Manhattan is a 1979 American romantic comedy film directed by Woody Allen and produced by Charles H. Joffe; the screenplay was written by Marshall Brickman. Allen co-stars as a twice-divorced 42-year-old comedy writer who dates a 17-year-old girl but falls in love with his best friend's mistress. Meryl Streep and Anne Byrne star. Manhattan was filmed in 2.35:1 widescreen. The film features music composed by George Gershwin, including Rhapsody in Blue, which inspired the idea behind the film. Allen described the film as a combination of Annie Hall and Interiors; the film was met with widespread critical acclaim and was nominated for two Academy Awards: Best Supporting Actress for Hemingway and Best Writing, Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen for Allen and Brickman. Its North American box-office receipts of $39.9 million made it Allen's second biggest box-office hit. Considered one of Allen's best films, it ranks 46th on AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs list and number 63 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies".
In 2001, the United States Library of Congress deemed the film "culturally significant" and selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. The film opens with a montage of images of Manhattan and other parts of New York City accompanied by George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, with Isaac Davis narrating drafts of an introduction to a book about a man who loves the city. Isaac is a 42-year-old television comedy writer who quits his unfulfilling job, he is dating a 17-year-old girl attending the Dalton School. His best friend, college professor Yale Pollack, married to Emily, is having an affair with Mary Wilkie. Mary's ex-husband and former teacher, Jeremiah appears, Isaac's ex-wife Jill Davis is writing a confessional book about their marriage. Jill has since come out as a lesbian and lives with her partner, Connie; when Isaac meets Mary, her cultural snobbery rubs him the wrong way. Isaac runs into her again at an Equal Rights Amendment fund-raising event at the Museum of Modern Art hosted by Bella Abzug and accompanies her on a cab ride home.
They chat until sunrise in a sequence. In spite of a growing attraction to Mary, Isaac continues his relationship with Tracy but emphasizes that theirs cannot be a serious relationship and encourages her to go to London to study acting. In another iconic scene, at Tracy's request, they go on a carriage ride through Central Park. After Yale breaks up with Mary, he suggests. Isaac does, always having felt. Isaac breaks up with Tracy, much to her dismay, before long, Mary has moved into his apartment. Emily is curious about Isaac's new girlfriend; the two couples enjoy a day out and upon walking down a street Isaac spots Jill's new book Marriage and Selfhood. Emily proceeds to read parts of the book aloud, including passages about a ménage à trois Isaac had with Jill and another woman, an incident where Isaac attempted to run Connie over, much to Mary and Yale's amusement. Humiliated, Isaac confronts Jill, who responds stoically and mentions a film rights deal she has acquired. Upon returning home, Isaac wants to break up.
A betrayed Isaac confronts Yale at the college where he teaches, Yale argues that he found Mary first. Isaac discusses Yale's extramarital affairs with Emily and learns that Yale told her Isaac introduced Mary to him. In the dénouement, Isaac lies on his sofa, musing into a tape recorder about the things that make "life worth living"; when he finds himself saying "Tracy's face", he sets down the microphone. Unable to reach her by phone, he sets out for Tracy's on foot, he arrives at her family's apartment building. He says he does not want "that thing about that like" to change, she replies that the plans have been made and reassures him that "not everybody gets corrupted" before saying "you have to have a little faith in people." He gives her a slight smile, with a final coy look to the camera segueing into final shots of the skyline with some bars of Rhapsody in Blue playing again. An instrumental version of "Embraceable You" plays over the credits. Woody Allen as Isaac Davis Diane Keaton as Mary Wilkie Michael Murphy as Yale Pollack Mariel Hemingway as Tracy Meryl Streep as Jill Davis Anne Byrne as Emily Pollack Michael O'Donoghue as Dennis Wallace Shawn as Jeremiah Karen Ludwig as Connie Charles Levin, Karen Allen, David Rasche as Television actors Mark Linn-Baker and Frances Conroy as Shakespearean actors According to Allen, the idea for Manhattan originated from his love of George Gershwin's music.
