Dog types are broad categories of dogs based on form, function or style of work, lineage, or appearance. In contrast, modern dog breeds are particular breed standards, sharing a common set of heritable characteristics, determined by the kennel club that recognizes the breed. Dog types include locally-adapted forms. A dog type can be referred to broadly, as in gun dog, or more as in spaniel. Dogs raised and trained for a specific working ability rather than appearance may not resemble other dogs doing the same work, or any of the dogs of the analogous breed group of purebred dogs; the origin of the domestic dog is not clear. Whole genome sequencing indicates that the dog, the gray wolf and the extinct Taymyr wolf diverged at around the same time 27,000-40,000 years ago; these dates imply that the earliest dogs arose in the time of human hunter-gatherers and not agriculturists. The earliest books in the English language to mention numbers of dog types are from the "Cynegetica", namely The Art of Venery 1327 by the Anglo-French Master of game, Twiti, a treatise which describes hunting with the limer, the pack of running hounds greyhounds, alaunts.
More in recording the use and description of various dog types, The Master of Game circa 1406 by Edward of York a treatise which describes dogs and their work, such as the alaunt, pack scent hounds and mastiff used by the privileged and wealthy for hunting purposes. "The Master of Game" is a combination of the earlier Art of Venery and the famous French hunting treatise Livre de Chasse by Gaston Phoebus circa 1387. The Boke of St. Albans, published in 1486 a "school" book about hawking, hunting and heraldry, attributed to Juliana Berners, lists dogs of the time by function: " First there is a greyhound, a bastard, a mongrel, a mastiff, a limer, a spaniel, kennets, butcher's hounds, dung-heap dogs, trundel tails and prick-eared curs, small ladies puppies that bear away the fleas and diverse small sorts". 100 years another book in English, De Canibus Britannicus by the author/physician John Caius, translated from Latin in 1576, attempts the first systematic approach to defining different types of dogs in various categories, demonstrating an apparent increase in types, population.
"English dogs": the gentle kind, serving game—harriers, bloodhounds, greyhounds, limers and stealers. "Fowling dogs"—setters and spaniels. As well as the pastoral or shepherd types, mastiffs or bandogs, various village dogs. Sub-types describing the function of dogs in each group were included. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus in Systema naturae named the domestic dog “familiaris” and added other dog classifications or species. More dog types were described as species by Johann Friedrich Gmelin in 1788, by Robert Kerr in his English translation of Systema naturae in 1792. Today the species Linnaeus named are identifiable as not species or subspecies. Some, such as Canis aegyptius, a hairless dog type of Peru, have been documented and registered as breeds. There are only two categories of domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris and C. l. dingo, recognized by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Beginning with the advent of dog shows in the mid-19th century in England, dog fanciers established stud books and began refining breeds from the various types of dogs in use.
"It is important," remind Ann Rogers Clark and Andrew Brace, "Not to claim great age for breeds, though it is quite legitimate to claim considerable antiquity for types of dogs." The attempts to classify dogs into different'species' show that dog types could be quite distinctive, from the'Canis melitaeus' of lapdogs descended from ancient Roman pet dogs to the more ancient'Canis molossus', the Molossan types, to the'Canis saultor', the dancing mongrel of beggars. These types were uniform enough to appear to have been selectively bred, but as Raymond Coppinger wrote, "Natural processes can produce, could produce, do produce populations of unusual and uniform dogs, that is, dogs with a distinctive conformation." The human manipulation was indirect. In a few cases, Emperors or monasteries or wealthy hunters might maintain lines of special dogs, from which we have today Pekingese, St. Bernards, foxhounds. At the beginning of the 19th century there were only a few dogs identified as breeds, but when dog fighting was outlawed in England in 1835, a new sport of dog showing began.
