Byzantine dress changed considerably over the thousand years of the Empire, but was essentially conservative. A different border or trimming round the edges was very common, taste for the middle and upper classes followed the latest fashions at the Imperial Court. In the early stages of the Byzantine Empire the traditional Roman toga was still used as formal or official dress. The hems often curve down to a sharp point, in general, except for military and presumably riding-dress, men of higher status, and all women, had clothes that came down to the ankles, or nearly so. Women often wore a top layer of the stola, for the rich in brocade, all of these, except the stola, might be belted or not. The chlamys, a semicircular cloak fastened to the shoulder continued throughout the period. The length fell sometimes only to the hips or as far as the ankles, much longer than the version worn in Ancient Greece. As well as his courtiers, Emperor Justinian wears one, with a huge brooch, a paragauda or border of thick cloth, usually including gold, was an indicator of rank.
Sometimes an oblong cloak would be worn, especially by the military and ordinary people, cloaks were pinned on the right shoulder for ease of movement, and access to a sword. Leggings and hose were worn, but are not prominent in depictions of the wealthy, they were associated with barbarians. Even basic clothes appear to have been expensive for the poor. Others, when engaged in activity, are shown with the sides of their tunic tied up to the waist for ease of movement, the most common images surviving from the Byzantine period are not relevant as references for actual dress worn in the period. Sandals are worn on the feet and this costume is not commonly seen in secular contexts, although possibly this is deliberate, to avoid confusing secular with divine subjects. The Theotokos is shown wearing a maphorion, a more shaped mantle with a hood and this probably is close to actual typical dress for widows, and for married women when in public. The Virgins underdress may be visible, especially at the sleeves, there are conventions for Old Testament prophets and other Biblical figures.
Apart from Christ and the Virgin, much iconographic dress is white or relatively muted in colour especially when on walls and in manuscripts, many other figures in Biblical scenes, especially if unnamed, are usually depicted wearing contemporary Byzantine clothing. Modesty was important for all except the very rich, and most women appear almost entirely covered by rather shapeless clothes, the basic garment in the early Empire comes down to the ankles, with a high round collar and tight sleeves to the wrist. The fringes and cuffs might be decorated with embroidery, with a band around the arm as well
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, and to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis, Baetica was part of Al-Andalus under the Moors in the 8th century and approximately corresponds to modern Andalucia. Baetica remained one of the divisions of Hispania under the Visigoths down to 711. Before Romanization, the area that was to become Baetica was occupied by several settled Iberian tribal groups. Celtic influence was not as strong as it was in the Celtiberian north, phoenician Gadira was on an island against the coast of Hispania Baetica. Other important Iberians were the Bastetani, who occupied the Almería, towards the southeast, Punic influence spread from the Carthaginian cities on the coast, New Carthage and Malaca. Some of the Iberian cities retained their names in Baetica throughout the Roman era. Granada was called Eliberri and Illiber by the Romans, in Basque, iri-berri or ili-berri, the central and north-eastern Celtiberians soon followed suit.
It took Cato the Elder, who became consul in 195 BC and was given the command of the peninsula to put down the rebellion in the northeast. He marched southwards and put down a revolt by the Turdetani, Cato returned to Rome in 194, leaving two praetors in charge of the two Iberian provinces. In the late Roman Republic, Hispania remained divided like Gaul into a Nearer and a Farther province, as experienced marching overland from Gaul, Hispania Citerior, the battles in Hispania during the 1st century BC were largely confined to the north. In the reorganization of the Empire in 14 BC, when Hispania was remade into the three Imperial provinces, Baetica was governed by a proconsul who had formerly been a praetor. The Senatorial province of Baetica became so secure that no Roman legion was required to be stationed there. Legio VII Gemina was permanently stationed to the north, in Hispania Tarraconensis, so in spite of some social upsets, as when Septimius Severus put to death a number of leading Baetians— including women — the elite in Baetica remained a stable class for centuries.