He was listening to one of the composer's albums of overtures and thought, "this would be a beautiful thing to make... a movie in black and white... a romantic movie". Allen has said that Manhattan was "like a mixture of what I was trying to do with Annie Hall and Interiors." He said that his film deals with the problem of people trying to live a decent existence in an junk-obsessed contemporary culture without selling out, admitting that he himself could conceive of giving away all of his "possessions to charity and living in much more modest circumstances," and adding that he has "rationalized way out of it so far, but could conceive of doing it."According to actress Stacey Nelkin, Manhattan was based on her romantic relationship with Woody Allen. He
Alfred Zinnemann was an Austrian-born American film director. He won four Academy Awards for directing films in various genres, including thrillers, film noir and play adaptations, he made 25 feature films during his 50-year career. He was among the first directors to insist on using authentic locations and for mixing stars with civilians to give his films more realism. Within the film industry, he was considered a maverick for taking risks and thereby creating unique films, with many of his stories being dramas about lone and principled individuals tested by tragic events. According to one historian, Zinnemann's style demonstrated his sense of "psychological realism and his apparent determination to make worthwhile pictures that are highly entertaining." Among his films were The Men, High Noon, From Here to Eternity, Oklahoma!, The Nun's Story, A Man For All Seasons, The Day of the Jackal, Julia. His films have received 65 Oscar nominations, winning 24. Zinnemann directed and introduced a number of stars in their U.
S. film debuts, including Marlon Brando, Rod Steiger, Pier Angeli, Julie Harris, Brandon deWilde, Montgomery Clift, Shirley Jones and Meryl Streep. He directed 19 actors to Oscar nominations, including Frank Sinatra, Montgomery Clift, Audrey Hepburn, Glynis Johns, Paul Scofield, Robert Shaw, Wendy Hiller, Jason Robards, Vanessa Redgrave, Jane Fonda, Gary Cooper and Maximilian Schell. Zinnemann was born in the son of Anna and Oskar Zinnemann, a doctor, his parents were Austrian Jews. He had one younger brother. While growing up in Austria, he wanted to become a musician, but went on to graduate with a law degree from the University of Vienna in 1927. While studying law, he became drawn to films and convinced his parents to let him study film production in Paris. After studying for a year at the Ecole Technique de Photographie et Cinématographie in Paris, he became a cameraman and found work on a number of films in Berlin, before immigrating to Hollywood. Both of his parents were killed during the Holocaust.
Zinnemann worked in Germany with several other beginners. His penchant for realism and authenticity is evident in his first feature The Wave, shot on location in Mexico with non-professional actors recruited among the locals, one of the earliest examples of social realism in narrative film. Earlier in the decade, in fact, Zinnemann had worked with documentarian Robert Flaherty, "probably the greatest single influence on my work as a filmmaker", he said. Although he was fascinated by the artistic culture of Germany, with its theater and films, he was aware that the country was in a deep economic crisis, he became disenchanted with Berlin after continually seeing decadent ostentation and luxury existing alongside desperate unemployment. The wealthy classes were moving more to the poor to the left. "Emotion had long since begun to displace reason," he said. As a result of the changing political climate, along with the fact that sound films had arrived in Europe, technically unprepared to produce their own, film production throughout Europe slowed dramatically.
Zinnemann only 21, got his parent's permission to go to America where he hoped filmmaking opportunities would be greater. He arrived in New York at the end of 1929, at the time of the stock market crash. Despite the financial panic beginning, he found New York to be a different cultural environment: New York was a terrific experience, full of excitement, with a vitality and pace totally lacking in Europe, it was as though I had just left a continent of zombies and entered a place humming with incredible energy and power. He took a Greyhound bus to Hollywood a few months following the completion of his first directorial effort for the Mexican cultural protest film, The Wave, in Alvarado, Mexico, he established residence in North Hollywood with Henwar Rodakiewicz, Gunther von Fritsch and Ned Scott, all fellow contributors to the Mexican project. One of Zinnemann's first jobs in Hollywood was as an extra in All Quiet on the Western Front, he said that many of the other extras were former Russian aristocrats and high-ranking officers who fled to America after the Russian revolution in 1917.