Along with this sport came rules and written records and closed stud books. Some of the old types no longer needed for work were remade and kept from extinction as show dogs, other old types were refined into many new breeds. Sometimes multiple new breeds might be born in the same littler of puppies. In 1873 only 40 breeds and varieties were known. Dog types today are recognized in Section categories of dog breed registries, but dog types have not disappeared. Types of feral dogs are being discovered and registered as breeds, as with the New Guinea Singing Dog and Carolina Dog. Types re-emerge like the Longdogs from Lurchers and Greyhounds. Named types of dogs that are not dog breeds are still being used where function or use is more important than appearance for herdi
Fédération Cynologique Internationale
The Fédération cynologique internationale is an international federation of a number of national kennel clubs, it is based in Thuin, Belgium. The FCI was founded in 1911 by Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands, it was disbanded in World War I and recreated in 1921 by Belgium and France; the FCI divides breeds it recognises into ten groups based on various discriminators such as appearance or role: Sheepdogs and cattle dogs Pinschers and schnauzers - molossoid breeds - Swiss mountain and cattle dogs and other breeds Terriers Dachshunds Spitz and primitive types Scenthounds and related breeds Pointers and setters Retrievers - flushing dogs - water dogs Companion and toy dogs Sighthounds Official website FCI world championships calendar
The Tagus is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula. It is 1,007 km long, 716 km in Spain, 47 km along the border between Portugal and Spain and 275 km in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Lisbon, it drains an area of 80,100 square kilometers. The Tagus is utilized for most of its course. Several dams and diversions supply drinking water to places of central Spain and Portugal, while dozens of hydroelectric stations create power. Between dams it follows a constricted course, but after Almourol it enters a wide alluvial valley, prone to flooding, its mouth is a large estuary near the port city of Lisbon. The source of the Tagus is the Fuente de García, in the Frías de Albarracín municipal term, Montes Universales, Sistema Ibérico, Sierra de Albarracín Comarca. All its major tributaries enter the Tagus from the right bank; the main cities it passes through are Aranjuez, Talavera de la Reina and Alcántara in Spain, Abrantes, Santarém, Almada and Lisbon in Portugal. The first notable city on the Tagus is Sacedón.
Below Aranjuez it receives the combined flow of the Jarama, Henares and Tajuña. Below Toledo it receives the Guadarrama River. Above Talavera de la Reina it receives the Alberche. At Valdeverdeja is the upper end of the long upper reservoir, the Embalse de Valdecañas, beyond which are the Embalse de Torrejon, into which flow the Tiétar, the lower reservoir, the Alcántara Dam into which flows the Alagón at the lower end. There is the Segura, the Tagus-Segura Water Transfer. After forming the border it enters Portugal, passing Vila Velha de Ródão, Constância, Santarém and Vila Franca de Xira at the head of the long narrow estuary, which has Lisbon at its mouth; the estuary is protected by the Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve. There is a large bridge across the river, the Vasco da Gama Bridge, which with a total length of 17.2 km is the second longest bridge in Europe. The Port of Lisbon, located at its mouth, is one of Europe's busiest; the Portuguese Alentejo region and former Ribatejo Province take their names from the river.
In Spanish Riba shore along of a river. Ribatejo should mean "The land beside the Tejo" or "The shore of the Tejo" you can see too many samples of towns in Spain with this prefix; the lower Tagus is on a fault line. Slippage along it has caused numerous earthquakes, the major ones being those of 1309, 1531 and 1755; the Pepper Wreck, properly the wreck of the Nossa Senhora dos Mártires, is a shipwreck located and excavated at the mouth of the Tagus between 1996 and 2001. The river had strategic value to the Spanish and Portuguese empires, as it guarded the approach to Lisbon. For example, in 1587, Francis Drake approached the river after his successful raid at Cadiz. A major river, the Tagus is brought to mind in the stories of the Portuguese. A popular fado song in Lisbon notes; the author, Fernando Pessoa, wrote a poem that begins: "The Tagus is more beautiful than the river that flows through my village. But the Tagus is not more beautiful than the river that flows through my village..."Richard Crashaw's poem "Saint Mary Magdalene, or the Weeper" refers to the "Golden" Tagus as wanting Mary Magdalene's silver tears.
In classical poetry the Tagus was famous for its gold-bearing sands. List of rivers of Spain List of rivers of Portugal
United Kennel Club
The United Kennel Club is a kennel club founded in 1898 in the United States. UKC was founded on February 10, 1898, by Chauncey Z. Bennett, motivated by dissatisfaction with the other dog registries, which were, he felt, geared too much for the conformation-only show dog or the wealthy hobby man, what Bennett called "the big city idle rich". Bennett conceived and promoted the concept of the "Total Dog", that is, a dog that performs as well as it looks. Bennett found a niche such as herding and hunting dogs. Chauncey Z. Bennett initiated the system of numbering the registered dogs; the first dog registered, UKC Number 1, was Bennett's Ring. Frances Bennett Fuhrman, daughter of Chauncey Bennett, improved the editorial content and appearance of the UKC magazine, Bloodlines. E. G. Fuhrman, husband of Frances Fuhrman and son-in-law to Chauncey Bennett, promoted dog shows and introduced the four types of UKC coonhound events: bench shows, night hunts, field trials, water races. Fred T. Miller, took many steps towards modernization, which improved customer service and turnaround time on registration applications.