Columella, who wrote a twelve volume treatise on all aspects of Roman farming and knew viticulture, the vast olive plantations of Baetica shipped olive oil from the coastal ports by sea to supply Roman legions in Germania. Amphoras from Baetica have been found everywhere in the Western Roman empire and it was to keep Roman legions supplied by sea routes that the Empire needed to control the distant coasts of Lusitania and the northern Atlantic coast of Hispania. Baetia was Roman until the invasion of the Vandals and Alans passed through in the 5th century. The province formed part of the Exarchate of Africa and was joined to Mauretania Tingitana after Belisarius reconquest of Africa, the Catholic bishops of Baetica, solidly backed by their local population, were able to convert the Arian Visigoth king Reccared and his nobles
Garden design is the art and process of designing and creating plans for layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Garden design may be done by the owner themselves, or by professionals of varying levels of experience. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the prescribed budget, a gardens location can have a substantial influence on its design. The soils of the site will affect what types of plant may be grown, as will the gardens climate zone, the locational context of the garden can influence its design, for example an urban setting may require a different design style to a rural one. Similarly, a coastal location may necessitate a different treatment compared to a sheltered inland site. The quality of a soil can have a significant influence on a gardens design. However soils may be replaced or improved in order to them more suitable. Traditionally, garden soil is improved by amendment, the process of adding beneficial materials to the native subsoil and particularly the topsoil.
The added materials, which may consist of compost, sand, mineral dust, or manure, among others, are mixed with the soil to the preferred depth. The amount and type of amendment may depend on many factors, including the amount of existing soil humus, the structure, the soil acidity/alkalinity. One source states that, conditioning the soil thoroughly before planting enables the plants to establish themselves quickly, not all gardens are, or should be, amended in this manner, since many plants prefer an impoverished soil. In this case, poor soil is better than a soil that has been artificially enriched. The design of a garden can be affected by the nature of its boundaries, planting can be used to modify an existing boundary line by softening or widening it. Introducing internal boundaries can help divide or break up a garden into smaller areas, the main types of boundary within a garden are hedges and fences. A hedge may be evergreen or deciduous, formal or informal, short or tall, depending on the style of the garden and purpose of the boundary. A wall has a strong foundation beneath it at all points, a fence differs from a wall in that it is anchored only at intervals, and is usually constructed using wood or metal.
In temperate western gardens, an expanse of lawn is often considered essential to a garden. However garden designers may use other surfaces, for example those made up of gravel, small pebbles, or wood chips in order to create a different appearance
The Byzantine army or Eastern Roman army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy. A direct descendant of the Roman army, the Byzantine army maintained a level of discipline, strategic prowess. It was among the most effective armies of western Eurasia for much of the Middle Ages, over time the cavalry arm became more prominent in the Byzantine army as the legion system disappeared in the early 7th century. Since much of the Byzantine military focused on the strategy and skill of generals utilizing militia troops, heavy infantry were recruited from Frankish, restricted to a largely defensive role in the 7th to mid-9th centuries, the Byzantines developed the theme-system to counter the more powerful Caliphate. With one of the most powerful economies in the world at the time, after the collapse of the theme-system in the 11th century, the Byzantines grew increasingly reliant on professional Tagmata troops, including ever-increasing numbers of foreign mercenaries.
The Komnenian emperors made great efforts to re-establish a native army, the Komnenian successes were undone by the subsequent Angeloi dynasty, leading to the dissolution of the Empire at the hands of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. The Emperors of Nicaea managed to form a small but effective force using the structure of light and heavily armed troops. It proved effective in defending what remained of Byzantine Anatolia and reclaiming much of the Balkans, another period of neglect of the military followed in the reign of Andronikos II Palaiologos, which allowed Anatolia to fall prey to an emerging power, the Ottoman emirate. In the period after the Muslim conquests, which saw the loss of Syria and Egypt, despite this unprecedented disaster, the internal structures of the army remained much the same, and there is a remarkable continuity in tactics and doctrine between the 6th and 11th centuries. The Eastern Empire dates from the creation of the Tetrarchy by the Emperor Diocletian in 293 and his plans for succession did not outlive his lifetime, but his reorganization of the army did by centuries.
