Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member
Liturgy of the Hours
The Liturgy of the Hours or Divine Office or Work of God or canonical hours referred to as the Breviary, is the official set of prayers "marking the hours of each day and sanctifying the day with prayer". It consists of psalms supplemented by hymns and other prayers and antiphons. Together with the Mass, it constitutes the official public prayer life of the Church; the Liturgy of the Hours forms the basis of prayer within Christian monasticism. Celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours is an obligation undertaken by priests and deacons intending to become priests, while deacons intending to remain deacons are obliged to recite only a part; the constitutions of religious institutes oblige their members to celebrate at least parts and in some cases to do so jointly. The laity are under no public obligation to do so, but may oblige themselves to do so by personal vow, "are encouraged to recite the divine office, either with the priests, or among themselves, or individually"; the Liturgy of the Hours, along with the Eucharist, has formed part of the Church's public worship from the earliest times.
Christians of both Western and Eastern traditions celebrate the Liturgy of the Hours in various forms and under various names. Within the Latin Church, the present official form of the entire Liturgy of the Hours is that contained in the four-volume publication Liturgia Horarum, the first edition of which appeared in 1971. English translations were soon produced and were made official for their territories by the competent episcopal conferences; the three-volume Divine Office, which uses a range of different English Bibles for the readings from Scripture, was published in 1974. Before 1971, the official form for the Latin Church was the Breviarium Romanum, first published in 1568. In the Byzantine Rite, the corresponding services are found in the Ὡρολόγιον. Anglican Liturgy of the Hours is contained in the book of Daily Prayer of Common Worship and the Book of Common Prayer, as well as in the Anglican Breviary; the Lutheran counterpart is contained in the liturgical books used by the various Lutheran church bodies.
Other names in Latin liturgical rites for the Liturgy of the Hours include "Diurnal and Nocturnal Office", "Ecclesiastical Office", Cursus ecclesiasticus, or cursus. Early Christians continued the Jewish practice of reciting prayers at certain hours of the day or night. In the Psalms are found expressions like "in the morning I offer you my prayer"; the Apostles observed the Jewish custom of praying at the third and ninth hours, at midnight. The Christian prayer of that time consisted of the same elements as the Jewish: recital or chanting of psalms, reading of the Old Testament, to which were soon added readings of the Gospels and epistles, canticles. Other elements were added in the course of the centuries. By the time of Saint Benedict of Nursia, the monastic Liturgy of the Hours was composed of seven daytime hours and one at night, he associated the practice with Psalm 118/119:164, "Seven times a day I praise you", Psalm 118/119:62, "At midnight I rise to praise you". Of these eight hours and Compline may be the latest to appear, because the 4th-century Apostolic Constitutions VIII iv 34 do not mention them in the exhortation "Offer up your prayers in the morning, at the third hour, the sixth, the ninth, the evening, at cock-crowing".
The eight are known by the following names, which do not reflect the times of day at which in the second millennium they have traditionally been recited, as shown by the use of the word "noon", derived from Latin nona, to mean midday, not 3 in the afternoon: Matins. However, it is found in Saint John Cassian's Institutes and Conferences, which describe the monastic practices of the Desert Fathers of Egypt. After the Second Vatican Council, which decided that the hour of prime should be suppressed, Pope Paul VI decreed a new arrangement of the "Liturgy of the Hours; the structure of the offices, the distribution of psalms, the prayers were updated. The distinction expressed in the 1960 Code of Rubrics, between the three major hours and the minor hours has been retained; the Officium lectionis, or Office of Readings, – major hour Lauds or Morning Prayer – major hour Daytime Prayer – minor hour or hours, one or more of: Terce or Midmorning Prayer before Noon Sext or Midday Prayer None or Afternoon or Midafternoon Prayer Vespers or Evening Prayer – major hour Compline or Night Prayer – minor hourAll hours, including the minor hours, start with the versicle from Ps 70 v. 2 (as do all offices i
Kyrie, a transliteration of Greek Κύριε, vocative case of Κύριος, is a common name of an important prayer of Christian liturgy called the Kyrie eleison. The prayer, "Kyrie, eleison," "Lord, have mercy". Greek ἐλέησόν με κύριε "have mercy on me, Lord" is the Septuagint translation of the phrase חָנֵּנִי יְהוָה found in Psalms In the New Testament, the Greek phrase occurs three times in Matthew: Matthew 15:22: the Canaanite woman cries out to Jesus, "Have mercy on me, O Lord, Son of David." Matthew 17:15: "Lord, have mercy on my son" Matthew 20:30f, two unnamed blind men call out to Jesus, "Lord, have mercy on us, Son of David." In the Parable of the Publican and the Pharisee the despised tax collector who cries out "Lord have mercy on me, a sinner" is contrasted with the smug Pharisee who believes he has no need for forgiveness. Luke 17:13 has epistates "master" instead of kyrios "lord", being less suggestive of the kyrios "lord" used as euphemism for YHWH in the Septuagint. There are other examples in the text of the gospels without the kyrie "lord", e.g. Mark 10:46, where blind Bartimaeus cries out, "Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me."