He was twenty-two but he said he felt older than the forty-year-olds in Hollywood. But he was jubilant because he was certain that "this was the place one could breathe free and belong." But after a few years he became disillusioned with the limited talents of Hollywood's elites. After some directing success with short films, he graduated to features in 1942, turning out two crisp B mysteries, Eyes in the Night and Kid Glove Killer before getting his big break with The Seventh Cross, starring Spencer Tracy, which became his first hit; the film was based on Anna Seghers' novel and, while filmed on the MGM backlot, made realistic use of refugee German actors in the smallest roles. The central character—an escaped prisoner played by Tracy—is seen as comparatively passive and fatalistic, he is, the subject of heroic assistance from anti-Nazi Germans. In a sense, the protagonist of the film is not the Tracy character but a humble German worker played by Hume Cronyn, who changes from Nazi sympathizer to active opponent of the regime as he aids Tracy.
After World War II, Zinnemann learned. He was further frustrated by his studio contract, which dictated that he did not have a choice in directing films like My Brother Talks to Horses and Little Mister Jim despite his lack of interest in
Werner Herzog is a German film director, author and opera director. Herzog is a figure of the New German Cinema, his films feature ambitious protagonists with impossible dreams, people with unique talents in obscure fields, or individuals who are in conflict with nature. Werner Herzog made his first film in 1961 at the age of 19. Since he has produced and directed more than sixty feature- and documentary films, such as Aguirre, the Wrath of God, Nosferatu the Vampyre, Lessons of Darkness, Little Dieter Needs to Fly, My Best Fiend, Grizzly Man, Encounters at the End of the World, Cave of Forgotten Dreams, he has published more than a dozen books of prose, directed as many operas. French filmmaker François Truffaut once called Herzog "the most important film director alive." American film critic Roger Ebert said that Herzog "has never created a single film, compromised, made for pragmatic reasons, or uninteresting. His failures are spectacular." He was named one of the world's 100 most influential people by Time magazine in 2009.
Herzog was born Werner Stipetić in Munich, to Elizabeth Stipetić, an Austrian of Croatian descent, Dietrich Herzog, German. When Werner was two weeks old, his mother took refuge in the remote Bavarian village of Sachrang, after the house next to theirs was destroyed during a bombing raid in World War II. In Sachrang, Herzog grew up without a flushing toilet, or a telephone, he never saw films, did not know of the existence of cinema until a traveling projectionist came by the one-room schoolhouse in Sachrang. When Herzog was 12, he and his family moved back to Munich, his father had abandoned the family early in his youth. Werner adopted his father's surname Herzog, which he thought sounded more impressive for a filmmaker; the same year, Herzog was told to sing in front of his class at school, he adamantly refused, was expelled. Until he was age eighteen, Herzog listened to no music, sang no songs, studied no instruments, he said that he would give ten years from his life to be able to play the cello.
At an early age, he experienced a dramatic phase in which he converted to Catholicism, which only lasted a few years. He started to embark on some of them on foot. Around this time, he knew he would be a filmmaker, learned the basics from a few pages in an encyclopedia which provided him with "everything I needed to get myself started" as a filmmaker—that, the 35 mm camera he stole from the Munich Film School. In the commentary for Aguirre, the Wrath of God, "I don't consider it theft, it was just a necessity. I had some sort of natural right for a camera, a tool to work with", he won a scholarship to Duquesne University and lasted only a few days, but lived in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. During his last years of high school, no production company was willing to take on his projects, so Herzog worked night shifts as a welder in a steel factory to earn the funds for his first featurettes. After graduating from high school, he was intrigued by the Congo after its independence, but only reached the south of the Sudan where he fell ill.