Rather than maintain the traditional infantry-heavy legions, Diocletian reformed it into limitanei, there was an expansion of the importance of the cavalry, though the infantry still remained the major component of the Roman armies, in contrast to common belief. In preparation for Justinians African campaign of 533-534 AD, the army assembled amounted to 10,000 foot soldiers and 5,000 mounted archers, the limitanei and ripenses were to occupy the limes, the Roman border fortifications. The field units, by contrast, were to stay well behind the border and move quickly where they were needed, whether for offensive or defensive roles, the field units were held to high standards and took precedence over Limitanei in pay and provisions. Cavalry formed about one-third of the units, but as a result of smaller units, about half the cavalry consisted of heavy cavalry. They were armed with spear or lance and sword and armored in mail, some had bows, but they were meant for supporting the charge instead of independent skirmishing.
In the field there was a component of some 15% of cataphractarii or clibanarii. The light cavalry featured high amongst the limitanei, being very useful troops on patrol, the infantry of the comitatenses was organized in regiments of about 500–1,200 men. They were still the heavy infantry of old, with a spear or sword, body armour, but now each regiment was supported by a detachment of light infantry skirmishers
An arboretum in a narrow sense is a collection of trees only. Related collections include a fruticetum, and a viticetum, a collection of vines, more commonly, today, an arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants intended at least partly for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum, other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta. The term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardeners Magazine, egyptian Pharaohs planted exotic trees and cared for them, they brought ebony wood from the Sudan, and pine and cedar from Syria. It is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex, Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds.
Of course there are many tree collections that are older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world. Loudons Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum,8 vols, Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places. He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. The more lofty trees suffered from the high winds. We walked round the two spirals of this coil of trees and shrubs, viz. from Acer to Quercus. There is no garden scene about London so interesting, a plan of Loddiges arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of Gardening,1834 edition. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, the date of its founding is unknown, but it was already in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed, this aqueduct is still in use.
The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family and it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, India The arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees and it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The area is the natural habitats of indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a foot path, and other infrastructure facilities. The arboretum is the realization of the dream of William Douglas Cook, the arboretum is now the National Arboretum of New Zealand, and holds some 4,000 different trees and climbers
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas.
Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.
Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine architecture was influenced by Roman and Greek architecture and Sassanian. Early Byzantine architecture drew upon earlier elements of Roman architecture, stylistic drift, technological advancement, and political and territorial changes meant that a distinct style gradually resulted in the Greek cross plan in church architecture. Most of the structures are sacred in nature, with secular buildings mostly known only through contemporaneous descriptions. Prime examples of early Byzantine architecture date from Justinian Is reign and survive in Ravenna and Istanbul, secular structures include the ruins of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the innovative walls of Constantinople and Basilica Cistern. A frieze in the Ostrogothic palace in Ravenna depicts an early Byzantine palace, remarkable engineering feats include the 430 m long Sangarius Bridge and the pointed arch of Karamagara Bridge.
The period of the Macedonian dynasty, traditionally considered the epitome of Byzantine art, has not left a legacy in architecture. The cross-in-square type became predominant in the Slavic countries which were Christianized by Salonikas missionaries during the Macedonian period, only national forms of architecture can be found in abundance due to this. Those styles can be found in many Transcaucasian countries, such as Russia, Serbia and other Slavic lands, the Paleologan period is well represented in a dozen former churches in Istanbul, notably St Saviour at Chora and St Mary Pammakaristos. Unlike their Slavic counterparts, the Paleologan architects never accented the vertical thrust of structures, as a result, there is little grandeur in the late medieval architecture of Byzantium. Other churches from the years predating the fall of Constantinople survive on Mount Athos. Those of the type we must suppose were nearly always vaulted. The most famous church of this type was that of the Holy Apostles, vaults appear to have been early applied to the basilican type of plan, for instance, at Hagia Irene, the long body of the church is covered by two domes.
