soldiers to serve in the army, these would in time spend their money acquiring their own goods and much revenue would return to the state in the form of taxation.
As a result, the Byzantine economy was self-sufficient. The success of the Byzantine army was in no small part due to the success of her economy. Around 775, the land and head taxes yielded an estimated 1,600,000 nomismata annually for the empire. Commerce during this period slumped; the expenditures of the period were quite large. 600,000 nomismata went to the payroll of the army annually while other military costs took another 600,000 nomismata annually. Supporting the Byzantine bureaucracy needed 400,000 nomismata. Imperial largess cost the treasury 100,000 nomismata every year. All of these expenses meant that the Byzantine government had only about 100,000 nomismata in surplus revenue each year for treaties, bribes, or gifts. Expenses again soared, when a massive Muslim army invaded the empire in 806, forcing Nikephoros I to pay a ransom of 50,000 gold coins and a yearly tribute of 30,000 gold coins. I
It seems that Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire, but political history is rather complicated and the heritage of Byzantine music developed and continued outside its territory. It consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, or as paraliturgical and liturgical music; the ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music are the best known forms today, because different Orthodox traditions still identify with the heritage of Byzantine music, when their cantors sing monodic chant out of the traditional chant books such as sticherarion, which in fact consisted of five books, the heirmologion. Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople, its traditions continued under the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 was granted administrative responsibilities over all Orthodox Christians. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. In this context, Christian religious chant practiced in the Ottoman empire, Bulgaria and Greece among other nations, was based on the historical roots of the art tracing back to the Byzantine Empire, while the music of the Patriarchate created during the Ottoman period was regarded as "post-Byzantine"; this explains why Byzantine music refers to several Orthodox Christian chant traditions of the Mediterranean and of the Caucasus practiced in recent history and today, this article cannot be limited to the music culture of the Byzantine past. The tradition of eastern liturgical chant, encompassing the Greek-speaking world, developed in the Byzantine Empire from the establishment of its capital, Constantinople, in 330 until its fall in 1453, it is undeniably of composite origin, drawing on the artistic and technical productions of the classical Greek age and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that evolved in the early Greek Christian cities of Alexandria, Jerusalem and Ephesus.
It was imitated by musicians of the 7th century to create Arab music as a synthesis of Byzantine and Persian music, these exchanges were continued through the Ottoman Empire until Istanbul today. The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. There is an identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant", due to certain monastic reforms, such as the Octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council and the reforms of the Stoudios Monastery under its abbots Sabas and Theodore; the triodion created during the reform of Theodore was soon translated into Slavonic, which required the adaption of melodic models to the prosody of the language. After the Patriarchate and Court had returned to Constantinople in 1261, the former cathedral rite was not continued, but replaced by a mixed rite, which used the Byzantine Round notation to integrate the former notations of the former chant books.
This notation had developed within the book sticherarion created by the Stoudios Monastery, but it was used for the books of the cathedral rites written in a period after the fourth crusade, when the cathedral rite was abandoned at Constantinople. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor’s entourage. According to the chant manual "Hagiopolites", the earliest that has survived until today, chanters of the Hagia Sophia used a system 16 church tones, while the author of this treatise introduces to a tonal system of 10 echoi. Both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves, each of them had a kyrios echos with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, a plagios echos with the final note on the degree I. According to Latin theory, the resulting eight tones had been identified with the seven modes and tropes; the names of the tropes like “Dorian” etc. had been used in Greek chant manuals, but the names Lydian and Phrygian for the octaves of devteros and tritos had been sometimes exchanged.
The Ancient Greek harmonikai was a Hellenist reception of the Pythagorean education programme defined as mathemata. Harmonikai was one of them. Today, chanters of the Christian Orthodox churches identify with the heritage of Byzantine music whose earliest composers are remembered by name since the 5th century. Compositions had been related to them, but they must be reconstructed by notated sources which date centuries later; the melodic neume notation of Byzantine music developed late since the 10th century, with the exception of an earlier ekphonetic notation, interpunction signs used in lectionaries, but modal signatures for the eight echoi can be found in fragments of monastic hymn books dating back to the 6th century. Amid the rise of Christian civilization within Hellenism, many concepts of knowledge and education survived during the imperial age, when Christianity became the official religion; the Pythagorean sect and music as part of the four "cyclical exercises" that preceded the Latin quadrivium and science today based on mathematics, established among Greeks in southern Italy.
Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The Calabrian Cassiodorus founded Vivarium where he translated Greek texts, John of Damascus who learnt Greek from a Ca
The Sasanian Empire known as the Sassanian, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD; the Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years. The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Eastern Arabia, the Levant, the Caucasus, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani; the Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important, influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.
In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa and India, it played a prominent role in the formation of both Asian medieval art. Much of what became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world. Conflicting accounts shroud the details of the fall of the Parthian Empire and subsequent rise of the Sassanian Empire in mystery; the Sassanian Empire was established in Estakhr by Ardashir I. Papak was the ruler of a region called Khir. However, by the year 200 he had managed to overthrow Gochihr and appoint himself the new ruler of the Bazrangids, his mother, was the daughter of the provincial governor of Pars. Papak and his eldest son Shapur managed to expand their power over all of Pars; the subsequent events are due to the elusive nature of the sources.
It is certain, that following the death of Papak, who at the time was the governor of Darabgerd, became involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. Sources reveal that Shapur, leaving for a meeting with his brother, was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him. By the year 208, over the protests of his other brothers who were put to death, Ardashir declared himself ruler of Pars. Once Ardashir was appointed shah, he moved his capital further to the south of Pars and founded Ardashir-Khwarrah; the city, well protected by high mountains and defensible due to the narrow passes that approached it, became the centre of Ardashir's efforts to gain more power. It was surrounded by a high, circular wall copied from that of Darabgird. Ardashir's palace was on the north side of the city. After establishing his rule over Pars, Ardashir extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, gaining control over the neighbouring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan and Mesene.
This expansion came to the attention of Artabanus V, the Parthian king, who ordered the governor of Khuzestan to wage war against Ardashir in 224, but Ardashir was victorious in the ensuing battles. In a second attempt to destroy Ardashir, Artabanus himself met Ardashir in battle at Hormozgan, where the former met his death. Following the death of the Parthian ruler, Ardashir went on to invade the western provinces of the now defunct Parthian Empire. At that time the Arsacid dynasty was divided between supporters of Artabanus V and Vologases VI, which allowed Ardashir to consolidate his authority in the south with little or no interference from the Parthians. Ardashir was aided by the geography of the province of Fars, separated from the rest of Iran. Crowned in 224 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, Ardashir took the title shahanshah, or "King of Kings", bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, beginning four centuries of Sassanid rule. In the next few years, local rebellions occurred throughout the empire.
Nonetheless, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Khorasan, Margiana and Chorasmia. He added Bahrain and Mosul to Sassanid's possessions. Sassanid inscriptions claim the submission of the Kings of Kushan and Mekran to Ardashir, although based on numismatic evidence it is more that these submitted to Ardashir's son, the future Shapur I. In the west, assaults against Hatra and Adiabene met with less success. In 230, Ardashir raided deep into Roman territory, a Roman counter-offensive two years ended inconclusively, although the Roman emperor, Alexander Severus, celebrated a triumph in Rome. Ardashir I's son Shapur I continued the expansion of the empire, conquering Bactria and the western portion of the Kushan Empire, while leading several campaigns against Rome. Invading Roman Mesopotamia, Shapur I captured Carrhae and Nisibis, but in 243 the Roman general Timesitheus defeated the Persians at Rhesaina and regained the lost territories.
The emperor Gordian III's subsequent advance down the Euphrates was defea
The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy. A direct continuation of the Roman army, the Eastern Roman army maintained a similar level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization, it was among the most effective armies of western Eurasia for much of the Middle Ages. Over time the cavalry arm became more prominent in the Byzantine army as the legion system disappeared in the early 7th century. Reforms reflected some Germanic and Asian influences – rival forces became sources of mercenary units e.g.. Since much of the Byzantine military focused on the strategy and skill of generals utilizing militia troops, heavy infantry were recruited from Frankish and Varangian mercenaries. From the seventh to the 12th centuries, the Byzantine army was among the most powerful and effective military forces in the world – neither Middle Ages Europe nor the fracturing Caliphate could match the strategies and the efficiency of the Byzantine army.