In the biblical text, the phrase is always personalized by an explicit object, while in the Eucharistic celebration it can be seen more as a general expression of confidence in God's love. Τhe phrase Kýrie, eléison, or one of its equivalents in other languages, is one of the most oft-repeated phrases in Eastern Christianity, including the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches. The various litanies, frequent in that rite have Lord, have mercy as their response, either singly or triply; some petitions in these litanies will have twelve or forty repetitions of the phrase as a response. The phrase is the origin of the Jesus Prayer, beloved by Christians of that rite and popular amongst Western Christians; the biblical roots of this prayer first appear in 1 Chronicles 16:34...give thanks to the LORD. The prayer is a petition and a prayer of thanksgiving, it is refined in the Parable of The Publican, "God, have mercy on me, a sinner", which shows more its connection with the Jesus Prayer. Since the early centuries of Christianity, the Greek phrase, Kýrie, eléison, is extensively used in the Coptic Christian liturgy, which uses both the Coptic and the Greek language.
In Rome, the sacred Liturgy was first celebrated in Greek. At some point the Roman Mass was translated into Latin, but the historical record on this process is sparse. Jungmann explains at length how the Kyrie in the Roman Mass is best seen as a vestige of a litany at the beginning of the Mass, like that of some Eastern churches; as early as the sixth century, Pope Gregory the Great notes that there were differences in the way in which eastern and western churches sang Kyrie. In the eastern churches all sing it at the same time, whereas in the western church the clergy sing it and the people respond; the western church sang Christe eleison as many times as Kyrie eleison. In the Roman Rite liturgy, this variant, Christe, eléison, is a transliteration of Greek Χριστέ, ἐλέησον. "Kyrie, eleison" may be used as a response of the people to intentions mentioned in the Prayer of the Faithful. Since 1549, Anglicans have sung or said the Kyrie in English. In the 1552 Book of Common Prayer, the Kyrie was inserted into a recitation of the Ten Commandments.
Modern revisions of the Prayer Book have restored the option of using the Kyrie without the Commandments. Other denominations such as Lutheranism, use "Kyrie, eleison" in their liturgies. In the Tridentine Mass form of the Roman Rite, Kýrie, eléison is sung or said three times, followed by a threefold Christe, eléison and by another threefold Kýrie, eléison. In the Paul VI Mass form, each invocation is made only once by the celebrating priest, a deacon if present, or else by a cantor, with a single repetition, each time, by the congregation. If Mass is celebrated in the vernacular, the Kyrie may be in Greek; this prayer occurs directly following the Penitential Rite or is incorporated in that rite as one of the three alternative forms provided in the Roman Missal. The Penitential Rite and Kyrie may be replaced by the Rite of Sprinkling. In modern Anglican churches, it is common to say either the Kyrie or the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, but not both. In this case, the Kyrie may be said in penitential seasons like Lent and Advent, while the Gloria is said the rest of the year.