At Saint Sergius and San Vitale, churches of the central type, finally, at Hagia Sophia a combination was made which is perhaps the most remarkable piece of planning ever contrived. This unbroken area, about 260 ft long, the part of which is over 100 ft wide, is entirely covered by a system of domical surfaces. Above the conchs of the small apses rise the two great semi-domes which cover the hemicycles, and between these bursts out the vast dome over the central square. On the two sides, to the north and south of the dome, it is supported by vaulted aisles in two storeys which bring the form to a general square. At the Holy Apostles five domes were applied to a cruciform plan, after the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one type
A green wall is a wall partially or completely covered with greenery that includes a growing medium, such as soil or a substrate. Most green walls feature a water delivery system. Green walls are known as living walls or vertical gardens. These give insulation to keep the house/building warm. It is useful to distinguish green walls from green facades, Green walls may be indoors or outside, freestanding or attached to an existing wall, and come in a great variety of sizes. In 2005, he created the landmark vegetal exterior wall of the building of the Musée du quai Branly with architect Jean Nouvel. Green walls subsequently saw a surge in popularity. Of the 61 large-scale outdoor green walls listed in a database provided by greenroof. com, 80% were constructed in or after 2009. Many iconic green walls have been constructed by institutions and in places such as airports and are now becoming common. Green walls are constructed of modular panels that hold a growing medium and can be categorized according to the type of growth media used, loose media, mat media.
Loose medium walls tend to be soil-on-a-shelf or soil-in-a-bag type systems, loose medium systems have their soil packed into a shelf or bag and are installed onto the wall. These systems require their media to be replaced at least once a year on exteriors, loose soil systems are not well suited for areas with any seismic activity. Most importantly, because these systems can easily have their medium blown away by rain or heavy winds. Loose-soil systems without physical media erosion systems are best suited for the home gardener where occasional replanting is desired from season to season or year to year, loose-soil systems with physical media erosion systems are well suited for all green wall applications. Mat type systems tend to be either coir fiber or felt mats, the method of reparation of these systems is to replace large sections of the system at a time by cutting the mat out of the wall and replacing it with new mat. This process compromises the root structures of the plants on the wall.
This inefficiency often requires that these systems have a water re-circulation system put into place at an additional cost, mat media are better suited for small installations no more than eight feet in height where repairs are easily completed. Semi-open cell polyurethane sheet media utilising an egg crate pattern has successfully used in recent years for both outdoor roof gardens and vertical walls. The water holding capacity of these engineered polyurethanes vastly exceeds that of coir, polyurethanes do not biodegrade, and hence stay viable as an active substrate for 20+ years
A community garden is a single piece of land gardened collectively by a group of people. According to Marin Master Gardeners, a community garden is any piece of land gardened by a group of people and they are publicly functioning in terms of ownership and management, as well as typically owned in trust by local governments or not for profit associations. Community gardens vary widely throughout the world, some grow only flowers, others are nurtured communally and their bounty shared. There are even non-profits in many cities that offer assistance to low-income families, children groups. In the UK and the rest of Europe, closely related allotment gardens can have dozens of plots, each measuring hundreds of square meters and rented by the same family for generations. In the developing world, commonly held land for small gardens is a part of the landscape, even in urban areas. They practice crop rotations with plants such as peanuts, tomatoes. Community gardens may help alleviate one effect of change, which is expected to cause a global decline in agricultural output.
Community gardens are a popular method of changing the built environment in order to promote health. A2012 op-ed by community garden advocate Les Kishler examines how community gardening can reinforce the so-called positive ideas, Community gardens improve users’ health through increased fresh vegetable consumption and providing a venue for exercise. A fundamental part of health is a diet rich in fresh fruits, vegetables. Community gardens provide access to such foods for the communities in which they are located, Community gardens provide other social benefits, such as the sharing of food production knowledge with the wider community and safer living spaces. Active communities experience less crime and vandalism, land for a community garden can be publicly or privately held. One strong tradition in North American community gardening in urban areas is cleaning up abandoned vacant lots, community gardens can be seen as a health or recreational amenity and included in public parks, similar to ball fields or playgrounds.
