Sebeș is a city in Alba County, central Romania, southern Transylvania. The city lies in the Mureș River valley and it straddles the river Sebeș, it is at the crossroads of two main highways in Romania: European route E68 - DN7 coming from Sibiu and going towards Deva and European route E81 - DN1 coming from Sibiu and going towards Alba-Iulia and Cluj Napoca. A1 motorway passes east of the city, it is situated at 15 km south of the county capital Alba Iulia and it has three villages under its administration: Petrești - 3.5 km south Lancrăm – 2 km north Răhău - 6 km east. It is believed that there has been an earlier rural settlement in this area, with Romanian and Pecheneg population, situated east of today's city; the city itself was built by German settlers - referred as Transylvanian Saxons, but originating from the region of Rhine and Moselle - on the territory of the Hungarian Kingdom in the second half of the 12th century and became an important city in medieval Transylvania. Its city walls were reinforced after the Tatar invasions from 1241–1242, but the city was occupied in 1438 by the Ottoman Empire.
Transylvania's voivode John I Zápolya died in Sebeș in 1540. The Transylvanian Diet met in Sebeș in 1546, 1556, 1598 and 1600; the location of the meetings, the Zápolya House, is now a museum. After the union with Romania in 1918, the first mayor of the city was Lionel Blaga, the brother of the Romanian poet and philosopher Lucian Blaga, born in the nearby village of Lancrăm. Today Sebeș is a city with a dynamic economy, having received in the last decade important foreign investments: wood processing and leather goods manufacturing are the chief domains of the local industry; as of March 2015, the unemployment rate is under 2%. According to the 2011 census, Sebeș has 24,165 inhabitants, of which: Romanians: 22,551, representing 93.3% Romani: 1.168, representing 4.8% Germans: 261, representing 1.1% Hungarians: 131, representing 0.5% Others: 52, representing 0.3% Transylvanian Saxons Photos and old ones reflecting the Saxon influence and some landscape - BILDER All about the city of Sebes
Cergău is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. It is composed of three villages: Cergău Mare, Cergău Mic and Lupu; the village of Cergău Mic was first mentioned in 1303 as Bolgarchergewd and in 1306 as Chergeod Bulgaricum. The first reference is the earliest evidence to the presence of the village's Bulgarian population; the prevalent theory is that Bulgarians arrived as refugees from the Vidin region and from the Svishtov region. These groups were of the Bogomil and Paulician sects and were subject to religious persecution by the Eastern Orthodox authorities of the Second Bulgarian Empire. With their settlement in Transylvania, the Bulgarians of Cergău Mic adopted Roman Catholicism and subsequently Protestantism because they regarded these confessions as closest to their original beliefs among the denominations tolerated in Transylvania; as late as 1995, researcher Todor Balkanski reports that many of the locals were eager to identify as Bulgarians though they had undergone a complete language shift from Bulgarian to Romanian.
The name "Şchei", an old Romanian ethnonym for Bulgarian people, was in widespread use as a self-identifier, its meaning equated to "Bulgarian" by the locals. In 1995, a 75-year-old local, Linca Secel, was able to recite two prayers in a Bulgarian dialect by heart, with no understanding of the meaning. With some differences, one of the prayers was recorded by Lyubomir Miletich in 1896 and by Ion Muşlea in 1927; the gradual linguistic Romanianization of the Bulgarians in Cergău Mic is attested in 1808 with the first reference to the modern Romanian name of the village, Cergău Mic. In the 1930 census, the village had a population of 830, of whom 762 identified as Romanians, 58 as Gypsies, 8 as Germans, 2 as Hungarians and none as Bulgarians. Confessionally, 443 people were Lutheran, 351 Greek Catholic, 25 Baptist, 10 Orthodox and 1 Reformed; the Bulgarian population of Cergău Mic may be related to that of other Bulgarian villages in Transylvania proper, such as the commune centre Cergău Mare and Bungard in Sibiu County and the Șchei neighbourhood of Brașov.
Historical Romanian name: Cergău Șcheiesc, "Cergău of the Șchei ".