Anglo-Catholics, however follow Roman norms in this as in most other liturgical matters. Kyrie eleison Lord, have mercy Christe eleison Christ, have mercy In the Tridentine Mass, the Kyrie is the first sung prayer of the Mass ordinary, it is part of any musical setting of the Mass. Kyrie movements have a ternary musical structure that reflects the symmetrical structure of the text. Musical settings exist in styles ranging from Gregorian chant to folk; the original pronunciation in Medieval Greek was, just. The transliteration
Second Vatican Council
The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican known as the Second Vatican Council or Vatican II, addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world. The council, through the Holy See, was formally opened under the pontificate of Pope John XXIII on 11 October 1962 and was closed under Pope Paul VI on the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception on 8 December 1965. Several changes resulted from the council, including the renewal of consecrated life with a revised charism, ecumenical efforts towards dialogue with other religions, the universal call to holiness, which according to Pope Paul VI was "the most characteristic and ultimate purpose of the teachings of the Council". According to Pope Benedict XVI, the most important and essential message of the council is "the Paschal Mystery as the center of what it is to be Christian and therefore of the Christian life, the Christian year, the Christian seasons". Other changes which followed the council included the widespread use of vernacular languages in the Mass instead of Latin, the subtle disuse of ornate clerical regalia, the revision of Eucharistic prayers, the abbreviation of the liturgical calendar, the ability to celebrate the Mass versus populum, as well as ad orientem, modern aesthetic changes encompassing contemporary Catholic liturgical music and artwork.
Many of these changes remain divisive among the Catholic faithful. Of those who took part in the council's opening session, four have become popes: Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, who on succeeding John XXIII took the name Pope Paul VI. In the 1950s, theological and biblical studies in the Catholic Church had begun to sway away from the Neo-Scholasticism and biblical literalism which a reaction to Catholic modernism had enforced since the First Vatican Council; this shift could be seen in theologians such as Karl Rahner, Michael Herbert, John Courtney Murray who looked to integrate modern human experience with church principles based on Jesus Christ, as well as others such as Yves Congar, Joseph Ratzinger and Henri de Lubac, who looked to an accurate understanding of scripture and the early Church Fathers as a source of renewal. At the same time, the world's bishops faced challenges driven by political, social and technological change; some of these bishops sought new ways of addressing those challenges.
The First Vatican Council had been held nearly a century before but had been cut short in 1870 when the Italian Army entered the city of Rome at the end of Italian unification. As a result, only deliberations on the role of the papacy and the congruent relationship of faith and reason were completed, with examination of pastoral issues concerning the direction of the Church left unaddressed. Pope John XXIII, gave notice of his intention to convene the Council on 25 January 1959, less than three months after his election in October 1958; this sudden announcement, which caught the Curia by surprise, caused little initial official comment from Church insiders. Reaction to the announcement was widespread and positive from both religious and secular leaders outside the Catholic Church, the council was formally summoned by the apostolic constitution Humanae Salutis on 25 December 1961. In various discussions before the Council convened, John XXIII said that it was time to "open the windows and let in some fresh air".
He invited other Christians outside the Catholic Church to send observers to the Council. Acceptances came from both the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant denominations as internal observers, but these observers did not cast votes in the approbation of the conciliar documents. Pope John XXIII's announcement on 25 January 1959 of his intention to call a general council came as a surprise to the cardinals present; the Pontiff pre-announced the council under a full moon when the faithful with their candlelights gathered in St. Peter's square and jokingly noted about the brightness of the moon, he had tested the idea only ten days before with one of them, his Cardinal Secretary of State Domenico Tardini, who gave enthusiastic support to the idea. Although the Pope said the idea came to him in a flash in his conversation with Tardini, two cardinals had earlier attempted to interest him in the idea, they were two of the most conservative, Ernesto Ruffini and Alfredo Ottaviani, who had in 1948 proposed the idea to Pope Pius XII and who put it before John XXIII on 27 October 1958.
Actual preparations for the Council took more than two years, included work from 10 specialised commissions, people for mass media and Christian Unity, a Central Commission for overall coordination. These groups, composed of members of the Roman Curia, produced 987 proposed constituting sessions, making it the largest gathering in any council in church history. Attendance varied in sessions from 2,100 to over 2,300. In addition, a varying number of periti were available for theological consultation—a group that turned out to have a major influence as the council went forward. Seventeen Orthodox Churches and Protestant denominations sent observers. More than three dozen representatives of other Christian communities were present at the opening session, the number grew to nearly 100 by the end of the 4th Council Sessions. Pope John XXIII opened the Council on 11 October 1962 in a public session and read the declaration Gaudet Mater Ecclesia before the Council Fathers. What is needed at the present t
Gloria in excelsis Deo
"Gloria in excelsis Deo" is a Christian hymn known as the Greater Doxology and the Angelic Hymn/Hymn of the Angels. The name is abbreviated to Gloria in Excelsis or Gloria; the hymn begins with the words that the angels said when the birth of Christ was announced to shepherds in Luke 2:14. Other verses were added early, forming a doxology. Gloria in excelsis Deo is an example of the psalmi idiotici that were popular in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Other surviving examples of this lyric poetry are the Phos Hilaron. In the 4th century it became part of morning prayers, is still recited in the Byzantine Rite Orthros service; the Latin translation is traditionally attributed to Saint Hilary of Poitiers, who may have learned it while in the East. The Vulgate Latin translation of the Bible was commissioned only in 382; the Latin hymn thus uses the word excelsis to translate the Greek word ὑψίστοις in Luke 2:14, not the word altissimis, which Saint Jerome preferred for his translation. However, this word is used near the end: Jesu Christe.