Historically, community gardens have served to provide food during wartime or periods of economic depression, some gardens are grown collectively, with everyone working together, others are split into clearly divided plots, each managed by a different gardener. Many community gardens have both common areas with shared upkeep and individual/family plots, some relate this to the largely unsuccessful history of collective farming. Unlike public parks, whether community gardens are open to the public is dependent upon the lease agreements with the management body of the park. Open or closed-gate policies vary from garden to garden, however, in a key difference, community gardens are managed and maintained with the active participation of the gardeners themselves, rather than tended only by a professional staff
Byzantine bureaucracy and aristocracy
The Byzantine Empire had a complex system of aristocracy and bureaucracy, which was inherited from the Roman Empire. At the apex of the hierarchy stood the emperor, who was the sole ruler, beneath him, a multitude of officials and court functionaries operated the complex administrative machinery that was necessary to run the empire. In addition to officials, a large number of honorific titles existed. Over the more than years of the empires existence, different titles were adopted and discarded. At first the various titles of the empire were the same as those in the late Roman Empire, however, by the time that Heraclius was emperor, many of the titles had become obsolete. By the time of Alexios I reign, many of the positions were either new or drastically changed, from that time on they remained essentially the same until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. In this, the new titles derived from older, now obsolete, public offices, a senatorial class remained in place, which incorporated a large part of the upper officialdom as every official from the rank of protospatharios was considered a member of it.
During this period, many families remained important for several centuries, the 10th and 11th centuries saw a rise in importance of the aristocracy, and an increased number of new families entering it. In the 11th and 12th century for instance, some 80 civil and 64 military noble families have been identified and these were the highest titles, usually limited to members of the imperial family or to a few very select foreign rulers, whose friendship the Emperor desired. Basileus, the Greek word for sovereign which originally referred to any king in the Greek-speaking areas of the Roman Empire and it referred to the Shahs of Persia. Heraclius adopted it to replace the old Latin title of Augustus in 629, Heraclius used the titles autokrator and kyrios. The feminine form basilissa referred to an empress, empresses were addressed as eusebestatē avgousta, and were called kyria or despoina. This was rooted firmly in the Roman republican tradition, whereby hereditary kingship was rejected, in such a case the need for an imperial selection never arose.
In several cases the new Emperor ascended the throne after marrying the previous Emperors widow, or indeed after forcing the previous Emperor to abdicate, several emperors were deposed because of perceived inadequacy, e. g. after a military defeat, and some were murdered. Autokratōr — self-ruler, this title was equivalent to imperator. Despotēs – Lord, This title was used by the emperors themselves since the time of Justinian I and it was extensively featured in coins, in lieu of Basileus. In the 12th century, Manuel I Komnenos made it a separate title, the first such despotēs was actually a foreigner, Bela III of Hungary, signifying that Hungary was considered a Byzantine tributary state. In times, a despot could be the holder of a despotate, for example, the feminine form, referred to a female despot or the wife of a despot, but it was used to address the Empress
The Byzantine navy was the naval force of the East Roman or Byzantine Empire. Like the empire it served, it was a continuation from its Imperial Roman predecessor. The first threat to Roman hegemony in the Mediterranean was posed by the Vandals in the 5th century and this process would be furthered with the onset of the Muslim conquests in the 7th century. Following the loss of the Levant and Africa, the Mediterranean Sea was transformed from a Roman lake into a battleground between Byzantines and Arabs, the defence of the Byzantine coasts and the approaches to Constantinople was borne by the great fleet of the Karabisianoi. Progressively however it was split up into several regional fleets, while a central Imperial Fleet was maintained at Constantinople, guarding the city, by the late 8th century, the Byzantine navy, a well-organized and maintained force, was again the dominant maritime power in the Mediterranean. The antagonism with the Muslim navies continued with alternating success, but in the 10th century, during the 11th century, the navy, like the Empire itself, began to decline.