Wayne R. Cavanaugh, furthered UKC's mission as a proactive and performance-based registry where the health and vitality of each breed were at the forefront of all decisions and advancements. Cavanaugh was chairman of the board from 2014 until his retirement in October 2015. Tanya Raab, has been with the organization since 1989. With a focus on increased customer service and promotion of the organization's "Total Dog" philosophy; the programs at UKC include obedience trials, rally obedience trials, agility trials, weight-pull events, dragging races, dock-jumping events, lure coursing, nose-work, coonhound field trials, water races, night hunts, bench shows, hunt tests for retrieving breeds, pointing-dog events, beagle events, among others. UKC offers field events for all types of hunting dog enthusiasts; the events offered by the Hunting Programs Department at UKC are designed to simulate an actual hunt as as possible with the exception of taking of game, prohibited. Dogs compete individually or in groups for points towards Championship and Grand Championship titles.
For the United Kennel Club Championship, a combination of points and competition wins are required. In UKC, a dog must receive 100 points with at least three competition wins under three different judges. A competition win is when a dog receives points. A UKC Grand Champion title is earned by winning in competition with other champions of the breed in at least five shows under at least three different judges. American Kennel Club American Bulldog Registry Official United Kennel Club site
Australian Cattle Dog
The Australian Cattle Dog, or Cattle Dog, is a breed of herding dog developed in Australia for droving cattle over long distances across rough terrain. This breed is a short-coated dog that occurs in two main colour forms, it has either brown or black hair distributed evenly through a white coat, which gives the appearance of a "red" or "blue" dog. As with dogs from other working breeds, the Australian Cattle Dog is energetic and intelligent with an independent streak, it responds well to structured training if it is interesting and challenging. It was bred to herd by biting, is known to nip running children, it forms a strong attachment to its owners, can be protective of them and their possessions. It is easy requiring little more than brushing during the shedding period; the most common health problems are progressive blindness and accidental injury. In the 19th century, New South Wales cattle farmer Thomas Hall crossed the dogs used by drovers in his parents' home county, with dingoes he had tamed.
The resulting dogs were known as Halls Heelers. After Hall's death in 1870, the dogs became available beyond their associates, they were subsequently developed into two modern breeds: the Australian Cattle Dog and the Australian Stumpy Tail Cattle Dog. Robert Kaleski, who wrote the first standard for the breed, was influential in its development. Australian Cattle Dog has been nicknamed a "Red Heeler" or "Blue Heeler" on the basis of its colouring and practice of moving reluctant cattle by nipping at their heels. Dogs from a line bred in Queensland, which were successful at shows and at stud in the 1940s, were called "Queensland Heelers" to differentiate them from lines bred in New South Wales; the Australian Cattle Dog is a sturdy, compact dog that gives the impression of agility and strength. It has a broad skull that flattens to a definite stop between the eyes, with muscular cheeks and a medium-length, powerful muzzle; the ears are pricked, small to medium in size and set wide apart, with a covering of hair on the inside.
The eyes are dark, with an alert, keen expression. The neck and shoulders are muscular; the Cattle Dog breed standard states that it should have well-conditioned muscles when bred for companion or show purposes, that its appearance should be symmetrical and balanced, with no individual part of the dog exaggerated. It should not look either delicate or cumbersome, as either characteristic limits the agility and endurance, necessary for a working dog; the female Australian Cattle Dog measures 43–48 centimetres at the withers, the male measures about 46–51 centimetres at the withers. The dog should be longer than tall, that is, the length of the body from breast bone to buttocks is greater than the height at the withers, in a ratio of 10 to 9. An Australian Cattle Dog in good condition weighs around 15–22 kilograms. There are two accepted coat colours and blue, though chocolate and cream do occur. Blue dogs can be blue mottled, or blue speckled with or without black, tan, or white markings. Red dogs are evenly speckled with solid red markings.
Both red dogs and blue dogs are born white and the red or black hairs grow in as they mature. The distinctive adult colouration is the result of black or red hairs interspersed through a predominantly white coat; this is not merle colouration, but rather the result of the ticking gene. A number of breeds show ticking, the presence of colour through white areas, though the overall effect depends on other genes that will modify the size and density of the ticking. In addition to the primary colouration, an Australian Cattle Dog displays some patches of solid or near-solid colour. In both red and blue dogs, the most common are masks over one or both eyes, a white tip to the tail, a solid spot at the base of the tail, sometimes solid spots on the body, though these are not desirable in dogs bred for conformation shows. Blue dogs can have tan midway up the legs and extending up the front to breast and throat, with tan on jaws, tan eyebrows. Both colour forms can have a white "star" on the forehead called the "Bentley Mark", after a legendary dog owned by Tom Bentley.