In the Byzantine Rite, the Gloria is referred to as the Doxology, there are two forms: the Greater Doxology and the Lesser Doxology. The Greater Doxology is always sung. There are certain textual differences between the two, the order is somewhat altered in the two forms; the Greater Doxology is used in the Orthros on feast days. The Lesser Doxology is used at Matins on simple weekdays and at the Apodeipnon, but not in the Divine Liturgy. By contrast, in the Roman Rite this hymn is not included in the Liturgy of the Hours, but is sung or recited in the Mass, after the Kyrie, on Sundays outside of Lent and Advent and on solemnities and feasts; the Gloria is sometimes omitted, in contemporary usage, the Kyrie and Gloria are never sung together, though they were historically. In Masses celebrated in the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite using the Roman Missal of 1962, the Gloria is sung much more with the rubrics requiring that the hymn be sung at any Mass corresponding to the Office of the day in which the Te Deum is said at Matins, the evening Mass of Maundy Thursday and at the Easter Vigil, at votive Masses of the I, II or III class, at IV class votive Masses of the Angels, as well as Masses of the Blessed Virgin on Saturday.
In the Church of England's 1549 edition of the Book of Common Prayer, it was used in the same position as in the Roman Rite but was moved to the end of the service before the concluding blessing. Revisions to the Prayer Book occurred in 1552 and 1662, but this placement was retained by the Anglican Communion until the 20th century; the published Common Worship provides two Orders one of which places the hymn in the earlier position. The 1928 United States Episcopal Prayer Book placed the Gloria at the end of the Eucharist service; this edition, still the standard in the breakaway Continuing Anglican churches, allowed the hymn to be used in place of the Gloria Patri after the psalms and canticles at Evening Prayer. The Episcopal Church's 1979 Book moved it to the beginning, after or in place of the Kyrie in Rite One. In a Rite Two service of Holy Eucharist, the Gloria, or another song of praise, is sung or said on all Sundays except those in Advent or Lent, it may be used at other times as desired excepting Lent and Advent.
The hymn is used in the Divine Service of the Lutheran Church, in the services of many other Christian churches. A tradition recorded in the Liber Pontificalis attributes to Pope Telesphorus the use of the hymn at the Mass of Christmas Day and to Pope Symmachus its use on Sundays and the feasts of martyrs, but only by bishops. After the 12th century Advent began to be considered a penitential period in imitation of Lent, to the exclusion therefore of the Gloria in excelsis Deo. In the Tridentine Mass, the priest is instructed, when saying the opening phrase "Gloria in excelsis Deo", to extend his hands and raise them to shoulder height and, at the word "Deo", to join them and bow his head, he is to continue the recitation standing erect with hands joined and bowing his head to the cross at the words "Adoramus te", "Gratias agimus tibi", "Iesu Christe", "Suscipe deprecationem nostram", at the concluding phrase, to make a large sign of the cross on himself. At High Mass the priest intones the opening phrase, while the subdeacon stand behind him.
The Roman Missal as revised in 1970 simplifies this, saying: "
Pope Benedict XIV
Pope Benedict XIV, born Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini, was head of the Catholic Church from 17 August 1740 to his death in 1758. One of the best scholars to sit on the papal throne, yet overlooked, he promoted scientific learning, the baroque arts, reinvigoration of Thomism, the study of the human form. Committed to carrying out the decrees of the Council of Trent and authentic Catholic teaching, Benedict removed changes made to the Breviary, sought peacefully to reverse growing secularism in European courts, invigorated ceremonies with great pomp, throughout his life and his reign published numerous theological and ecclesiastical treatises. In governing the Papal States, he reduced taxation on some products, but raised taxes on others. A scholar, he created the Profane Museums, now part of the present Vatican Museum. Benedict XIV, to an extent can be considered a polymath due to his numerous studies of ancient literature, the publishing of ecclesiastical books and documents, his interest in the study of the human body, his devotion to art and theology.