Restricted to a defensive role in the 7th to mid-9th centuries, the Byzantines developed the theme-system to counter the more powerful Caliphate. From the mid-9th century, they went on the offensive, culminating in the great conquests of the 10th century under a series of soldier-emperors such as Nikephoros II Phokas, John Tzimiskes and Basil II; the army they led was less reliant on the militia of the themes. With one of the most powerful economies in the world at the time, the Empire had the resources to put to the field a powerful host when needed, in order to reclaim its long-lost territories. After the collapse of the theme-system in the 11th century, the Byzantines grew reliant on professional Tagmata troops, including ever-increasing numbers of foreign mercenaries; the Komnenian emperors made great efforts to re-establish a native army, instituting the pronoia system of land grants in exchange for military service. Mercenaries remained a staple feature of late Byzantine armies since the loss of Asia Minor reduced the Empire's recruiting-ground, while the abuse of the pronoia grants led to a progressive feudalism in the Empire.
The Komnenian successes were undone by the subsequent Angeloi dynasty, leading to the dissolution of the Empire at the hands of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Emperors of Nicaea managed to form a small but effective force using the same structure of light and armed troops, both natives and foreigners, it proved effective in defending what remained of Byzantine Anatolia and reclaiming much of the Balkans and Constantinople itself in 1261. Another period of neglect of the military followed in the reign of Andronikos II Palaiologos, which allowed Anatolia to fall prey to an emerging power, the Ottoman emirate. Successive civil wars in the 14th century further sapped the Empire's strength and destroyed any remaining chance of recovery, while the weakening of central authority and the devolution of power to provincial leaders meant that the Byzantine army was now composed of a collection of militias, personal entourages and mercenary detachments. Just as what we today label the Byzantine Empire was in reality and to contemporaries a continuation of the Roman Empire, so the Byzantine army was an outgrowth of the Late Roman structure, which survived until the mid-7th century.
The official language of the army for centuries continued to be Latin but this would give way to Greek as in the rest of the Empire, though Latin military terminology would still be used throughout its history. In the period after the Muslim conquests, which saw the loss of Syria and Egypt, the remainders of the provincial armies were withdrawn and settled in Asia Minor, initiating the thematic system. Despite this unprecedented disaster, the internal structures of the army remained much the same, there is a remarkable continuity in tactics and doctrine between the 6th and 11th centuries; the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 and the subsequent Seljuk invasions, together with the arrival of the Crusades and the incursions of the Normans, would weaken the Byzantine state and its military, which had to rely on foreign mercenaries. The Eastern Empire dates from the creation of the Tetrarchy by the Emperor Diocletian in 293, his plans for succession did not outlive his lifetime, but his reorganization of the army did by centuries.
Rather than maintain the traditional infantry-heavy legions, Diocletian reformed it into limitanei and comitatenses units. There was an expansion of the importance of the cavalry, though the infantry still remained the major component of the Roman armies, in contrast to common belief. In preparation for Justinian's African campaign of 533-534 AD, the army assembled amounted to 10,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 mounted archers and federate lancers; the limitanei and ripenses were to occupy the limes, the Roman border fortifications. The field units, by contrast, were to stay well behind the border and move where they were needed, whether for offensive or defensive roles, as well as forming an army against usurpers; the field units were held to high standards and took precedence over Limitanei in pay and provisions. Cavalry formed about one-third of the units, but as a result of smaller units, about one-quarter of the Roman armies consisted of cavalry. About half the cavalry consisted of heavy cavalry.
They were armed with spear or lance and sword and armored
History of the Middle East
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations. This history started from the earliest human settlements, continuing through several major pre- and post-Islamic Empires through to the nation-states of the Middle East today. Sumerians were the first people to develop complex systems as to be called "Civilization", starting as far back as the 5th millennium BC. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. Mesopotamia was home to several powerful empires that came to rule the entire Middle East—particularly the Assyrian Empires of 1365–1076 BC and the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–609 BC. From the early 7th century BC and onwards, the Iranian Medes followed by Achaemenid Persia and other subsequent Iranian states empires dominated the region. In the 1st century BC, the expanding Roman Republic absorbed the whole Eastern Mediterranean, which included much of the Near East.