Common miscolours in the Australian Cattle Dog are black hairs in a red-coated dog, including the extreme of a black saddle on a red dog, extensive tan on the face and body on a blue dog, called "creeping tan". The Cattle Dog has a double coat—the short, straight outer guard hairs are protective in nature, keeping the elements from the dog's skin while the undercoat is short and dense; the mask consists of both eyes or a red patch over one or both eyes. Depending on whether one or both eyes have a patch, these are called "single" mask and "double" mask. Dogs without a mask are called plain-faced. Any of these are acceptable according to the breed standard. In conformation shows markings are preferred over uneven markings; the breed standards of the Australian and Canadian kennel clubs specify that the Australian Cattle Dog should have a natural, long, un-docked tail. There will be a solid colour spot at the base of the tail and a white tip; the tail s
Dog agility is a dog sport in which a handler directs a dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time and accuracy. Dogs run off leash with no food or toys as incentives, the handler can touch neither dog nor obstacles; the handler's controls are limited to voice and various body signals, requiring exceptional training of the animal and coordination of the handler. In its simplest form, an agility course consists of a set of standard obstacles laid out by a judge in a design of his or her own choosing in an area of a specified size; the surface may be of grass, rubber, or special matting. Depending on the type of competition, the obstacles may be marked with numbers indicating the order in which they must be completed. Courses are complicated enough that a dog could not complete them without human direction. In competition, the handler must assess the course, decide on handling strategies, direct the dog through the course, with precision and speed important. Many strategies exist to compensate for the inherent difference in human and dog speeds and the strengths and weaknesses of the various dogs and handlers.
Because each course is different, handlers are allowed a short walk-through before the competition starts. During this time, all handlers competing in a particular class can walk or run around the course without their dogs, determining how they can best position themselves and guide their dogs to get the most accurate and rapid path around the numbered obstacles; the handler tends to run a path much different from the dog's path, so the handler can sometimes spend quite a bit of time planning for what is a quick run. The walk-through is critical for success because the course's path takes various turns U-turns or 270° turns, can cross back on itself, can use the same obstacle more than once, can have two obstacles so close to each other that the dog and handler must be able to discriminate which to take, can be arranged so that the handler must work with obstacles between himself and the dog, called layering, or at a great distance from the dog. Printed maps of the agility course, called course maps, are made available to the handlers before they run, to help the handlers plan their course strategy.
The course map contains icons indicating the position and orientation of all the obstacles, numbers indicating the order in which the obstacles are to be taken. Course maps were drawn by hand, but nowadays courses are created using various computer programs; each dog and handler team gets one opportunity together to attempt to complete the course successfully. The dog begins behind a starting line and, when instructed by his handler, proceeds around the course; the handler runs near the dog, directing the dog with spoken commands and with body language. Because speed counts as much as accuracy at higher levels of competition, this all takes place at a full-out run on the dog's part and, in places, on the handler's part as well. Scoring of runs is based on. Penalties can include not only course faults, such as knocking down a bar in a jump, but time faults, which are the number of seconds over the calculated standard course time, which in turn is determined based on the competition level, the complexity of the course, other factors.
The regulations of different organizations specify somewhat different rules and dimensions for the construction of obstacles. However, the basic form of most obstacles is the same. Obstacles include the following: Jump Two uprights supporting a horizontal bar over which the dog jumps; the height is adjusted for dogs of different heights. The uprights can be simple stanchions or can have wings of various shapes and colors. Double and triple jump Two uprights supporting two or three horizontal bars spread forward or back from each other; the double can have ascending horizontal bars. The spread between the horizontal bars is sometimes adjusted based on the height of the dog. Panel jump Instead of horizontal bars, the jump is a solid panel from the ground up to the jump height, constructed of several short panels that can be removed to adjust the height for different dog heights. Broad jump A set of four or five raised platforms that form a broad area over which the dog must jump without setting their feet on any of the platforms.
The length of the jump is adjusted for the dog's height. Tire jump A torus shape, the size of a tire and suspended in a frame; the dog must jump through the opening of the "tire". The tire is wrapped with tape both for visibility and to cover any openings or uneven places in which the dog could catch. Many organizations now allow or require a so-called displaceable or breakaway tire, where the tire comes apart in some way if the dog hits it hard enough. Other hurdles UKC agility allows a variety of hurdles not found in other agility organizations: bush hurdle, high hurdle, log hurdle, picket fence hurdle, rail fence hurdle, long hurdle, window hurdle, water hurdle. Table An elevated square platform about 3-foot-by-3-foot square onto which the dog must jump and pause, either sitting or in a down position, for a designated period of time, counted out by the judge about 5 seconds; the height ranges from about 8 to 30 inches depending on the dog's height and sponsoring organization. Pause box A variation on the pause table.