Horace Walpole described him as "loved by papists, esteemed by Protestants, a priest without insolence or interest, a prince without favorites, a pope without nepotism, an author without vanity, a man whom neither intellect nor power could corrupt." Lambertini was born into a noble family of Bologna, the third of five children of Marcello Lambertini and Lucrezia Bulgarini. At the time of his birth, Bologna was the second largest city in the Papal States, his earliest studies were with tutors, he was sent to the Convitto del Porto, staffed by the Somaschi Fathers. At the age of thirteen, he began attending the Collegio Clementino in Rome, where he studied rhetoric, Latin and theology. During his studies as a young man, he studied the works of St. Thomas Aquinas, his favorite author and saint. While he enjoyed studying at Collegio Clementino, his attention turned toward canon law. Soon after, in 1694 at the age of nineteen, he received the degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology and Doctor Utriusque Juris.
Lambertini became an assistant to Msgr. Alessandro Caprara, the Auditor of the Rota. After the election of Pope Clement XI in November 1700, he was made a consistorial advocate in 1701. Shortly after, he was created a Consultor of the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition, in 1708 Promoter of the Faith; as Promoter of the Faith, he achieved two major successes. The first was the canonization of Pope Pius V; the second was the composition of his treatise on the process of the beatification and canonization of saints. In 1712 Lambertini was named Canon Theologus of the Chapter of the Vatican Basilica and member of the Sacred Congregation of Rites. On 12 June 1724, only two weeks after his election, Pope Benedict XIII appointed Lambertini titular bishop of Theodosia. Lambertini was consecrated a bishop in Rome, in the Pauline Chapel of the Vatican Palace, on 16 July 1724, by Pope Benedict XIII; the co-consecrators were Giovanni Francesco Nicolai, titular Archbishop of Myra, Nicola Maria Lercari, titular Archbishop of Nazianzus.
In 1725, he served as the Canonist at the Roman Synod of Pope Benedict XIII. In 1718, the Istituto delle scienze ed Arti Liberali in Bologna had begun construction of a chapel for everyday convenience dedicated to the Annunication of the Virgin Mary. In 1725, Bishop Prospero Lambertini of Theodosia, working in the Roman Curia but was mindful of his origins, ordered the chapel to be painted, he handed over the work to Carlo Salarolo. Lambertini ordered and paid for the painting above the main altar, an image of the Virgin being greeted by the angel, the work of Marcantonio Franceschini, he was made Bishop of Ancona on 27 January 1727, was permitted to retain the title of Archbishop, as well as all the offices which he had been granted. He was allowed to continue as Abbot Commendatory of the Camaldolese monastery of S. Stefano di Cintorio in the diocese of Pisa. In 1731, the new bishop had the choir of the cathedral restored and renovated. Once he became pope, Lambertini remembered his former diocese, sending an annual gift to the Church of Ancona, of sacred vessels of gold or silver, altar appointments and other items.
Bishop Lambertini was created a Cardinal on 9 December 1726, though the public announcement of his promotion was postponed until 30 April 1728. He was assigned the titular church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme on 10 May 1728, he participated in the 1730 conclave. On 30 April 1731 Cardinal Lambertini was appointed Archbishop of Bologna by Pope Clement XII. During his time as archbishop, he composed an extensive treatise in three volumes, De synodo dioecesana, on the subject of the diocesan synod, presenting a synthesis of the history, Canon Law and procedures for the holding of those important meetings of the clergy of each diocese, he was in fact preparing the ground for the holding of a synod of his own for the diocese of Bologna, an expectation he first announced in a Notificazione of 14 October 1732. When the first edition of the De Synodo was published in 1748, the synod still had not taken place, he continued in the office of Archbishop of Bologna after he became Pope, not resigning until 14 January 1754.
