France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Karin Viard is a multi-award-winning French actress. She made her debut in Tatie Danielle in 1990. Viard is one of the most critically acclaimed French actresses of the past decade, since she has appeared in films such as Delicatessen, LEmploi du temps, Adultère, mode demploi and La parenthèse enchantée. She was a member of the 2003 Cannes Film Festival jury and she was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen. Viard has won two César Awards, the first for Best Actress for her role in Haut les cœurs. and the second for Best Supporting Actress for Embrassez qui vous voudrez. She was nominated for the César Awards three other times, Viard has won the Best Actress award at the Montréal World Film Festival for her performance in Le Rôle de sa vie. Karin Viard at the Internet Movie Database Karin Viard at allcine. com
The various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette, officially called the Academy Award of Merit, which has become commonly known by its nickname Oscar. The awards, first presented in 1929 at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, are overseen by AMPAS, the awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now live in more than 200 countries and can be streamed live online. The Academy Awards ceremony is the oldest worldwide entertainment awards ceremony and its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, and the Grammy Awards for music and recording – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 89th Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2016, were held on February 26,2017, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, the ceremony was hosted by Jimmy Kimmel and was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,048 Oscars have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 88th, the first Academy Awards presentation was held on May 16,1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people.
The post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel, the cost of guest tickets for that nights ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the industry of the time. The ceremony ran for 15 minutes, winners were announced to media three months earlier, that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since then, for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11,00 pm on the night of the awards. The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and he had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier, this made him the first Academy Award winner in history. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, for the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on March 27,1957, until then, foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies always end with the Academy Award for Best Picture.
The Academy awards Nicholl Fellowships in Screenwriting, see § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. The five spokes represent the branches of the Academy, Writers, Producers. The model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio El Indio Fernández, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons design. The statuettes presented at the ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze
Marcel Pagnol was a French novelist and filmmaker. In 1946, he became the first filmmaker elected to the Académie française, about the same time, Augustines health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection and died, aged 36. In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophy, when World War I broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution. On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in Marseille and he became an English teacher, teaching in various local colleges and at a lycée in Marseille. In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927, when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of writers, in collaboration with one of whom, Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory. This was followed, in 1928, by Topaze, a based on ambition. Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play, which became the first of his works to be adapted into a film in 1931.
Separated from Simone Collin since 1926, he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy, their son, Jacques Pagnol, was born on 24 September 1930. In 1926, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he contacted Paramount Picture studios and suggested adapting his play Marius for cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda and released on 10 October 1931 and it became one of the first successful French-language talking films. In 1932 Pagnol founded his own production studios in the countryside near Marseille. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie française, taking his seat in March 1947, in his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen. His editing style is reserved, placing emphasis on the content of an image. As a pictorial naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than solely as a tool to tell a story. Pagnol took care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents.
Like his plays, Pagnols films emphasize dialogue and musicality, the themes of many of Pagnols films revolve around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and recurring roles, such as proud fathers and rebellious children
Monsieur Klein is a 1976 French film directed by Joseph Losey, with Alain Delon starring in the title role. France is occupied by the Nazis, Robert Klein, apparently apolitical, is a well-to-do art dealer, Roman Catholic and Alsatian by birth, who takes advantage of French Jews who need to sell artworks to raise cash to leave the country. One day, the local Jewish newspaper, addressed to him, is delivered to his home and he reports this to the police who remain suspicious that he may be reporting this scheme to disguise his own true identity. When the art dealer cannot locate the other Klein, authorities require him to offer proof of his French heritage, while waiting for the documentation to arrive, he struggles to track down his namesake and learn his motivation. Before he can resolve the situation by means, he is caught up in the July 1942 roundup of Parisian Jews. He is reunited with Jews who once were his clients as they board boxcars for Auschwitz, the film offers no clear resolution of its contradictory evidence and blind alleys.