Administrative divisions of Romania
Romania's administration is centralized and administrative subdivisions are therefore simplified. According to the Constitution of Romania, its territory is organized administratively into communes and counties: At the county level: 41 counties, one city with special status At the town/commune level: 103 municipalities and 217 other cities, 2861 communes. Municipality status is accorded to larger towns, but it does not give their administrations any greater powers. Below communal or town level, there are no further formal administrative subdivisions. However, communes are divided into villages. There are 12,957 villages in Romania; the only exception is Bucharest, each with an administration of its own. The earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia ținuturi of Moldavia, dates back at least to the early 15th century; each județ ținut, was ruled by a jude pârcălab, an appointed person who had administrative and judicial functions in a manner inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire.
Transylvania, when it was part of the historic Kingdom of Hungary, an independent Principality or a Habsburg domain was divided into royal counties, headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. The term județ became used in Romanian universally for all principalities since mid-19th century. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and rump Moldavia, extended in 1918 through the union of Transylvania, as well as Bukovina and Bessarabia, the administrative division was modernized using the French departments system as an example. With the exception of the half of the Communist period, this system remained in place. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the representative of the government in the county, the head of the local administration in the areas not delegated to local authorities; until 1948, each județ was further divided into a number of plăși, with each administered by a pretor, appointed by the prefect.
In 1913, as a result of the Second Balkan War, Romania acquired Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria, integrating this historical region within Romania's borders until 1940. In 1923 Romania adopted a new Constitution, in 1927 it uniformized the traditional administrative systems of Transylvania and Bessarabia with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with only a couple minor adjustments, as a total of 71 județe existed between 1927 and 1938. In 1938, King Carol II modified the Constitution, after that the law of administration of the Romanian territory. Ten "ținuturi" were ruled by "Rezidenți Regali", appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between the country. But, due to World War II, the Second Vienna Award, the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact and the loss of territory that Romania suffered, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the "județ" level being reintroduced back until the establishment of communism in 1945-1947.
During World War II, the territory of Romania suffered significant modifications. In 1940, Soviet Union occupied Bessarabia, northern Bukovina, Herza region which after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, would become part of Republic of Moldova and of Ukraine. Between 1941-1944, these territories together with Transnistria, were administered by Romania as the country was governed by a military dictatorship allied with Nazi Germany. Transnistria consisted of proper Soviet territory between Dniester and Southern Bug rivers. Nowadays, most of it is with small parts in the Republic of Moldova; this territory was kept under Romanian military occupation, was not annexed to Romania consisted of a further 13 counties. After the war, the Communist Party took over the administration of the country. In 1950, the party changed the administration model to the Russian model, but it reverted to the current system in 1968, although county borders were quite different from the interbelic period. In 1981 the former counties of Ilfov and Ialomița were re-organised into the present-day counties of Giurgiu, Călărași, Ialomița and Ilfov.
The county borders introduced in 1968 are in place, but administrative reform during the 1990s has devolved the functions of different authorities in line with transition from a totalitarian communist system to a modern democracy. The only territorial adjustment after 1989 occurred in 1995. Before that it was a dependency of the Municipality of Bucharest. Eight regional divisions were created in 1998 in order to better co-ordinate regional development as Romania progressed towards accession to the European Union, consist of several counties each; these correspond to NUTS II-level divisions in European Union member states, but do not have an administrative status and do not have a legislative or executive council or government. As of 2009, Romania is divided into 41 counties and one municipality which are assigned as NUTS III-level divisions. Romania has no NUTS
Transylvania is a historical region, located in central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains; the term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but parts of the historical regions of Crișana and Maramureș, the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, it contains major cities such as Cluj-Napoca, Brașov, Sibiu, Târgu Mureș, Bistrița. The Western world associates Transylvania with vampires, because of the influence of Bram Stoker's novel Dracula and its many film adaptations. Historical names of Transylvania are: Latin: Ultrasilvania, Transsilvania Romanian: Ardeal, Transilvania Russian: Ардял, translit. Ardjal, Трансильвания Transil'vanija Hungarian: Erdély Ukrainian: Семигород, translit. Semyhorod, Залісся Zalissja, Трансильванія Transyl'vanija Serbian: Ердељ, translit. Erdelj, Трансилванија Transilvanija Croatian: Sedmogradska, Transilvanija Bulgarian: Седмоградско, translit.