The pause box is a square marked off on the ground wi
The coat of the domestic dog refers to the hair that covers its body. A dog's coat may be a double coat, made up of a soft undercoat and a tougher topcoat, or a single coat, which lacks an undercoat. Double coats have a top coat, made of stiff hairs to help repel water and shield from dirt, an undercoat to serve as insulation; the terms fur and hair are used interchangeably when describing a dog's coat, however in general, a double coat, e.g. like that of the Newfoundland and most mountain dogs, is referred to as a fur coat, while a single coat, like that of the Poodle, is referred to as a hair coat. There are a greater variety of coat colours, patterns and textures found in the domestic dog than in its wolf relations, as is typical of all domestic animals. In the wild, mutations put animals at some practical disadvantage decreasing survival or reducing their attractiveness to the opposite sex. During evolution of the dog from their wild wolf ancestors, coat colors in dogs were the inadvertent outcome of some other selective process, were not initially selected for intentionally by humans.
Research has found that tameness brings associated physical changes, including coat colouring and patterning. Diversification of the dog into different types and separate breeds increased colour variation as factors such as camouflage and visibility aided the dogs’ functionality. Coat types were selected for, both inadvertently and intentionally, in accordance with factors such as climate, vegetation in the dogs’ working environment, the need to perform tasks in water. Domestic dogs display the remnants of countershading, a common natural camouflage pattern; the basic principle of countershading is when the animal is lit from above, shadows will be cast on the ventral side of the body. These shadows could provide a predator or prey with visual cues relating to the movement of the animal. By being lighter colored on the ventral side of the body, an animal can counteract this, thereby fool the predator or prey. An alternative explanation is that the dorsal and ventral sides of an animal experience different selection pressures resulting in differing coloration.
The same colour may be referred to differently in different breeds. A same term may mean different colourations in different breeds. Brown, liverBrown and liver are the most common terms used to refer to the bb-dilution of black pigment to a dark brown. Depending on breed and exact shade, terms such as mahogany, midtone brown, grey-brown, blackish brown are used. Sedge and deadgrass are used to describe the desired Chesapeake Bay Retriever color that resembles "that of its working surroundings" as as possible. RedRed refers to reddish shades of orange and tan. Terms used include orange, red-gold, cinnamon and ruby. Genetically a dog called red is a clear sable or a ruddy recessive yellow. In some breeds, "red" refers to what would be called brown, chocolate, or liver. A "red merle" is always a liver-based merle. In Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked liver-based colouration with an overall red-grey appearance. Gold and yellowGold refers to a rich reddish-yellow and its variants, whereas yellow can refer to any shade of yellow and tan.
Terms used include yellow-gold, lion-colored, apricot, tawny, yellow-red, sandy, apricot, lemon. Dogs called golden or yellow tend to be recessive yellow, but can be sable. CreamCream refers to a pale yellowish or tannish colour which can be white. FawnFawn refers to a yellow, light brown, or cream dog that has a dark melanistic mask. With Weimaraners, fawn refers to their typical brownish grey colouration that with other breeds is called lilac. BlackBlack is a pure black that can get grizzled as the dog ages, or have a tendency to gain a brownish cast when exposed to the elements. BlueBlue is a metallic grey, it means a d/d dilution of black pigment, a grey colouration, grey from birth, but has a wide range of breed-specific meanings. In Kerry Blue Terriers and Bearded Collies, "blue" refers to colouration, black at birth and progressively greys out as the dog matures. In Australian Shepherds, Rough Collies, Shetland Sheepdogs, blue means a blue merle. In Australian Silky Terriers, blue means a saddle-type black and tan pattern, where the black parts of the coat progressively fade to a steel grey as the dog matures and in Australian Cattle Dogs, blue stands for a densely ticked black-based colouration with an overall blue-grey appearance.
GreyGrey means a grey colouration of any shade. It can be used as an alternative synonym of blue, but tends to mean some other type of grey than the d/d dilution of black. Synonyms include silver, grizzle, blue-black grey and silver, steel. Greys of a dusty or brownish cast are lilac, a d/d dilution of liver, this colouration does not have much of a recognised name. Across various breeds, it is called lavender, silver-fawn, fawn, café au lait or silver beige. In Poodles, a blue is a slowly fading dark steel grey, whereas a silver is a quicker to clear, much lighter grey that can range from a pale platinum to a steel grey. Both are black at birth with minimal markings to indicate future change. Café au lait is a slower an