According to Vincent Canby, the filmmakers are not as interested in the workings of the plot as in matters of identity, the film was nominated for the Palme dOr at the 1976 Cannes Film Festival but lost to Taxi Driver. However, Monsieur Klein did win the César Award for Best Film while Losey won the César Award for Best Director, alexandre Trauner won the César Award for Best Production Design, and in addition the film was nominated for Césars in four other categories. Monsieur Klein at the Internet Movie Database Mr. Klein, an article by Christopher Weedman, what Cornelius Gurlitt Could Have Learned from Monsieur Robert Klein, an article by Karen Loew, at Forward
Georges Cravenne, real name Joseph-Raoul Cohen, was a French film producer, publicity agent and founder of the César Award. He received an Honorary César in 2000 and he married French actress Françoise Arnoul in 1956. On 18 October 1973, his second wife Danielle Cravenne was shot dead by a sniper at Marignane airport. Georges Cravenne at the Internet Movie Database
Josiane Balasko is a French actress and director. She has been nominated seven times for César Awards, and won twice, one of Balaskos most recognized roles among English speakers is as a lesbian in 1995s Gazon maudit. She won the 1996 César Award for best screenplay, and was nominated as best director. The movie itself was nominated for best film, Balaskos other César nominations for best actress were for Too Beautiful for You, Tout le monde na pas eu la chance davoir des parents communistes, and Cette femme-là. Shes one of the most popular actresses in France, Josiane began her career in 1973. She was 23 years old when she first appeared on screen, in the short LAgression, after an absence of three years she returned to the screen in 1976 in the film The Tenant directed by Roman Polanski, with a screenplay was written by him and Gérard Brach. Her career really exploded in 1977, with her appearing in seven films over the course of the year and she first appeared in Solveig et le Violon turc, with Eugène Ionesco and Dominique Lavanant.
Then, she played Simone in Une fille unique alongside her boyfriend at time and she made an appearance in Animal, directed by Claude Zidi, on a screenplay written by him, Michel Audiard and Dominique Fabre. The movie starred Jean-Paul Belmondo, Raquel Welch, Jane Birkin, Johnny Hallyday, Yves Mourousi, Claude Chabrol, Julien Guiomar, Aldo Maccione and it was a big success with more than three million attendances in France, the movie was #5 in 1977 in France. She play in Pardon Mon Affaire, the movie was a big success with more than two million attendances in France, and was #8 in 1977 in France. She played Nadine in This Sweet Sickness, directed by Claude Miller, the movie starred Gérard Depardieu, Miou-Miou, Claude Piéplu, Dominique Laffin and Christian Clavier. She acted, under the direction of Philippe Monnier, in Monsieur Papa and she starred alongside Claude Brasseur, Nathalie Baye, Daniel Auteuil and Éva Darlan. With almost three millions attendances in France and nearly 30 million worldwide, the movie was a big success.
Then, she was in La Tortue sur le dos, with Jean-François Stévenin, Bernadette Lafont, Claude Miller, Marion Game, Valérie Quennessen, Michel Blanc, Marie-Anne Chazel and Christian Clavier. She had the role in the comedy Pauline et lOrdinateur, for which she wrote the dialogue. The movie was a hit with more two million attendances. In 1979, She played Emma-Ammé in one episode of the TV Mini-Series, Les Quatre Cents Coups de Virginie, Nathalie Morin again, in the sequel Les Bronzés font du ski with the same cast, which was a success with more than a millions attendances. The year 1981 was very successful for Josiane, she played Louise in Clara et les Chics Types, with Daniel Auteuil, Christian Clavier, Thierry Lhermitte, Isabelle Adjani, Roland Giraud and Philippe Nahon
Le vieux fusil
Le vieux fusil is a 1975 French film directed by Robert Enrico, and starring Philippe Noiret, Romy Schneider and Jean Bouise. It won the 1976 César Award for Best Film, Best Actor and Best Music, the film is based on the Massacre of Oradour-sur-Glane in 1944. In Montauban in 1944, during the German retreat from France, Julien Dandieu is an ageing, frightened by the German army entering Montauban, Dandieu asks his friend Francois to drive his wife and his daughter to the remote village where he owns a chateau. One week later, Dandieu sets off to them for the weekend. He finds that all the villagers have been herded into the church, in the château, now occupied by the Germans, he finds his daughter shot and his wife immolated by a flame-thrower. Dandieu decides to kill as many Germans as possible to avenge his family, trapped inside the castle, the Germans begin to think they are surrounded by many partisans and do not realise that he is, in fact, the only one. When a Resistance detachment drops by, Dandieu refuses their offer to help him, with no more cartridges for the shotgun, he collects the flame-thrower which killed his beloved wife and uses it to kill the leading SS officer as he is about to commit suicide.
Alerted by the partisans, the inhabitants of a nearby village, Dandieu is picked up by Francois, but has suffered a nervous breakdown following the aftermath of the slaughter, behaving as if his family was still alive. The film ends with a flashback to one of his happier days now gone, château de Bruniquel, the landmark of the village, where most of the film was shot. Le vieux fusil at the Internet Movie Database Le vieux fusil at AllMovie Le vieux fusil at Rotten Tomatoes