Sedmogradsko, Трансилвания Transilvanija Slovak: Sedmohradsko German: Siebenbürgen, Transsilvanien Transylvanian Saxon: Siweberjen Polish: Siedmiogród, Transylwania Turkish: Erdel, Transilvanya Romani: TransilvaniyaIn Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania. The earliest known reference to Transylvania appears in a Medieval Latin document in 1075 as ultra silvam, meaning "beyond the forest". Transylvania, with an alternative Latin prepositional prefix, means "on the other side of the woods". Hungarian historians claim that the Medieval Latin form Ultrasylvania Transsylvania, was a direct translation from the Hungarian form Erdő-elve; that was used as an alternative name in German überwald and Ukrainian Залісся. The German name Siebenbürgen means "seven castles", after the seven Transylvanian Saxons' cities in the region; this is the origin of the region's name in many other languages, such as the Croatian Sedmogradska, the Bulgarian Седмиградско, Polish Siedmiogród and the Ukrainian Семигород.
The Hungarian form Erdély was first mentioned in the 12th-century Gesta Hungarorum as Erdeuleu or Erdő-elve. The word Erdő means forest in Hungarian, the word Elve denotes a region in connection with this to the Hungarian name for Muntenia. Erdel, Erdelistan, the Turkish equivalents, or the Romanian Ardeal were borrowed from this form as well; the first known written occurrence of the Romanian name Ardeal appeared in a document in 1432 as Ardeliu. The Romanian Ardeal is derived from the Hungarian Erdély. Transylvania has been dominated by several different countries throughout its history, it was once the nucleus of the Kingdom of Dacia. In 106 AD the Roman Empire conquered the territory. After the Roman legions withdrew in 271 AD, it was overrun by a succession of various tribes, bringing it under the control of the Carpi, Huns, Gepids and Slavs. From 9th to 11th century Bulgarians ruled Transylvania, it is a subject of dispute whether elements of the mixed Daco–Roman population survived in Transylvania through the Post-classical Era or the first Vlachs/Romanians appeared in the area in the 13th century after a northward migration from the Balkan Peninsula.
There is an ongoing scholarly debate over the ethnicity of Transylvania's population before the Hungarian conquest. The Magyars conquered much of Central Europe at the end of the 9th century. According to Gesta Hungarorum, the Vlach voivode Gelou ruled Transylvania before the Hungarians arrived; the Kingdom of Hungary established partial control over Transylvania in 1003, when king Stephen I, according to legend, defeated the prince named Gyula. Some historians assert Transylvania was settled by Hungarians in several stages between the 10th and 13th centuries, while others claim that it was settled, since the earliest Hungarian artifacts found in the region are dated to the first half of the 10th century. Between 1003 and 1526, Transylvania was a voivodeship in the Kingdom of Hungary, led by a voivode appointed by the King of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Transylvania became part of the Kingdom of János Szapolyai. In 1570, the kingdom transformed into the Principality of Transylvania, ruled by Calvinist Hungarian princes.
During that time, the ethnic composition of Transylvania transformed from an estimated near equal number of the ethnic groups to a Romanian majority. Vasile Lupu estimates their number more than one-third of the population of Transylvania in a letter to the sultan around 1650. For most of this period, maintaining its internal autonomy, was under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire; the Habsburgs acquired the territory shortly after the Battle of Vienna in 1683. In 1687, the rulers of Transylvania recognized the suzerainty of the Habsburg emperor Leopold I, the region was attached to the Habsburg Empire; the Habsburgs acknowledged Principality of Transylvania as one of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, but the territory of principality was administratively separa
The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Eastern Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Eastern Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs in Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.
The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.
Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.
Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at ti
Câlnic is a commune in Alba County, composed of two villages, Câlnic and Deal. Câlnic village is known for its castle, on UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. Câlnic Citadel, first mentioned in 1269, is well preserved. Built as a noble's residence, it was fortified, it consists of a large court surrounded by some buildings adjacent to the walls. In the middle of the court there is a large donjon as well as a chapel; the castle differs from most other constructions of this type in that it is not situated on a hilltop but rather in a depression, much lower than the surrounding hills. This position inconvenient in case of a siege, can be explained by the castle's first function as a residence, not meant as a defensive construction. List of castles in Romania Tourism in Romania Villages with fortified churches in Transylvania Liviu Stoica, Gheorghe Stoica, Gabriela Popa - Castles & fortresses in Transylvania: Alba County / Castele și cetăți din Transilvania: Județul Alba, Cluj-Napoca, 2009, ISBN 978-973-0-06141-3
Counties of Romania
A total of 41 counties, along with the municipality of Bucharest, constitute the official administrative divisions of Romania. They represent the country's NUTS-3 statistical subdivisions within the European Union and each of them serves as the local level of government within its borders. Most counties are named after a major river, while some are named after notable cities within them, such as the county seat; the earliest organization into județe of the Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia dates back to at least the late 14th century. For most of the time since modern Romania was formed in 1859, the administrative division system has been similar to the French departments one; the system has been changed several times since and the number of counties has varied over time, from the 71 județe that existed before World War II to only 39 after 1968. The current format has been in place since 1968 as only small changes have been made since the last of, in 1997. According to a 2011 census data from the National Institute of Statistics, the average population of Romania's 41 counties is about 445,000, with Iași County as the most populous and Covasna County the least.
The average county's land area is 5,809 square kilometres, with Timiș County the largest and Ilfov County the smallest. The municipality of Bucharest, which has the same administrative level as that of a county, is both more populous and much smaller than any county, with 1,883,425 people and 228 square kilometres; the earliest organization into județe, ținuturi, dates back at least to the late 14th century. Inspired from the organization of the late Byzantine Empire, each județ was ruled by a jude, a person appointed with administrative and judicial functions. Transylvania was divided into royal counties headed by comes with administrative and judicial functions. After modern Romania was formed in 1859 through the union of Wallachia and the rump of Moldavia, the administrative division was modernized using the French administrative system as a model, with județ as the basic administrative unit. Aside from the 1950–1968 period, this system has remained in place until today. Since 1864, for each județ there exists a prefect, a subordinate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and representative of the government inside the county.
Until 1948, each județ was further divided into several plăși, each administered by a pretor. After the adoption of a new Constitution in 1923, the traditional local administrative systems of the newly acquired regions of Transylvania and Bessarabia were made uniform in 1925 with that of the Romanian Old Kingdom. County borders were kept intact, with few adjustments, the total number of counties was raised to 71. In 1938, King Carol II modified the law on the administration of the Romanian territory according to the fascist model. Ten ținuturi were ruled by Rezidenți Regali, appointed directly by the Monarch; the ținuturi represented another layer of administration between counties and the country, as the county borders were not erased. Due to the territorial changes during World War II, this style of administration did not last, the administration at the județ level was reintroduced after the war. Between 1941–1944, Romania administered the territory between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers known as Transnistria, which consisted of 13 separate counties.
After taking over the administration of the country in 1945, the Communist Party changed the administrative model to that of the Soviet Union in 1950, but changed it back in 1968. The county borders set were quite different from those present during the interbellum, as only 39 counties were formed from the 56 remaining after the war. In 1981, Giurgiu and Călărași were split from Ialomița and the former county of Ilfov, while in 1997, Ilfov County, a dependency of the municipality of Bucharest for nearly two decades, was reinstated; the county borders set in 1968 are still in place today, but the functions of different authorities have changed due to administrative reforms in the 1990s. At present, Romania is divided into one municipality; each of the counties is further divided into communes. The prefect and his administration have executive prerogatives within the county limits, while limited legislative powers are assigned to a County Council elected every four years during local elections.
The territorial districts of the Romanian judicial system overlap with county borders, thus avoiding further complication in the separation of powers on the government. Communes of Romania Development regions of Romania List of Romania county name etymologies Former administrative divisions of Romania List of Romanian counties by population List of cities and towns in Romania List of Romanian counties by foreign trade Municipiu Blog of the Romanian Royalty House showing various maps with the previous administrative divisions of Romania. Current and historical divisions of Romania at Statoids.com "Geopolitical Entities and Their Codes". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-