While making films, he had a brief stint at Munich University, where he studied history and literature. He earned money by participating in preproduction of a documentary for NASA with KQED. Summoned to the immigration office because of a violation of his visa status, he chose to flee to Mexico. Before leaving school, he bought a house in the UK, in what was the Moss Side area of Manchester. There he learned to speak English. In 1962, he made Herakles. In school there was an emphasis on Greek, in which he continues to read to this day. In 1971, while Herzog was location scouting for Aguirre, the Wrath of God in Peru, he narrowly avoided taking LANSA Flight 508. Herzog's reservation was cancelled due to a last-minute change in itinerary; the plane was struck by lightning and disintegrated, but one survivor, Juliane Koepcke, lived after a free fall. Long haunted by the event, nearly 30 years he made a documentary film, Wings of Hope, which explored the story of the sole survivor. Herzog, along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder and Volker Schlöndorff, led the beginning of the West German cinema movement.
The West German cinema movement consisted of documentarians that filmed on low budgets and were influenced by the French New Wave of cinema. Besides using professional actors—German and otherwise—Herzog is known for using people from the locality in which he is shooting. In his documentaries, he uses locals to benefit what he calls "ecstatic truth", he uses footage of the non-actors both playing roles and being themselves. Herzog and his films won many awards, his first major award was the Silver Bear Extraordinary Prize of the Jury for his first feature film Signs of Life. Most notably, Herzog won the best director award for Fitzcarraldo at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival. In 1975, his movie The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser won the Grand Prix Spécial du Jury at the Cannes Festival. Other films directed by Herzog nominated for Golden Palm are: Woyzeck and Where the Green Ants Dream, his films have been nominated at many other important festivals around the world: César Awards, Emmy Awards, European Film Awards and Venice Film Festival (Screa
Barry Lyndon is a 1975 British-American period drama film by Stanley Kubrick, based on the 1844 novel The Luck of Barry Lyndon by William Makepeace Thackeray. It stars Marisa Berenson, Patrick Magee, Leonard Rossiter and Hardy Krüger; the film recounts the early exploits and unraveling of a fictional 18th-century Irish rogue and opportunist who marries a rich widow to climb the social ladder and assume her late husband's aristocratic position. Kubrick began production on Barry Lyndon after A Clockwork Orange. Kubrick had intended to direct a biopic on Napoleon, but lost his financing due to the commercial failure of the similar film, Waterloo. Kubrick directed Barry Lyndon, set during the Seven Years' War, utilizing his research from his Napoleon project. Filming lasted 8 months, beginning in December 1973, took place in the United Kingdom and Germany; the film's cinematography has been described as ground-breaking. Notable are the long double shots ended with a slow backwards zoom, the scenes shot in candlelight, the settings based on William Hogarth paintings.
The exteriors were filmed on location in Ireland and Germany, with the interiors shot in London. The production was troubled. O'Neal's performance and perceived lack of on-screen depth and ability to portray a character arc have been criticised by some of those who consider the film to be one of the director's major successes. Barry Lyndon won four Oscars in production categories at the 1975 Academy Awards. Although some critics took issue with the film's glacial pace and restrained emotion, like many of Kubrick's works, its reputation has strengthened over time, with many now regarding it as one of his greatest achievements. By What Means Redmond Barry Acquired the Style and Title of Barry LyndonA unreliable narrator relates that in 1750s Ireland, Redmond Barry’s father is killed in a duel, Redmond’s mother devotes herself to her only son. Barry becomes infatuated with his older cousin, Nora Brady, whose family plans her lucrative marriage to British Army captain John Quin. In a duel, Barry is robbed by Captain Feeney, a highwayman.