The Eastern Roman Empire, today known as the Byzantine Empire, ruling from the Balkans to the Euphrates, became defined by and dogmatic about Christianity creating religious rifts between the doctrines dictated by the establishment in Constantinople and believers in many parts of the Middle East. From the 3rd up to the course of the 7th century AD, the entire Middle East was dominated by the Byzantines and Sassanid Persia. From the 7th century, a new power was rising in that of Islam; the dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the mid-11th century with the arrival of the Seljuq Turks. In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders, the armies of the Mongol Empire Turkic, swept through the region. By the early 15th century, a new power had arisen in western Anatolia, the Ottoman emirs, linguistically Turkic and religiously Islamic, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine capital of Constantinople and made themselves sultans. Large parts of the Middle East became a warground between the Ottomans and Iranian Safavids for centuries starting in the early 16th century.
By 1700, the Ottomans had been driven out of Hungary and the balance of power along the frontier had shifted decisively in favor of the West. The British established effective control of the Persian Gulf, the French extended their influence into Lebanon and Syria. In 1912, the Italians seized Libya and the Dodecanese islands, just off the coast of the Ottoman heartland of Anatolia. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Middle Eastern rulers tried to modernize their states to compete more with the European powers. A turning point in the history of the Middle East came when oil was discovered, first in Persia in 1908 and in Saudi Arabia and the other Persian Gulf states, in Libya and Algeria. A Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil and the decline of British influence led to a growing American interest in the region. During the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, Syria and Egypt made moves towards independence; the British, the French, the Soviets departed from many parts of the Middle East during and after World War II.
The struggle between the Arabs and the Jews in Palestine culminated in the 1947 United Nations plan to partition Palestine. In the midst of Cold War tensions, the Arabic-speaking countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa saw the rise of pan-Arabism; the departure of the European powers from direct control of the region, the establishment of Israel, the increasing importance of the oil industry, marked the creation of the modern Middle East. In most Middle Eastern countries, the growth of market economies was inhibited by political restrictions and cronyism, overspending on arms and prestige projects, over-dependence on oil revenues; the wealthiest economies in the region per capita are the small oil-rich countries of Persian Gulf: Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. A combination of factors—among them the 1967 Six-Day War, the 1970s energy crisis beginning with the 1973 OPEC oil embargo in response to U. S. support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the concurrent Saudi-led popularization of Salafism/Wahhabism, the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution—promoted the increasing rise of Islamism and the ongoing Islamic revival.
The Fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought a global security refocus from the Cold War to a War on Terror. Starting in the early 2010s, a revolutionary wave popularly known as the Arab Spring brought major protests and revolutions to several Middle Eastern and Maghreb countries. Clashes in western Iraq on 30 December 2013 were preliminary to the Sunni pan-Islamist ISIL uprising; the term Near East can be used interchangeably with Middle East, but in a different context when discussing ancient times, it may have a limited meaning, namely the northern Aramaic-speaking Semitic area and adjacent Anatolian territories, marked in the two maps below. Geographically, the Middle East can be thought of as Western Asia with the addition of Egypt and with the exclusion of the Caucasus; the Middle East was the first to experience a Neolithic Revolution, as well as the first to enter the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Human populations have tended to settle around bodies of water, reflected in modern population density patterns.
Irrigation systems were important for the agricultural Middle East: for Egypt that of the lower Nile River, for Mesopotamia that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Levantine agriculture depended on precipitation rather than on the river-based irrigation of Egyp
Uzès is a small town and a commune in the Gard department in southern France. It lies about 25 kilometres north-northeast of Nîmes. Ucetia or Eutica in Latin, Uzès was a small Gallo-Roman oppidum, or administrative settlement; the town lies at the source of the Alzon river, at Fontaine d'Eure, from where a Roman aqueduct was built in the first century BC, to supply water to the local city of Nîmes, 50 kilometres away. The most famous stretch of the aqueduct is the Pont du Gard, now a World Heritage site, which carried fresh water over splendid arches across the river Gardon; the civilized and tolerant urban life of 5th-century Uzès contrasted with the Frankish north. Jews were settled there as early as the 5th century. Saint Ferréol, Bishop of Uzès admitted them to his table. After his death many who had received baptism returned to Judaism. Jews were expelled from the region in 614. In early 8th century, Uzès was a fortified civitas and bishopric under the Archbishop of Narbonne. During the Umayyad conquest of Gothic Septimania, Uzès became the northernmost stronghold of Muslim Spain circa 725.