A period of recovery under the Komnenians was followed by period of decline. After the Empire was restored in 1261, several emperors of the Palaiologan dynasty tried to revive the navy, the diminished navy, continued to be active until the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in 1453. The Byzantine navy, like the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire itself, was a continuation of the Roman Empire, after the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, in the absence of any external threat in the Mediterranean, the Roman navy performed mostly policing and escort duties. Massive sea battles, like those fought in the Punic Wars, no longer occurred, the civil wars of the 4th and early 5th centuries, did spur a revival of naval activity, with fleets mostly employed to transport armies. The new Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage, under the capable king Geiseric, immediately launched raids against the coasts of Italy and Greece, the Vandal raids continued unabated over the next two decades, despite repeated Roman attempts to defeat them.
The Western Empire was impotent, its navy having dwindled to almost nothing, a first Eastern expedition in 448, went no further than Sicily, and in 460, the Vandals attacked and destroyed a Western Roman invasion fleet at Cartagena in Spain. Finally, in 468, a huge Eastern expedition was assembled under Basiliscus, reputedly numbering 1,113 ships and 100,000 men, but it failed disastrously. About 600 ships were lost to ships, and the financial cost of 130,000 pounds of gold and 700000 pounds of silver nearly bankrupted the Empire. This forced the Romans to come to terms with Geiseric and sign a peace treaty, after Geiserics death in 477, the Vandal threat receded. The 6th century marked the rebirth of Roman naval power, in 508, as antagonism with the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Theodoric flared up, the Emperor Anastasius I is reported to have sent a fleet of 100 warships to raid the coasts of Italy. In 513, the general Vitalian revolted against Anastasius, the rebels assembled a fleet of 200 ships which, despite some initial successes, were destroyed by admiral Marinus, who employed a sulphur-based incendiary substance to defeat them.
This fact was not lost on the Byzantines enemies, already in the 520s, Theodoric had planned to build a massive fleet directed against the Byzantines and the Vandals, but his death in 526 limited the extent to which these plans were realized
History of gardening
Forest gardening, a plant-based food pro-system, is the worlds oldest form of gardening. Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions, in the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved while undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually alien species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. The enclosure of outdoor space began in 10,000 BC, though no one knows the specific details of the first garden, historians imagine the first enclosure was a type of barrier for excluding animals and marauders. Garden construction and design was a precursor to landscape architecture. The modern words of garden and yard are descendants of the Old English geard, vitruvius, a Roman author and engineer, wrote the oldest extant design manual in 27 BC. De architectura libri decem addressed design theory, landscape architecture, water supply, vitruvius asserted that firmitas and venustas were the primary objectives of design.
Some still consider these elements essential to quality design of landscape, after the emergence of the first civilizations, wealthy persons began to create gardens for purely aesthetic purposes. Another ancient tradition is of Persia, Darius the Great was said to have had a paradise garden, Persian gardens were designed along a central axis of symmetry. Persian influences extended to Helenic Greece after Alexander the Great, C.350 BC there were gardens at the Academy of Athens, and Theophrastus, who wrote on botany, supposedly inherited a garden from Aristotle. Epicurus had a garden where he walked and taught, and he bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene, alciphron referenced private gardens in his writing. The most influential ancient gardens in the world were those of Ptolemy in Alexandria, Egypt. Wall paintings in Pompeii, Italy attest to elaborate development, the wealthiest Romans built extensive villa gardens with water features, including fountains and rivulets, topiary and shaded arcades.
Archeological evidence survives at sites such as Hadrians Villa and Moorish Spain continued horticultural traditions after the 4th century AD and the decline of Rome. In Europe, gardening revived in Languedoc and the Île-de-France in the 13th century, the rediscovery of descriptions of antique Roman villas and gardens led to the creation of a new form of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. The Spanish Crown built the first public parks of this era in the 16th century, in the 19th century a welter of historical revivals and Romantic cottage-inspired gardening emerged. In England, William Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll were influential proponents of the wild garden, andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted adapted European forms for North America, especially influencing the design of public parks and suburban landscapes. Olmsteds influence extended well into the 20th century, the 20th century saw the influence of modernism in the garden, from the articulate clarity of Thomas Church to the bold colors and forms of the Brazilian Roberto Burle Marx