Barry joins the British Army and encounters Captain Grogan, a family friend, who informs him that the duel was staged by Nora's family—Barry’s pistol was only loaded with tow—to be rid of Barry. Barry’s regiment is sent to Germany to fight in the Seven Years' War, where Grogan is killed in a skirmish before the Battle of Minden. Barry deserts the army. Prussian Captain Potzdorf sees through his disguise and offers a choice: to be returned to the British and shot as a deserter, or to enlist in the Prussian Army. Barry chooses the latter receiving a commendation from Frederick the Great for saving Potzdorf's life. After the war ends in 1763, Barry joins the Prussian Ministry of Police; the Prussians suspect the Chevalier de Balibari, an itinerant gambler, is an Irish spy and send Barry undercover. Barry is overwhelmed at meeting a fellow Irishman and reveals himself to the Chevalier, becoming his confederate at cards. After they cheat the Prince of Tübingen, the Prince refuses to pay his debt and demands satisfaction.
The Prussians arrange for the Chevalier to be expelled from the country, but he flees in the night and Barry, disguised as the Chevalier, is escorted from Prussian territory instead. Barry and the Chevalier gamble across Europe. In Spa, Barry seduces the wealthy Countess of Lyndon, goads her elderly husband Sir Charles Lyndon into fatal convulsions. Barry's coup-de-grace is the assertion that "he who laughs last, wins". Containing an Account of the Misfortunes and Disasters Which Befell Barry Lyndon In 1773, Barry takes the Countess' name in marriage and settles in England. Lady Lyndon's son, Lord Bullingdon, despises Barry. Barry and the Countess have a son, Bryan Patrick, but Barry is unfaithful and lavishly spends his wife's money. Barry's mother comes to live at the Lyndon estate, she warns him that Lord Bullingdon would be sole heir to his mother’s wealth and advises Barry to obtain a noble title. He spends more money ingratiating himself to high society. Lord Bullingdon crashes his mother’s birthday party and confronts Barry, who viciously assaults his stepson and is cast out of polite society.
Barry proves a doting father to Bryan, procures a horse for his ninth birthday. The spoiled Bryan rides the horse by himself and is thrown off and dies; the grief-stricken Barry turns to alcohol, while Lady Lyndon seeks solace in religion with her sons’ tutor, Reverend Samuel Runt. Left in charge of the family affairs and Barry’s mounting debts, Barry's mother dismisses the Reverend. Lady Lyndon attempts suicide, the Reverend and the family's accountant Graham seek out Lord Bullingdon, who challenges Barry to a duel; the duel is held in a tithe barn. A coin toss gives Bullingdon the first shot. Barry magnanimously fires into the ground, but Bullingdon refuses to end the duel, shoots Barry in the leg, which must be amputated. Bullingdon assumes control of the Lyndon estate, offers Barry an annuity of five hundred guineas a year to leave England. Defeated in mind and body, Barry accepts; the narrator states that Barry returned to Ireland with his mother before resuming his profession as a gambler in Europe without his former success.
Barry never saw Lady Lyndon again. In the final scene, December 1789, Lady Lyndon signs Barry
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A Special Day
A Special Day is a 1977 Italian drama film directed by Ettore Scola and starring Sophia Loren, Marcello Mastroianni and John Vernon. Set in Rome in 1938, its narrative follows a woman and her neighbor who stay home the day Adolf Hitler visits Benito Mussolini, it is an Italian-Canadian co-production. Themes addressed in the film include gender roles and the persecution of homosexuals under the Mussolini regime, it received several nominations and awards, including a César Award for Best Foreign Film, a Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film, two Academy Award nominations in 1978. It is featured on the list of the 100 Italian films to be saved. On May 6, 1938, the day Hitler visited Mussolini in Rome, Antonietta, a naïve, sentimental and overworked homemaker, stays home doing her usual domestic tasks, while her fascist husband and their six spoiled children take to the streets to follow a parade; the building is empty, except for the caretaker and a neighbor across the complex, a charming man named Gabriele.