Charles Martel went on to lay siege to the stronghold in 736, but it remained in Gothic-Andalusian hands up to 752, when counts loyal to Ansemund of Nîmes handed over a large number of strongholds to the Frankish Pepin the Short. In 753 the stronghold rebelled against the Franks after Ansemund's assassination, but the uprising was suppressed and a Frankish trustee of Pepin imposed. In the 13th century, Uzès hosted a small community of Jewish scholars, as well as a community of Cathars. Like many cloth-manufacturing centers, the city and the surrounding countryside were Protestant during the Wars of Religion in the 16th century, which wreaked havoc in Languedoc. Numerous of the city's churches were trashed and burned by furious Protestants: only two remain today; the title of duke of Uzès, in the family de Crussol d'Uzès, is the premier title in the peerage of France, coming right after the princes of the blood. The title of seigneur d'Uzès is attested in a charter of 1088. After part of Languedoc was attached to royal demesne, the lords' military skill and fealty to the Crown propelled their rise through the nobility, after the treason of the last Duke of Montmorency, beheaded in 1632, the title of First Duke of France fell to Uzès, who retain their stronghold in the center of town today, which has expanded round the 11th century Tour Bermond.
If France were a kingdom, it would be the job of the duke of Uzès to cry out, "Le Roi est mort. Vive le Roi!" at each state funeral, defend the honour of the queen mother. Twenty-one dukes have been killed as hereditary Champion of France over the centuries; the present-day city retains the trace of its walls as a circuit of boulevards. A Capuchin chapel, built in 1635 to house the mortal remains of the dukes, occupies the site of a 1st-century AD temple dedicated to the first Roman Emperor, Augustus. There are monuments of the prestige of the former bishopric, once one of the most extensive of Languedoc, but extinguished at the Revolution, private houses that witness the wealth that the textile trade brought in the 16th century; the town is homes to three feudal towers, the Bermonde Tower, the Bishop Tower and the Royal Tower. Uzès Cathedral was destroyed in the Albigensian Crusade and destroyed again in the 16th century Wars of Religion. Rebuilt again in the 17th century, it was stripped out during the French Revolution.
The 11th century Romanesque Tour Fenestrelle, with its paired windows, is the most famous icon of the city. It was listed as a French Historical Monument in 1862. Uzès is famous in the area for its Saturday market. Not only does the market offer local produce, but it boasts textiles made in the region and many tourist delights. Tourism is one of the key industrial sectors, alongside the local arts wine making; the region has a long history in the production of licorice. The German company Haribo maintains a factory and museum in Uzès, which traces its roots back to the licorice factory Henri Lefont opened there in 1862, his company merged with Ricqlès, was taken over by Haribo. Firmin Abauzit, scholar who worked on physics and philosophy Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys D'Aigalliers, Count de Brueys, the French commander in the Battle of the Nile. Bernard Plantapilosa Count of Auvergne and second son of Dhuoda, famous for her medieval literature Liber Manualis. David Redfern English music photographer Suzanne Verdier, writer Bishopric of Uzès Viscounts and Dukes of Uzès Philip O'Connor Communes of the Gard department INSEE This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed..
"article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. D'Albiousse, Lionel. Guide de l'étranger à Uzès. Uzès: H. Malige. D'Albiousse, Lionel. Histoire des ducs d'Uzès: suivie d'une notice sur leur château ducal. Paris: H. Champion. Official website Tourist office website
Byzantine currency, money used in the Eastern Roman Empire after the fall of the West, consisted of two types of coins: the gold solidus and a variety of valued bronze coins. By the end of the empire the currency was issued only in silver stavrata and minor copper coins with no gold issue; the East Roman or Byzantine Empire operated several mints throughout its history. Aside from the main metropolitan mint in the capital, Constantinople, a varying number of provincial mints were established in other urban centres during the 6th century. Most provincial mints except for Syracuse were lost to invasions by the mid-7th century. After the loss of Syracuse in 878, Constantinople became the sole mint for gold and silver coinage until the late 11th century, when major provincial mints began to re-appear. Many mints, both imperial and, as the Byzantine world fragmented, belonging to autonomous local rulers, were operated in the 12th to 14th centuries. Constantinople and Trebizond, the seat of the independent Empire of Trebizond, survived until their conquest by the Ottoman Turks in the mid-15th century.