After the death of Pope Clement XII on 6 February 1740, Cardinal Lambe
Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally accepted civil calendar to this day. Ugo Boncompagni was born the son of Cristoforo Boncompagni and of his wife Angela Marescalchi in Bologna, where he studied law and graduated in 1530, he taught jurisprudence for some years, his students included notable figures such as Cardinals Alexander Farnese, Reginald Pole and Charles Borromeo. He had an illegitimate son after an affair with Maddalena Fulchini, Giacomo Boncompagni, but before he took holy orders. At the age of thirty-six he was summoned to Rome by Pope Paul III, under whom he held successive appointments as first judge of the capital and vice-chancellor of the Campagna e Marittima. Pope Paul IV attached him as datarius to the suite of Cardinal Carlo Carafa, Pope Pius IV made him Cardinal-Priest of San Sisto Vecchio and sent him to the Council of Trent.
He served as a legate to Philip II of Spain, being sent by the Pope to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. It was there that he formed a lasting and close relationship with the Spanish King, to become important in his foreign policy as Pope. Upon the death of Pope Pius V, the conclave chose Cardinal Boncompagni, who assumed the name of Gregory XIII in homage to the great reforming Pope, Gregory I, surnamed the Great, it was a brief conclave, lasting less than 24 hours. Many historians have attributed this to the backing of the Spanish King. Cardinal Borromeo and the cardinals wishing reform accepted Boncompagni's candidature and so supported him in the conclave while the Spanish faction deemed him acceptable due to his success as a nuncio in Spain. Gregory XIII's character seemed to be perfect for the needs of the church at the time. Unlike some of his predecessors, he was to lead a faultless personal life, becoming a model for his simplicity of life. Additionally, his legal brilliance and management abilities meant that he was able to respond and deal with major problems and decisively, although not always successfully.
Once in the chair of Saint Peter, Gregory XIII's rather worldly concerns became secondary and he dedicated himself to reform of the Catholic Church. He committed himself to putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent, he allowed no exceptions for cardinals to the rule that bishops must take up residence in their sees, designated a committee to update the Index of Forbidden Books. He was the patron of a new and improved edition of the Corpus juris canonici. In a time of considerable centralisation of power, Gregory XIII abolished the Cardinals Consistories, replacing them with Colleges, appointing specific tasks for these colleges to work on, he was renowned for having a fierce independence. The power of the papacy increased under him, whereas the influence and power of the cardinals decreased. Noteworthy is his establishment of the Discalced Carmelites, an offshoot of the Carmelite Order, as a distinct unit or "province" within the former by the decree "Pia consideratione" dated 22 June 1580, ending a period of great difficulty between them and enabling the former to become a significant religious order in the Catholic Church.
A central part of the strategy of Gregory XIII's reform was to apply the recommendations of Trent. He was a liberal patron of the formed Society of Jesus throughout Europe, for which he founded many new colleges; the Roman College of the Jesuits grew under his patronage, became the most important centre of learning in Europe for a time. It is now named the Pontifical Gregorian University. Pope Gregory XIII founded numerous seminaries for training priests, beginning with the German College at Rome, put them in the charge of the Jesuits. In 1575 he gave official status to the Congregation of the Oratory, a community of priests without vows, dedicated to prayer and preaching. In 1580 he commissioned artists, including Ignazio Danti, to complete works to decorate the Vatican and commissioned The Gallery of Maps. Noteworthy during his pontificate as a further means of putting into practice the recommendations of the Council of Trent is the transformation in 1580 of the Dominican studium founded in the 13th century at Rome into the College of St. Thomas, the precursor of the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
Pope Gregory XIII is best known for his commissioning of the calendar after being authored by the doctor/astronomer Aloysius Lilius and with the aid of Jesuit priest/astronomer Christopher Clavius who made the final modifications. The reason for the reform was that the average length of the year in the Julian calendar was too long – as it treated each year as 365 days, 6 hours in length, whereas calculations showed that the actual mean length of a year is less As a result, the date of the actual vernal equinox had slipped to 10 March, while the computus of the date of Easter still followed the traditional date of 21 March; this was verified by the observations of Clavius, the new calendar was instituted when Gregory decreed, by the papal bull Inter gravissimas of 24 February 1582, that the day after Thursday, 4 October 1582 would be not Friday, 5 October, but Friday, 15 October 1582. The new calendar duly replaced the Julian calendar, in use since 45 B