He is a radio broadcaster, dismissed from his job and is about to be deported to Sardinia because of his homosexuality and alleged anti-fascist stance. After the family's myna escapes from their apartment and flies outside Gabriele's window, Antonietta shows up at his door, asking to be let in to reach the bird. Gabriele has been interrupted from attempting suicide, but helps rescue the myna by offering it food, is amused by the episode. Antonietta is surprised by his demeanor and, unaware of his sexual orientation and dances the rumba with him. Despite their differences, they warm to each other; the caretaker warns Antonietta. Gabriele opens up, confessing he was fired because he is a homosexual. Antonietta confides in him her troubles with her unfaithful husband. Throughout their interaction and conversation, each realize that the other is oppressed by social and governmental conditioning and come to form a new impression than the one they first drew from one another; as a result, they for different reasons.
Gabriele explains. Soon after their intimate encounter, Antonietta's family comes back home and Gabriele is arrested. At the end, Antonietta starts reading a book Gabriele has given to her, she watches as her lover leaves the complex, escorted by fascist policemen, before turning off the light and retiring to bed. Much of the film's themes revolve around gender roles and the model of masculinity under fascist Italy. Antonietta is the donna madre, a mother figure who meets her feminine responsibilities in the regime by having six children, boasting one more will secure her the government bonus established for large families in 1933; the Fascist regime equates homosexuality with depopulation, thus, Gabriele is suspected of treason. The bachelor tax of 1926 was a measure against this, Gabriele has to pay it. While the stay-at-home mother and homosexual neighbor would seem to be an improbable pairing, both are minimized by the regime, find comfort and some sympathy in each other. At the end of the film, domestic life will continue as usual, but "inner resistance" to Fascism has been awakened.
Maurizio Costanzo, Ruggero Maccari and Ettore Scola wrote the screenplay, after Maccari had learned about an incident in Fascist Italy in which homosexuals were arrested and taken to Sardinia. The story of broadcaster Nunzio Filogamo was an inspiration to the story, as Filogamo always had to carry a certificate stating he was not homosexual; the actors selected for the roles defied type casting, as Marcello Mastroianni was seen in previous roles as "the prototype of the Italian Latin lover," and Sophia Loren was perceived as a sexy Italian celebrity. Along with Il bell'Antonio and I Don't Want to Talk About It, this is one of Mastroianni's roles critiquing the Italian masculine figure as the incompetent character falling behind an evolving society. Due to the abundance of news coverage of Hitler's visit to Rome in 1938, the filmmakers had plenty of footage to write a screenplay around; the public service film The Führer's Trip to Italy was mined for footage. Faced with a lack of funding from Italian producers, the filmmakers persuaded investors in Canada to support the project.
Canafox, a company based in Montreal, co-produced. A number of unusual cinematic techniques are used in this film. A long take scene introduces Antonietta and her family: the camera enters through the kitchen window and moves into the rooms. Deep focus is utilized in a scene in which the camera is in Antonietta's room with her in the frame, through a distant window Gabriele can be seen moving in his house in the same frame; the film screened at the Cannes Film Festival in May 1977. It played in New York City in September 1977. After a restoration by Cineteca Nazionale di Roma and Surf Film, the film was placed in the Venice Classics section in the 2014 Venice Film Festival. In Region 1, The Criterion Collection released the film on Blu-ray on 13 October 2015; the film received praise throughout Europe on its release. Vincent Canby, writing for The New York Times, appreciated the film's humanity; the New York review states that while the celebrity of Sophia Loren and Marcello Mastroiann
We All Loved Each Other So Much
We All Loved Each Other So Much is a 1974 Italian comedy-drama film directed by Ettore Scola and written by Scola and the famous screenwriter duo of Age & Scarpelli. It stars Stefania Sandrelli, Vittorio Gassman, Nino Manfredi, Stefano Satta Flores and Aldo Fabrizi, among others. Gianni and Nicola were resistant during the war, sharing everything like brothers. After the war, they returned to their lives. Antonio as a nurse in a Roman hospital where he fell madly in love with a girl named Luciana, he milits for the Popular Front. Gianni entered as an assistant a law firm who's head, La Rosa, is running as a deputy candidate for the Socialist Party. Nicola returned to teaching in a small town high school, married a woman named Gabriella and had a child, Tommasino, he is an intellectual idealist, active member of the communist party, as well as a passionate film buff. The story begins three years after the war, as Antonio is lunching with Luciana in a restaurant when Gianni happens to pass by. Antonio is thrilled and he starts talking about the days they resistant life.