Early Byzantine coins continue the late Roman conventions: on the obverse the head of the Emperor, now full face rather than in profile, on the reverse a Christian symbol such as the cross, or a Victory or an angel. The gold coins of Justinian II departed from these stable conventions by putting a bust of Christ on the obverse, a half or full-length portrait of the Emperor on the reverse; these innovations incidentally had the effect of leading the Islamic Caliph Abd al-Malik, who had copied Byzantine styles but replacing Christian symbols with Islamic equivalents to develop a distinctive Islamic style, with only lettering on both sides. This was used on nearly all Islamic coinage until the modern period; the type of Justinian II was revived after the end of Iconoclasm, with variations remained the norm until the end of the Empire. In the 10th century, so-called "anonymous folles" were struck instead of the earlier coins depicting the emperor; the anonymous folles featured the bust of Jesus on the obverse and the inscription "XRISTUS/bASILEU/bASILE", which translates to "Christ, Emperor of Emperors" Byzantine coins followed, took to the furthest extreme, the tendency of precious metal coinage to get thinner and wider as time goes on.
Late Byzantine gold coins became thin wafers. The Byzantine coinage had a prestige. European rulers, once they again started issuing their own coins, tended to follow a simplified version of Byzantine patterns, with full face ruler portraits on the obverse; the start of what is viewed as Byzantine currency by numismatics began with the monetary reform of Anastasius in 498, who reformed the late Roman Empire coinage system which consisted of the gold solidus and the bronze nummi. The nummus was an small bronze coin, at about 8–10 mm, weight of 0.56 g making it at 576 to the Roman pound, inconvenient because a large number of them were required for small transactions. New bronze coins, multiples of the nummus were introduced, such as the 40 nummi, 20 nummi, 10 nummi, 5 nummi coins; the obverse of these coins featured a stylized portrait of the emperor while the reverse featured the value of the denomination represented according to the Greek numbering system. Silver coins were produced; the only issued silver coin was the Hexagram first issued by Heraclius in 615 which lasted until the end of the 7th century, minted in varying fineness with a weight between 7.5 and 8.5 grams.
It was succeeded by the ceremonial miliaresion established by Leo III the Isaurian in ca. 720, which became standard issue from ca. 830 on and until the late 11th century, when it was discontinued after being debased. Small transactions were conducted with bronze coinage throughout this period; the gold solidus or nomisma remained a standard of international commerce until the 11th century, when it began to be debased under successive emperors beginning in the 1030s under the emperor Romanos Argyros. Until that time, the fineness of the gold remained consistent at about 0.955–0.980. The Byzantine monetary system changed during the 7th century when the 40 nummi, now smaller, became the only bronze coin to be issued. Although Justinian II attempted a restoration of the follis size of Justinian I, the follis continued to decrease in size. In the early 9th century, a three-fourths-weight solidus was issued in parallel with a full-weight solidus, both preserving the standard of fineness, under a failed plan to force the market to accept the underweight coins at the value of the full weight coins.
The 11⁄12 weight coin was called a tetarteron, the full weight solidus was called the histamenon. The tetarteron was only sporadically reissued during the 10th century; the full weight solidus was struck at 72 to the Roman pound 4.48 grams in weight. There were solidi of weight reduced by one siliqua issued for trade with the Near East; these reduced solidi, with a star both on obverse and reverse, weighed about 4.25 g. The Byzantine solidus was valued in Western Europe, where it became known as the bezant, a corruption of Byzantium; the term bezant became the name for the heraldic symbol of a roundel, tincture or - i.e. a gold disc. Former money changer Michael IV the Paphlagonian assumed