Luciana and Gianni don't listen to him, as they fall in love in silence with each others. Antonio sees nothing. A following night and Luciana visit Antonio to his hospital to speak the truth about their affair. Antonio takes the news calmly though Luciana is everything to him. Gianni can not contain his feelings for her. Luciana tells Antonio she loves him, but says that with Gianni, "it's different". Sad about the two friends splitting over her, she insists, they seem to agree. Luciana and Gianni leave until Antonio runs after them and kicks Gianni, he says he is not surprised by his friend betrayal, "as you've exploited us for years already", referring to Gianni's political incline. Around the same period, Nicola is losing his teaching job after a violent argument with his superior about the movie Lattri di Biciclette, her wife is desperate, asks him to apologize to get back his job, which he won't. He leaves wife and kid, gets to Roma with a case of books to find Antonio. Gianni and Luciana live and start to have family projects.
Gianni is up the ladder. He is asked to defend in court a real estate constructor who found two of his employees dead on a site for not respecting security measures. Gianni refuses the case and the client tells him the office refusal is due to the own problems of the firm's head, La Rosa, now deputy, accused of many political and financial misconducts, they are talking on the subject when Elide, the client's youngest daughter enters and falls in love of Gianni. She leaves, the client tries to bribe Gianni so he takes the case. Gianni refuses. Nicola tries to work in Rome as a film critic and attempts to start a magazine, Cine Culture, but he fails everywhere. Years Antonio and Nicola are having lunch at their usual restaurant when Luciana enters. Antonio is not at ease. Nicola understands it is THE Luciana his friend was in love with but he insists into being introduced, which Antonio reluctantly does, they start talking and Luciana asks about Gianni, who she hasn't seen in a long time. The news fires Antonio's hopes.
At night, the three of them are drunk and Nicola is playing a reconstitution on the stairs of Piazza di Espagna of the famous Stairs Scene from the Potemkine movie trying to make Luciana laugh. Antonio is sitting alone, down the stairs, deep in his thoughts, smoking, he argues with Luciana. She says. Antonio leaves, while Luciana hides in a photomaton and Nicola follows Antonio, trying to calm him down, he fails and returns to Luciana who has left the photomaton, leaving pictures of her where we see she has been crying warm tears. Years Gianni receives a letter from Nicola saying that Luciana has tried to commit suicide, he wonders why he, away, receives such a letter, why Nicola is sending it. He goes to Luciana's. Luciana has failed, she lives in a hotel room with other artists. Antonio is there, nursing her; when Nicola comes back in, she asks him if he told Antonio about "them". Nicola slaps her, she tells that their two night story is over and apologizes to Antonio who starts a fight with Nicola, saying he took advantage of her.
When Luciana is feeling better, they all leave the hotel, Luciana takes a bus and the two men go their separate ways in silence. Gianni is watching the scene from behind a news stand but cannot find the courage to confront his old friends. Years Gianni has married Elide, his client's daughter, he is now a rich and powerful lawyer with two children and Donatella, they are partying for his client's 69th birthday. Elide tells Gianni how happy she is to be married with him and about that other life, she would have had, if he had married another woman; this flashes back Gianni to his forgotten love. Gianni and Elide are having a family diner when they see Nicola on TV in a quiz show about Italian cinema. Antonio happens to see the show from his ward. Nicola answers all the questions right and wins a considerable amount of money and the right to come back the following week on the show, he calls his wife, with who he is reconciled. She advises, he claims his target is not the money but that his book "Cinema as a school" be published, which an editor promised to do if he won the grand prize of the show.
Comes the next show. Nicola plays nothing, risking to loose all he has won, he i